A Novel Alkaline Phosphatase/Phosphodiesterase, CamPhoD, from Marine Bacterium Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296.
ABSTRACT: A novel extracellular alkaline phosphatase/phosphodiesterase from the structural protein family PhoD that encoded by the genome sequence of the marine bacterium Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (CamPhoD) has been expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The calculated molecular weight, the number of amino acids, and the isoelectric point (pI) of the mature protein's subunit are equal to 54832.98 Da, 492, and 5.08, respectively. The salt-tolerant, bimetal-dependent enzyme CamPhoD has a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa in its native state. CamPhoD is activated by Co2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, or Fe3+ at a concentration of 2 mM and exhibits maximum activity in the presence of both Co2+ and Fe3+ ions in the incubation medium at pH 9.2. The exogenous ions, such as Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+, as well as chelating agents EDTA and EGTA, do not have an appreciable effect on the CamPhoD activity. The temperature optimum for the CamPhoD activity is 45 °C. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of phosphate mono- and diester bonds in nucleotides, releasing inorganic phosphorus from p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), as determined by the Chen method, with rate approximately 150- and 250-fold higher than those of bis-pNPP and 5'-pNP-TMP, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), Vmax, and efficiency (kcat/Km) of CamPhoD were 4.2 mM, 0.203 mM/min, and 7988.6 S-1/mM; and 6.71 mM, 0.023 mM/min, and 1133.0 S-1/mM for pNPP and bis-pNPP as the chromogenic substrates, respectively. Among the 3D structures currently available, in this study we found only the low identical structure of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme as a homologous template for modeling CamPhoD, with a new architecture of the phosphatase active site containing Fe3+ and two Ca2+ ions. It is evident that the marine bacterial phosphatase/phosphidiesterase CamPhoD is a new structural member of the PhoD family.
Project description:The major secreted isoenzyme of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) (EC 18.104.22.168), which catalyses p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) hydrolysis at acid pH values, was found to have phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase activity since it dephosphorylated three different phosphotyrosine-containing protein substrates. Several lines of evidence are presented to show that the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase and PAcP are the same enzyme. A highly purified PAcP enzyme preparation which contains a single N-terminal peptide sequence was used to test for the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity. Both activities comigrated during gel filtration by high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity and PNPP acid phosphatase activity exhibited similar sensitivities to different effectors. Both phosphatase activities showed the same thermal stability. Specific anti-PAcP antibody reacted to the same extent with both phosphatase activities. PNPP acid phosphatase activity was competitively inhibited by the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase substrate. To characterize further the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity, the Km values using different phosphoprotein substrates were determined. The apparent Km values for phosphorylated angiotensin II, anti-pp60src immunoglobulin G and casein were in the nM range for phosphotyrosine residues, which was about 50-fold lower than the Km for phosphoserine residues in casein.
Project description:The PhoD family of extra-cytoplasmic phosphodiesterases are among the most commonly occurring bacterial phosphatases. The exemplars for this family are the PhoD protein of Bacillus subtilis and the phospholipase D of Streptomyces chromofuscus. We present the crystal structure of B. subtilis PhoD. PhoD is most closely related to purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) with both types of enzyme containing a tyrosinate-ligated Fe(3+) ion. However, the PhoD active site diverges from that found in PAPs and uses two Ca(2+) ions instead of the single extra Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+) ion present in PAPs. The PhoD crystals contain a phosphate molecule that coordinates all three active site metal ions and that is proposed to represent a product complex. A C-terminal helix lies over the active site and controls access to the catalytic center. The structure of PhoD defines a new phosphatase active site architecture based on Fe(3+) and Ca(2+) ions.
Project description:Phosphoesterases are involved in the degradation of organophosphorus compounds. Although phosphomonoesterases and phosphotriesterases have been studied in detail, studies on phosphodiesterases are rather limited. In our search to find novel phosphodiesterases using metagenomic approach, we cloned a gene encoding a putative phosphodiesterase (PdeM) from the metagenome of the formation water collected from an Indian coal bed. Bioinformatic analysis showed that PdeM sequence possessed the characteristic signature motifs of the class III phosphodiesterases and phylogenetic study of PdeM enabled us to identify three distinct subclasses (A, B, and C) within class III phosphodiesterases, PdeM clustering in new subclass IIIB. Bioinformatic, biochemical and biophysical characterization of PdeM further revealed some of the characteristic features of the phosphodiesterases belonging to newly described subclass IIIB. PdeM is a monomer of 29.3 kDa, which exhibits optimum activity at 25°C and pH 8.5, but low affinity for bis(pNPP) as well as pNPPP. The recombinant PdeM possessed phosphodiesterase, phosphonate-ester hydrolase and nuclease activity. It lacked phosphomonoesterase, phosphotriesterase, and RNAse activities. Overexpression of PdeM in E.coli neither affected catabolite respression nor did the recombinant protein hydrolyzed cAMP in vitro, indicating its inability to hydrolyze cAMP. Although Mn2+ was required for the activity of PdeM, but addition of metals (Mn2+ or Fe3+) did not induce oligomerization. Further increase in concentration of Mn2+ upto 3 mM, increased ?-helical content as well as the phosphodiesterase activity. Structural comparison of PdeM with its homologs showed that it lacked critical residues required for dimerization, cAMP hydrolysis, and for the high affinity binding of bis(pNPP). PdeM, thus, is a novel representative of new subclass of class III phosphodiesterases.
Project description:We describe the isolation and characterization of a gene (ptpA) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) that codes for a protein with a deduced M(r) of 17,690 containing significant amino acid sequence identity with mammalian and prokaryotic small, acidic phosphotyrosine protein phosphatases (PTPases). After expression of S. coelicolor ptpA in Escherichia coli with a pT7-7-based vector system, PtpA was purified to homogeneity as a fusion protein containing five extra amino acids. The purified fusion enzyme catalyzed the removal of phosphate from p-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP), phosphotyrosine (PY), and a commercial phosphopeptide containing a single phosphotyrosine residue but did not cleave phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. The pH optima for PNPP and PY hydrolysis by PtpA were 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The Km values for hydrolysis of PNPP and PY by PtpA were 0.75 mM (pH 6.0, 37 degrees C) and 2.7 mM (pH 6.5, 37 degrees C), respectively. Hydrolysis of PNPP by S. coelicolor PtpA were 0.75 mM (pH 6.0, 37 degrees C) and 2.7 mM (pH 6.5, 37 degrees C), respectively. Hydrolysis of PNPP by S. coelicolor PtpA was competitively inhibited by dephostatin with a Ki of 1.64 microM; the known PTPase inhibitors phenylarsine oxide, sodium vanadate, and iodoacetate also inhibited enzyme activity. Apparent homologs of ptpA were detected in other streptomycetes by Southern hybridization; the biological functions of PtpA and its putative homologs in streptomycetes are not yet known.
Project description:Dual-specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5) plays a central role in vascular development and disease. We present a p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNPP) based enzymatic assay to screen for inhibitors of the phosphatase domain of DUSP5.pNPP is a mimic of the phosphorylated tyrosine on the ERK2 substrate (pERK2) and binds the DUSP5 phosphatase domain with a Km of 7.6?±?0.4 mM. Docking followed by inhibitor verification using the pNPP assay identified a series of polysulfonated aromatic inhibitors that occupy the DUSP5 active site in the region that is likely occupied by the dual-phosphorylated ERK2 substrate tripeptide (pThr-Glu-pTyr). Secondary assays were performed with full length DUSP5 with ERK2 as substrate.The most potent inhibitor has a naphthalene trisulfonate (NTS) core. A search for similar compounds in a drug database identified suramin, a dimerized form of NTS. While suramin appears to be a potent and competitive inhibitor (25?±?5 ?M), binding to the DUSP5 phosphatase domain more tightly than the monomeric ligands of which it is comprised, it also aggregates. Further ligand-based screening, based on a pharmacophore derived from the 7 Å separation of sulfonates on inhibitors and on sulfates present in the DUSP5 crystal structure, identified a disulfonated and phenolic naphthalene inhibitor (CSD (3) _2320) with IC?? of 33 ?M that is similar to NTS and does not aggregate.The new DUSP5 inhibitors we identify in this study typically have sulfonates 7 Å apart, likely positioning them where the two phosphates of the substrate peptide (pThr-Glu-pTyr) bind, with one inhibitor also positioning a phenolic hydroxyl where the water nucleophile may reside. Polysulfonated aromatic compounds do not commonly appear in drugs and have a tendency to aggregate. One FDA-approved polysulfonated drug, suramin, inhibits DUSP5 and also aggregates. Docking and modeling studies presented herein identify polysulfonated aromatic inhibitors that do not aggregate, and provide insights to guide future design of mimics of the dual-phosphate loops of the ERK substrates for DUSPs.
Project description:Phosphatase enzymes are responsible for much of the recycling of organic phosphorus in soils. The PhoD alkaline phosphatase takes part in this process by hydrolyzing a range of organic phosphoesters. We analyzed the taxonomic and environmental distribution of phoD genes using whole-genome and metagenome databases. phoD alkaline phosphatase was found to be spread across 20 bacterial phyla and was ubiquitous in the environment, with the greatest abundance in soil. To study the great diversity of phoD, we developed a new set of primers which targets phoD genes in soil. The primer set was validated by 454 sequencing of six soils collected from two continents with different climates and soil properties and was compared to previously published primers. Up to 685 different phoD operational taxonomic units were found in each soil, which was 7 times higher than with previously published primers. The new primers amplified sequences belonging to 13 phyla, including 71 families. The most prevalent phoD genes identified in these soils were affiliated with the orders Actinomycetales (13 to 35%), Bacillales (1 to 29%), Gloeobacterales (1 to 18%), Rhizobiales (18 to 27%), and Pseudomonadales (0 to 22%). The primers also amplified phoD genes from additional orders, including Burkholderiales, Caulobacterales, Deinococcales, Planctomycetales, and Xanthomonadales, which represented the major differences in phoD composition between samples, highlighting the singularity of each community. Additionally, the phoD bacterial community structure was strongly related to soil pH, which varied between 4.2 and 6.8. These primers reveal the diversity of phoD in soil and represent a valuable tool for the study of phoD alkaline phosphatase in environmental samples.
Project description:Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 can degrade tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) to inorganic phosphate and 2-chloroethanol. A phosphotriesterase (PTE), phosphodiesterase (PDE) and phosphomonoesterase (PME) are believed to be involved in the degradation of TCEP. The PTE and PME that respectively catalyze the first and third steps of TCEP degradation in TCM1 have been identified. However, no information has been reported on a PDE catalyzing the second step. In this study, we identified, purified, and characterized a PDE capable of hydrolyzing haloalkyl phosphate diesters. The final preparation of the enzyme had a specific activity of 29?µmol min-1?mg-1 with bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BpNPP) as the substrate. It also possessed low PME activity with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrate. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) with BpNPP was significantly higher than that with pNPP, indicating that the enzyme prefers the organophosphorus diester to the monoester. The enzyme degraded bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, suggesting that it is involved in the metabolism of haloalkyl organophosphorus triesters. The primary structure of the PDE from TCM1 is distinct from those of typical PDE family members and the enzyme belongs to the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase superfamily.
Project description:A highly selective and sensitive optical sensor was developed to colorimetric detect trace Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution. The sensor was the sulfasalazine (SSZ) functionalized microgels (SSZ-MGs), which were fabricated via in-situ quaternization reaction. The obtained SSZ-MGs had hydrodynamic radius of about 259 ± 24 nm with uniform size distribution at 25 °C. The SSZ-MG aqueous suspensions can selectively and sensitively response to Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH of 5.6, which can be quantified by UV-visible spectroscopy and also easily distinguished by the naked eye. Job's plot indicated that the molar binding ratio of SSZ moiety in SSZ-MGs to Fe3+ was close to 1:1 with an apparent association constant of 1.72 × 104 M-1. A linear range of 0-12 ?M with the detection limit of 0.110 ?M (0.006 mg/L) was found. The obtained detection limit was much lower than the maximum allowance level of Fe3+ ions in drinking water (0.3 mg/L) regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States. The existence of 19 other species of metal ions, namely, Ag+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cr3+, Yb3+, La3+, Gd3+, Ce3+, and Bi3+, did not interfere with the detection of Fe3+ ions.
Project description:Poly(ethylene glycol) passivated graphene quantum dots (PEG-GQDs) were synthesized based on a green and effective strategy of the hydrothermal treatment of cane molasses. The prepared PEG-GQDs, with an average size of 2.5 nm, exhibit a brighter blue fluorescence and a higher quantum yield (QY) (up to approximately 21.32%) than the QY of GQDs without surface passivation (QY = 10.44%). The PEG-GQDs can be used to detect and quantify paramagnetic transition-metal ions including Fe3+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Mn2+. In the case of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution as a masking agent, Fe3+ ions can be well selectively determined in a transition-metal ion mixture, following the lowest limit of detection (LOD) of 5.77 ?M. The quenching mechanism of Fe3+ on PEG-GQDs belongs to dynamic quenching. Furthermore, Fe3+ in human serum can be successfully detected by the PEG-GQDs, indicating that the green prepared PEG-GQDs can be applied as a promising candidate for the selective detection of Fe3+ in clinics.
Project description:The layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ca2+ and trivalent cations, Al3+ and Fe3+, are single-source precursors to generate supported CaO, which picks up CO2 from the gas phase in the temperature range 350-550 °C. The supports are ternary oxides, mayenite, and Ca2Fe2O5. The uptake capacity of the Fe3+-containing LDH at 1.9 mmol g-1 is two times the capacity of the Al3+-containing LDH. The product of CO2 uptake is calcite CaCO3. It is observed that the intercalated chloride ions reduce the thermal penalty by inducing the early decomposition of CaCO3. In the case of the chloride-intercalated LDHs of Ca2+ and Fe3+, the CaCO3 formed is completely decomposed at 900 °C. This is in contrast with the CaCO3 formed from bare CaO, which shows no sign of decomposition at 900 °C under similar conditions. This work shows that the hydrocalumite-like LDHs are candidate materials for CO2 mineralization.