Expression Profile of Laccase Gene Family in White-Rot Basidiomycete Lentinula edodes under Different Environmental Stresses.
ABSTRACT: Laccases belong to ligninolytic enzymes and play important roles in various biological processes of filamentous fungi, including fruiting-body formation and lignin degradation. The process of fruiting-body development in Lentinula edodes is complex and is greatly affected by environmental conditions. In this paper, 14 multicopper oxidase-encoding (laccase) genes were analyzed in the draft genome sequence of L. edodes strain W1-26, followed by a search of multiple stress-related Cis-elements in the promoter region of these laccase genes, and then a transcription profile analysis of 14 laccase genes (Lelcc) under the conditions of different carbon sources, temperatures, and photoperiods. All laccase genes were significantly regulated by varying carbon source materials. The expression of only two laccase genes (Lelcc5 and Lelcc6) was induced by sodium-lignosulphonate and the expression of most laccase genes was specifically upregulated in glucose medium. Under different temperature conditions, the expression levels of most laccase genes decreased at 39 °C and transcription was significantly increased for Lelcc1, Lelcc4, Lelcc5, Lelcc9, Lelcc12, Lelcc13, and Lelcc14 after induction for 24 h at 10 °C, indicating their involvement in primordium differentiation. Tyrosinase, which is involved in melanin synthesis, was clustered with the same group as Lelcc4 and Lelcc7 in all the different photoperiod treatments. Meanwhile, five laccase genes (Lelcc8, Lelcc9, Lelcc12, Lelcc13, and Lelcc14) showed similar expression profiles to that of two blue light receptor genes (LephrA and LephrB) in the 12 h light/12 h dark treatment, suggesting the involvement of laccase genes in the adaptation process of L. edodes to the changing environment and fruiting-body formation. This study contributes to our understanding of the function of the different Lelcc genes and facilitates the screening of key genes from the laccase gene family for further functional research.
Project description:Lentinula edodes is a popular, cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems, such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction for Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and by using long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1,951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Furthermore, we predicted genes by Augustus using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes. This analysis revealed that Lentinula edodes lacks lignin peroxidase. To reveal genes involved in the loss of quality of Lentinula edodes postharvest fruiting bodies, transcriptome analysis was carried out using serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE). This analysis revealed that many cell wall-related enzymes are upregulated after harvest, such as ?-1,3-1,6-glucan-degrading enzymes in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families GH5, GH16, GH30, GH55, and GH128, and thaumatin-like proteins. In addition, we found that several chitin-related genes are upregulated, such as putative chitinases in GH family 18, exochitinases in GH20, and a putative chitosanase in GH family 75. The results suggest that cell wall-degrading enzymes synergistically cooperate for rapid fruiting body autolysis. Many putative transcription factor genes were upregulated postharvest, such as genes containing high-mobility-group (HMG) domains and zinc finger domains. Several cell death-related proteins were also upregulated postharvest.IMPORTANCE Our data collectively suggest that there is a rapid fruiting body autolysis system in Lentinula edodes The genes for the loss of postharvest quality newly found in this research will be targets for the future breeding of strains that keep fresh longer than present strains. De novoLentinula edodes genome assembly data will be used for the construction of a complete Lentinula edodes chromosome map for future breeding.
Project description:The edible white rot fungus Lentinula edodes possesses a variety of lignin degrading enzymes such as manganese peroxidases and laccases. Laccases belong to the multicopper oxidases, which have a wide range of catalytic activities including polyphenol degradation and synthesis, lignin degradation, and melanin formation. The exact number of laccases in L. edodes is unknown, as are their complete properties and biological functions. We analyzed the draft genome sequence of L. edodes D703PP-9 and identified 13 multicopper oxidase-encoding genes; 11 laccases in sensu stricto, of which three are new, and two ferroxidases. lcc8, a laccase previously reported in L. edodes, was not identified in D703PP-9 genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 13 multicopper oxidases can be classified into laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 and ferroxidases. From sequence similarities and expression patterns, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 can be divided into two subgroups. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group A members are mainly secreted from mycelia, while laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group B members are expressed mainly in fruiting bodies during growth or after harvesting but are lowly expressed in mycelia. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 members are mainly expressed in mycelia, and two ferroxidases are mainly expressed in the fruiting body during growth or after harvesting, and are expressed at very low levels in mycelium. Our data suggests that L. edodes laccases in same group share expression patterns and would have common biological functions.
Project description:The effect of different substrates and various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting-body formation) on laccase production in the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes was studied. The cap of the mature mushroom showed the highest laccase activity, and laccase activity was not stimulated by some well-known laccase inducers or sawdust. For our molecular studies, two genomic DNA sequences, representing allelic variants of the L. edodes lac1 gene, were isolated, and DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that lac1 encodes a putative polypeptide of 526 amino acids which is interrupted by 13 introns. The two allelic genes differ at 95 nucleotides, which results in seven amino acid differences in the encoded protein. The copper-binding domains found in other laccase enzymes are conserved in the L. edodes Lac1 proteins. A fragment of a second laccase gene (lac2) was also isolated, and competitive PCR showed that expression of lac1 and lac2 genes was different under various conditions. Our results suggest that laccases may play a role in the morphogenesis of the mushroom. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation in this economically important edible fungus.
Project description:Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible mushroom with high nutritional and medicinal value. To understand the regulation of gene expression in the dikaryotic mycelium and mature fruiting body in the commercially important Korean L. edodes strain, we first performed comparative transcriptomic analysis, using Illumina HiSeq platform. De novo assembly of these sequences revealed 11,675 representative transcripts in two different stages of L. edodes. A total of 9,092 unigenes were annotated and subjected to Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Gene expression analysis revealed that 2,080 genes were differentially expressed, with 1,503 and 577 upregulated in the mycelium and a mature fruiting body, respectively. Analysis of 18 KEGG categories indicated that fruiting body-specific transcripts were significantly enriched in 'replication and repair' and 'transcription' pathways, which are important for premeiotic replication, karyogamy, and meiosis during maturation. We also searched for fruiting body-specific proteins such as aspartic protease, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and cyclohexanone monooxygenase, which are involved in fruiting body maturation and isolation of functional substances. These transcriptomes will be useful in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mature fruiting body development and beneficial properties, and contribute to the characterization of novel genes in L. edodes.
Project description:Volatile sulfur compounds gradually develop in <i>Lentinula edodes</i> after hot-air drying, and many genes are involved in the generation of these sulfur compounds. The expression stability of reference genes may vary in a particular experimental treatment when analyzing their expressions by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In this study, the expression profile of 17 candidate genes was assessed in <i>L. edodes</i> under treatment at 50 °C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 h, and the expression stability of each reference gene was analyzed by three statistical algorithms, including geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results indicated that the two optimal reference genes for mycelium and fruiting body were <i>CAC</i> and <i>DAHP</i> as well as <i>CAC</i> and <i>NUP</i>, respectively. Additionally, <i>CAC</i> and <i>DAHP</i> were found to be the two most stable reference genes across the mycelium and fruiting body set. Our results will provide a genetic foundation for further research on the metabolism genes of sulfur compounds in <i>L. edodes</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushroom species in the world and contains useful medicinal components, such as lentinan. The light-induced formation of brown film on the vegetative mycelial tissues of L. edodes is an important process for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process in L. edodes, we characterized the morphological phenotypic changes in a strain, Chamaram, associated with abnormal brown film formation and compared its genome-wide transcriptional features. RESULTS:In the present study, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses of different vegetative mycelium growth phenotypes, namely, early white, normal brown, and defective dark yellow partial brown films phenotypes which were exposed to different light conditions. The analysis revealed the identification of clusters of genes specific to the light-induced brown film phenotypes. These genes were significantly associated with light sensing via photoreceptors such as FMN- and FAD-bindings, signal transduction by kinases and GPCRs, melanogenesis via activation of tyrosinases, and cell wall degradation by glucanases, chitinases, and laccases, which suggests these processes are involved in the formation of mycelial browning in L. edodes. Interestingly, hydrophobin genes such as SC1 and SC3 exhibited divergent expression levels in the normal and abnormal brown mycelial films, indicating the ability of these genes to act in fruiting body initiation and formation of dikaryotic mycelia. Furthermore, we identified the up-regulation of glycoside hydrolase domain-containing genes in the normal brown film but not in the abnormal film phenotype, suggesting that cell wall degradation in the normal brown film phenotype is crucial in the developmental processes related to the initiation and formation of fruiting bodies. CONCLUSIONS:This study systematically analysed the expression patterns of light-induced browning-related genes in L. edodes. Our findings provide information for further investigations of browning formation mechanisms in L. edodes and a foundation for future L. edodes breeding.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequence of putative glucoamylase gene gla1 from the basidiomycetous fungus Lentinula edodes strain L54 is reported. The coding region of the genomic glucoamylase sequence, which is preceded by eukaryotic promoter elements CAAT and TATA, spans 2,076 bp. The gla1 gene sequence codes for a putative polypeptide of 571 amino acids and is interrupted by seven introns. The open reading frame sequence of the gla1 gene shows strong homology with those of other fungal glucoamylase genes and encodes a protein with an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal starch-binding domain. The similarity between the Gla1 protein and other fungal glucoamylases is from 45 to 61%, with the region of highest conservation found in catalytic domains and starch-binding domains. We compared the kinetics of glucoamylase activity and levels of gene expression in L. edodes strain L54 grown on different carbon sources (glucose, starch, cellulose, and potato extract) and in various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting body formation). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR utilizing pairs of primers specific for gla1 gene expression shows that expression of gla1 was induced by starch and increased during the process of fruiting body formation, which indicates that glucoamylases may play an important role in the morphogenesis of the basidiomycetous fungus.
Project description:Gene expression profiles before and after spore formation of Lentinula edodes (L54)grown at sawdust. Keywords: time-course SAGE were used to generate tags from RNA of fruit bodies of L. edodes. RNA were extracted from the fruit bodies before and after spore observed. Gene expression profiles of both stages were compared to screen out genes may relate to spore formation.
Project description:The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons. By using the Monkaryon-monkaryon crossing method among the uracil auxotrophic monokaryons, 56 uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains were established on selective medium. These dikaryotic strains were unable to grow on minimal medium without uracil and exhibited slow growth rates on PDA plates compared to the wild type strain. The uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains also showed more vigorous growth on sawdust cultivation medium containing uracil than that without uracil. The fruiting tests showed that they formed normal fruiting bodies on the sawdust medium containing uracil. The results show that the uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strain of L. edodes could be produced by mating, and will provide a valuable resource for future genetic studies and for spawn protection and identification.