Hydrogen sulfide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells by upregulating sirtuin 1.
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous signal molecule, regulates many pathologies related to aging. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction and other pathological processes, including premature senescence. This study was aimed to investigate whether and how H2S attenuates senescence and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells via a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. Our results showed that treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, attenuated cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence and apoptosis in A549 cells. This was associated with SIRT1 upregulation. SIRT1 activation by a pharmacological activator, SRT1720, attenuated CSE-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in A549 cells. While SIRT1 inhibition by EX 527 or silencing by siRNA transfection significantly attenuated or abolished the ability of NaHS to reverse the CSE-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the imbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Also, SIRT1 inhibition or silencing abolished the protection of NaHS against CSE-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis. In conclusion, H2S attenuates CSE-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis by improving mitochondrial function and reducing oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells in a SIRT1-dependent manner. These findings provide novel mechanisms underlying the protection of H2S against cigarette smoke-induced COPD.
Project description:Airway remodeling is one of the characteristics for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanism underlying airway remodeling is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the small airways of smokers and patients with COPD. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is able to reduce oxidative stress, and to modulate EMT. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on pulmonary EMT in vitro and in vivo. We found that H2S donor NaHS inhibited cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway remodeling, EMT and collagen deposition in mouse lungs. In human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells, NaHS treatment also reduced CS extract (CSE)-induced EMT, collagen deposition and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, NaHS upregulated SIRT1 expression, but inhibited activation of TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling in vivo and in vitro. SIRT1 inhibition by a specific inhibitor EX527 significantly attenuated or abolished the ability of NaHS to reverse the CSE-induced oxidative stress. SIRT1 inhibition also abolished the protection of NaHS against CSE-induced EMT. Moreover, SIRT1 activation attenuated CSE-induced EMT by modifying TGF-?1-mediated Smad3 transactivation. In conclusion, H2S prevented CS-induced airway remodeling in mice by reversing oxidative stress and EMT, which was partially ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. These findings suggest that H2S may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of COPD.
Project description:Previously we have shown that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100??M Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30??M NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24?h. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca(2+), NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5'-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30??M) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca(2+), and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7, and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:Aims. The study was designed to explore whether hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) generation changed in D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced ageing, the possible effects of exogenous H2S supplementation, and related mechanisms. Results. In D-gal-induced senescent mice, both H2S and NO levels in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues were decreased significantly. A similar trend was observed in D-gal-challenged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Sustained H2S donor (NaHS) treatment for 2 months elevated H2S and NO levels in these mice, and during this period, the D-gal-induced senescent phenotype was reversed. The protective effect of NaHS is associated with a decrease in reactive oxygen species levels and an increase in antioxidants, such as glutathione, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Increased expression of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues was observed in the NaHS-treated groups. NaHS supplementation also significantly postponed D-gal-induced HUVEC senescence. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulphide production in both ageing mice and endothelial cells is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related dysfunction by inducing endogenous H2S and NO production and reducing oxidative stress. Restoring endogenous H2S production may contribute to healthy ageing, and H2S may have antiageing effects.
Project description:Aims. The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results. H2S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H2S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H2S donor (NaHS, 50??mol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H2S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H2S administration and contributed to elevated H2S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment.
Project description:Sleep deprivation (SD) induces hippocampal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a neuronal protective factor. Silence information regulating factor 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in neuroprotection. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring whether H2S meliorates SD-induced hippocampal damage and whether Sirt1 mediates this protective role of H2S. We found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) alleviated SD-generated hippocampal oxidative stress, including increases in the activation of SOD and the level of GSH as well as a decrease in the level of MDA. Meanwhile, we found that NaHS reduced SD-exerted hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Stress, including downregulations of GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved-caspase-12 expression. Moreover, NaHS reduced the apoptosis in the SD-exposed hippocampus, and this included decreases in the number of apoptotic cells and the activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bax expression, and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. NaHS upregulated the expression of Sirt1 in the hippocampus of SD-exposed rats. Furthermore, Sirtinol, the inhibitor of Sirt1, abrogated the protection of NaHS against SD-exerted hippocampal oxidative stress, ER stress, and apoptosis. These results suggested that H2S alleviates SD-induced hippocampal damage by upregulation of hippocampal Sirt1.
Project description:Stress aging of myocardial cells participates in the mechanism of myocardial fibrosis (MF). Previous studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can improve MF, however the specific internal mechanism remains still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether H2S can improve myocardial cell aging induced by high glucose and myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats by activating autophagy through SIRT6/AMPK. We observed that HG (high glucose, 33 mM) induced down-regulation of endogenous H2S-producing enzyme CSE protein expression, increased cell senescence, down-regulation of autophagy-related proteins Beclin1, Atg5, Atg12, Atg16L1, and inhibition of SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. H2S (NaHS: 400 ?M) could up-regulate CSE protein expression, inhibit cell senescence, activate autophagy and SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway. On the contrary, no above phenomena was achieved upon addition of CSE inhibitor PAG (dl-propargylglycine: mmol/L). In order to further elucidate the relationship between H2S and SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway, dorsomorphin dihydrochloride (Dor), an inhibitor of AMPK signaling pathway, was added to observe the reversal of H2S's inhibitory effect on myocardial cell aging. At the same, streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to build an animal model of diabetic SD rats. The results showed that myocardial collagen fibers were significantly deposited, myocardial tissue senescent cells were significantly increased and the expression of CSE protein was down-regulated, while SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway and cell autophagy were significantly inhibited. H2S-treated (NaHS; 56 ?mol/kg) could significantly reverse the above phenomenon. In conclusion, these findings suggest that exogenous H2S can inhibit myocardial cell senescence and improve diabetic myocardial fibrosis by activating CSE and autophagy through SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of preeclampsia, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy characterised by hypertension and elevated soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Dysregulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by inhibition of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) increases sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng) release. We explored whether compromise in CSE/H2S pathway is linked to dysregulation of the mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status. We investigated whether these effects were linked to CSE-induced sFlt-1 and sEng production in endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that CSE/H2S pathway sustain endothelial mitochondrial bioenergetics and loss of CSE increases the production of mitochondrial-specific superoxide. As a compensatory effect, low CSE environment enhances the reliance on glycolysis. The mitochondrial-targeted H2S donor, AP39, suppressed the antiangiogenic response and restored the mitochondrial bioenergetics in endothelial cells. AP39 revealed that upregulation of sFlt-1, but not sEng, is independent of the mitochondrial H2S metabolising enzyme, SQR. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms for antiangiogenic upregulation in a mitochondrial-driven environment. Targeting H2S to the mitochondria may be of therapeutic benefit in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with preeclampsia.
Project description:We previously reported that maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure resulted in impairment of central chemoreception and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in offspring parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), the kernel for mammalian central chemoreception. We also found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could attenuate maternal CS exposure-induced impairment of central chemoreception in the rat offspring in vivo. Mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel has been reported to play a significant role in mitochondrial functions and protect against apoptosis in neurons. Thus, we hypothesize here that mitoKATP channel plays a role in the protective effects of H2S on neonatal central chemoreception in maternal CS-exposed rats. Our findings revealed that pretreatment with NaHS (donor of H2S, 22.4mM) reversed the central chemosensitivity decreased by maternal CS exposure, and also inhibited cell apoptosis in offspring pFRG, however, 5-HD (blocker of mitoKATP channels, 19mM) attenuated the protective effects of NaHS. In addition, NaHS declined pro-apoptotic proteins related to mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in CS rat offspring pFRG, such as Bax, Cytochrome C, caspase9 and caspase3. NaHS or 5-HD alone had no significant effect on above indexes. These results suggest that mitoKATP channels play an important role in the protective effect of H2S against impairment of central chemoreception via anti-apoptosis in pFRG of rat offspring exposed to maternal CS.
Project description:Aims:Insulin and glucocorticoids play crucial roles in skeletal muscle protein turnover. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres are more susceptible to atrophy than slow-twitch oxidative fibres. Based on accumulating evidence, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator of this process. The regulatory effect of H2S on protein synthesis in fast-twitch fibres was evaluated. Results:A NaHS (sodium hydrosulfide) injection simultaneously increased the diameter of M. pectoralis major (i.e., fast-twitch glycolytic fibres) and activated the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited protein synthesis, downregulated mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) protein in myoblasts. The precursor of H2S, L-cysteine, completely abolished the inhibitory effects of DEX. The CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) completely abrogated the effects of RU486 on blocking the suppressive effects of DEX. The H2S donor NaHS increased the H2S concentrations and abrogated the inhibitory effects of DEX on protein synthesis. Insulin increased protein synthesis and upregulated CSE expression. However, PAG abrogated the stimulatory effects of insulin on protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR/p70S6K pathway. Innovation:These results demonstrated that CSE/H2S regulated protein synthesis in fast-twitch muscle fibres, and glucocorticoids and insulin regulated protein synthesis in an endogenous CSE/H2S system-dependent manner. Conclusions:The results from the present study suggest that the endogenous CSE/H2S system regulates fast-twitch glycolytic muscle degeneration and regeneration.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction represents the initial stage in atherosclerotic lesion development which occurs physiologically during aging, but external factors like diet, sedentary lifestyle, smoking accelerate it. Since cigarette smoking promotes oxidative stress and cell damage, we developed an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction using vascular cells exposed to chemicals present in cigarette smoke, to help elucidate the protective effects of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, such as ubiquinol and vitamin K, that play a fundamental role in vascular health. Treatment of both young and senescent Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) for 24 h with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) decreased cellular viability, induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction and promoted an inflammatory response. Moreover, the senescence marker SA-?-galactosidase was observed in both young CSE-exposed and in senescent HUVECs suggesting that CSE exposure accelerates aging in endothelial cells. Supplementation with 10 µM ubiquinol and menaquinone-7 (MK7) counteracted oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in improved viability, decreased apoptosis and reduced SA-?-galactosidase, but were ineffective against CSE-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Other K vitamins tested like menaquinone-4 (MK4) and menaquinone-1 (K1) were less protective. In conclusion, CSE exposure was able to promote a stress-induced senescent phenotype in young endothelial cells likely contributing to endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Furthermore, the molecular changes encountered could be offset by ubiquinol and menaquinone-7 supplementation, the latter resulting the most bioactive K vitamin in counteracting CSE-induced damage.