Natural History of Treated Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.
ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (SUBNCC) is usually caused by an aberrant proliferative form of Taenia solium causing mass effect and arachnoiditis. Thirty of 34 SUBNCC patients were treated with extended cysticidal and anti-inflammatory regimens and followed up a median of 4.2 years posttreatment (range: 15 for ? 4 years, 20 ? 2 years, 26 > 1 year, and 3 < 1 year). The median ages at the time of first symptom, diagnosis, and enrollment were 29.7, 35.6, and 37.9 years, respectively; 58.8% were male and 82.4% were Hispanic. The median time from immigration to symptoms (minimum incubation) was 10 years and the estimated true incubation period considerably greater. Fifty percent also had other forms of NCC. Common complications were hydrocephalus (56%), shunt placement (41%), infarcts (18%), and symptomatic spinal disease (15%). Thirty patients (88.2%) required prolonged treatment with albendazole (88.2%, median 0.55 year) and/or praziquantel (61.8%; median 0.96 year), corticosteroids (88.2%, median 1.09 years), methotrexate (50%, median 1.37 years), and etanercept (34.2%, median 0.81 year), which led to sustained inactive disease in 29/30 (96.7%) patients. Three were treated successfully for recurrences and one has continuing infection. Normalization of cerebral spinal fluid parameters and cestode antigen levels guided treatment decisions. All 15 patients with undetectable cestode antigen values have sustained inactive disease. There were no deaths and moderate morbidity posttreatment. Corticosteroid-related side effects were common, avascular necrosis of joints being the most serious (8/33, 24.2%). Prolonged cysticidal treatment and effective control of inflammation led to good clinical outcomes and sustained inactive disease which is likely curative.
Project description:Following sustained virological response (SVR) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, patients with advanced fibrosis require regular monitoring for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) is a simple noninvasive surrogate marker known to reflect fibrosis.We retrospectively analyzed 598 patients who achieved SVR with interferonbased therapy for CHC.Over a median of 5.1 years of follow-up, there were eight patients diagnosed with HCC and a 5-year cumulative incidence rate of 1.3%. The median pretreatment APRI was 0.83, which decreased to 0.29 after achieving SVR (p<0.001). Both the pre- and posttreatment indices were associated with HCC development. The 5-year cumulative HCC incidence rates were 0% and 2.8% for patients with pretreatment APRI <1.0 and ?1.0, respectively (p=0.001) and 0.8% and 12.8% for patients with posttreatment APRI <1.0 and ?1.0, respectively (p<0.001). Pretreatment APRI at a cutoff of 1.0 had a 100% negative predictive value until 10 years after SVR.HCC development was observed among CHC patients who achieved SVR. The pre- and post-treatment APRI could stratify HCC risk, indicating that the APRI could be a useful marker to classify HCC risk in CHC patients who achieved SVR. However, given the small number of HCC patients, this finding warrants further validation.
Project description:We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes.
Project description:Objective:This case report describes the clinical features, complications, imaging characteristics, and management of postoperative spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. Clinical Features:A 54-year-old woman presented with right posterior thigh and leg pain after a lumbar spine fusion surgery to correct a degenerative spondylolisthesis of L3/4. Her pain was sharp and shooting and worsened with knee extension. A lumbar computed tomography myelogram demonstrated clumping and adhesion of the nerve rootlets in the cauda equina at the surgical fusion levels. Findings were consistent with spinal arachnoiditis. Intervention and Outcome:The patient was treated with 2 sets of neural mobilization of the sciatic nerve with 15 repetitions each. Treatment was provided 2× per week for 3 weeks. The patient used the neural mobilization exercises at home and performed to tolerance. The patient's Oswestry Questionnaire was reduced significantly by 19% with decreased pain intensity of 2 points on the verbal analogue scale. Conclusion:Neural mobilization was used successfully in the management of a patient with postoperative spinal arachnoiditis.
Project description:Tapeworm (cestode) infections occur worldwide even in developed countries and globalization has further complicated the epidemiology of such infections. Nonetheless, recent epidemiological data on cestode infections are limited. Our objectives were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of diphyllobothriosis and taeniosis in Tokyo, Japan.We retrospectively reviewed 24 cases of human intestinal cestode infection from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary referral hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The patients included were diagnosed with cestode infection based on morphological and/or molecular identification of expelled proglottids and/or eggs and treated in our hospital. Fifteen and 9 patients were diagnosed with diphyllobothriosis and taeniosis, respectively. The median patient age was 31 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 26-42 years), and 13 (54%) were male. Most of the patients (91.7%) were Japanese. All patients were successfully treated with praziquantel without recurrence. Diphyllobothriosis was caused by Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in all patients. Taeniosis was due to infection of Taenia saginata in 8 [88.9%] patients and T. asiatica in 1 [11.1%] patient. All patients with taeniosis were infected outside Japan, as opposed to those with diphyllobothriosis, which were domestic. The source locations of taeniosis were mostly in developing regions. The median duration of the stay of the patients with taeniosis at the respective source location was 1 month (IQR: 1-8).The cestode infection, especially with D. nihonkaiense, has frequently occurred, even in Japanese cities, thereby implicating the probable increase in the prevalence of diphyllobothriosis among travelers, as the number of travelers is expected to increase owing to the Tokyo Olympics/Paralympics in 2020. In addition, medical practitioners should be aware of the importance of providing advice to travelers to endemic countries of taeniosis, including the potential risks of infection and preventive methods for these infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hippocampal avoidance has been suggested as a strategy to reduce short-term memory decline in adults receiving whole-brain radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the hippocampal dose in children and adolescents undergoing RT for low-grade glioma was associated with memory, as measured by verbal recall. METHODS:Eighty patients aged at least 6 years but less than 21 years with low-grade glioma were treated with RT to 54 Gy on a phase II protocol. Patients underwent age-appropriate cognitive testing at baseline, 6 months posttreatment, yearly through 5 years posttreatment, year 7 or 8, and year 10 posttreatment. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the longitudinal trends in cognitive assessment scores. RESULTS:Median neurocognitive follow-up was 9.8 years. There was a significant decline in short-delay recall (slope = -0.01 standard deviation [SD]/year, P < 0.001), total recall (slope = -0.09 SD/y, P = 0.005), and long-delay recall (slope = -0.01 SD/y, P? = 0.002). On multivariate regression, after accounting for hydrocephalus, decline in short-delay recall was associated with the volume of right (slope = -0.001 SD/y, P = 0.019) or left hippocampus (slope = -0.001 SD/y, P = 0.025) receiving 40 Gy (V40 Gy). On univariate regression, decline in total recall was only associated with right hippocampal dosimetry (V40 Gy slope = -0.002, P = 0.025). In children <12 years, on univariate regression, decline in long-delay recall was only associated with right (V40 Gy slope = -0.002, P = 0.013) and left (V40 Gy slope = -0.002, P = 0.014) hippocampal dosimetry. CONCLUSION:In this 10-year longitudinal study, greater hippocampal dose was associated with a greater decline in delayed recall. Such findings might be informative for radiation therapy planning, warranting prospective evaluation.
Project description:Human type 2 cytokine responsiveness to schistosome antigens increases after treatment; due either to removal of the immunosuppressive effects of active infection or immunological boosting by antigens released from dying parasites. We determined the responsiveness to Schistosoma mansoni over a 2-year period, when reinfection was restricted by interrupting transmission.The proinflammatory and type 2 responses of Kenyan schoolchildren were measured before, and 1 year and 2 years posttreatment in whole blood cultures stimulated with soluble egg antigen (SEA) or soluble worm antigen (SWA). The site of S. mansoni transmission was molluscicided throughout.Pretreatment proinflammatory responses to SEA were high but reduced 1 and 2 years posttreatment, whereas type 2 responses were low pretreatment and increased 1 and 2 years posttreatment. Type 2 responses to SWA were high pretreatment and increased at 1 year, with no further increases at 2 years posttreatment. Children infected at follow-up had lower SEA, but not SWA, posttreatment type 2 responsiveness. Increases at 1 year in type 2 SWA, but not SEA, responsiveness correlated with pretreatment egg counts.Removal of immunosuppressive effects of active infection increases SEA type 2 responsiveness; long-term SWA type 2 responsiveness is due to treatment-induced immunological boosting. Dissociation of type 2 responses potentially protects against severe egg-associated immunopathology during infection, while allowing worm-antigen derived immunity to develop.
Project description:Describe efficacy and safety of 3 years of adalimumab treatment in patients with peripheral spondyloarthritis (pSpA) and identify predictors of remission.Patients with pSpA were randomised to adalimumab 40?mg every other week or placebo for 12 weeks; a 144-week open-label extension followed (NCT01064856). Remission was assessed by the Peripheral SpA Response Criteria (PSpARC) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score inactive disease (ASDAS ID). Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of remission at 1 and 3 years and sustained remission (?24?consecutive weeks).In 165 patients, ASDAS ID was achieved by 47% at 1?year and 39% at 3 years; 36% and 33% achieved PSpARC remission, respectively. Sustained ASDAS ID and PSpARC remission were achieved by 52% (86/165) and 42% (70/165) of patients, respectively. Achieving ASDAS ID at week 12 significantly predicted 1?year (OR, 8.64 (95% CI 2.97 to 25.14)), 3?year (OR, 36.12 (95% CI 2.29 to 569.08)) and sustained ASDAS ID (OR, 8.01 (95% CI 2.47 to 25.97)); achieving PSpARC remission at week 12 consistently predicted 1?year (OR, 6.47 (95% CI 1.91 to 21.95)), 3?years (OR, 15.66 (95% CI 4.19 to 58.56)) and sustained PSpARC remission (OR, 20.27 (95% CI 5.37 to 76.46)). No baseline variables consistently predicted 1-year or 3-year remission or sustained remission. The safety profile of adalimumab was consistent with observations in other SpA disease indications.In patients with pSpA, early response to adalimumab, but not baseline demographics or disease characteristics, was a better predictor of long-term remission.
Project description:After definitive treatment of esophageal cancer, patients are at high risk for recurrence. Consistent follow-up is important for detection and treatment of recurrence. The optimal surveillance regimen remains undefined. We investigated posttreatment recurrence patterns and methods of detection in survivors of esophageal cancer.We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients who had undergone surgical resection for esophageal cancer at our institution between 1996 and 2010. Routine computed tomography scan and upper endoscopy were performed for surveillance.In total, 1147 patients with resected esophageal adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma were included (median follow-up, 46 months). Of these, 723 patients (63%) had received neoadjuvant therapy before surgery. During follow-up, there were 595 deaths (52%) and 435 recurrences (38%) (distant [55%], locoregional [28%], or both [17%]). Half of recurrences were detected as a result of symptoms (n = 217), 45% by routine chest and abdominal computed tomography scan (n = 194), and 1% by surveillance upper endoscopy (n = 6). The recurrence rate decreased from 27 per 100 person-years in posttreatment year 1 to 4 per 100 person-years in year 6. In the first 2 years, the rate of recurrence was higher among patients who had received neoadjuvant therapy (35 per 100 person-years) than among those who had not (14 per 100 person-years) (p < 0.001).The incidence of recurrence is high after esophagectomy for cancer. Surveillance endoscopy has limited value for detection of asymptomatic local recurrence. The yield from follow-up scans diminishes significantly after the sixth year; surveillance scans after that point are likely unnecessary.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning for disorders associated with excessive inflammation such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is associated with early mortality. A multicenter prospective phase 2 trial of reduced-intensity conditioning with melphalan, fludarabine, and intermediate-timing alemtuzumab was conducted for HLA matched or single HLA locus mismatched related or unrelated donor HCT in a largely pediatric cohort. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine with methylprednisolone. The primary end point was 1-year overall survival (OS). Thirty-four patients with HLH and 12 with other primary immune deficiencies were transplanted. With a median follow-up of 20 months, the 1-year OS for transplanted patients was 80.4% (90% confidence interval [CI], 68.6%-88.2%). Five additional deaths by 16 months yielded an 18-month OS probability of 66.7% (90% CI, 52.9%-77.3%). Two patients experienced primary graft failure, and 18 patients either experienced a secondary graft failure or required a second intervention (mostly donor lymphocyte infusion [DLI]). At 1 year, the proportion of patients alive with sustained engraftment without DLI or second HCT was 39.1% (95% CI, 25.2%-54.6%), and that of being alive and engrafted (with or without DLI) was 60.9% (95% CI, 45.4 %-74.9%). The day 100 incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD was 17.4% (95% CI, 8.1%-29.7%), and 1-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 26.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-40.4%). Although the trial demonstrated low early mortality, the majority of surviving patients required DLI or second HCT. These results demonstrate a need for future approaches that maintain low early mortality with improved sustained engraftment. The trial was registered at Clinical Trials.gov (NCT 01998633).