Assessing genomic diversity and signatures of selection in Original Braunvieh cattle using whole-genome sequencing data.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Autochthonous cattle breeds are an important source of genetic variation because they might carry alleles that enable them to adapt to local environment and food conditions. Original Braunvieh (OB) is a local cattle breed of Switzerland used for beef and milk production in alpine areas. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 49 key ancestors, we characterize genomic diversity, genomic inbreeding, and signatures of selection in Swiss OB cattle at nucleotide resolution. RESULTS:We annotated 15,722,811 SNPs and 1,580,878 Indels including 10,738 and 2763 missense deleterious and high impact variants, respectively, that were discovered in 49 OB key ancestors. Six Mendelian trait-associated variants that were previously detected in breeds other than OB, segregated in the sequenced key ancestors including variants causal for recessive xanthinuria and albinism. The average nucleotide diversity (1.6 ? ×?10-?3) was higher in OB than many mainstream European cattle breeds. Accordingly, the average genomic inbreeding derived from runs of homozygosity (ROH) was relatively low (FROH =?0.14) in the 49 OB key ancestor animals. However, genomic inbreeding was higher in OB cattle of more recent generations (FROH =?0.16) due to a higher number of long (>?1?Mb) runs of homozygosity. Using two complementary approaches, composite likelihood ratio test and integrated haplotype score, we identified 95 and 162 genomic regions encompassing 136 and 157 protein-coding genes, respectively, that showed evidence (P
Project description:Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from 27,612 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population structure based on 9214 sires representing nine Swiss dairy cattle populations: Brown Swiss (BS), Braunvieh (BV), Original Braunvieh (OB), Holstein (HO), Red Holstein (RH), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF), Simmental (SI), Eringer (ER) and Evolèner (EV). Genomic inbreeding (F ROH) and signatures of selection were determined by calculating runs of homozygosity (ROH). The results build the basis for a better understanding of the genetic development of Swiss dairy cattle populations and highlight differences between the original populations (i.e. OB, SI, ER and EV) and those that have become more popular in Switzerland as currently reflected by their larger populations (i.e. BS, BV, HO, RH and SF).The levels of genetic diversity were highest and lowest in the SF and BS breeds, respectively. Based on F ST values, we conclude that, among all pairwise comparisons, BS and HO (0.156) differ more than the other pairs of populations. The original Swiss cattle populations OB, SI, ER, and EV are clearly genetically separated from the Swiss cattle populations that are now more common and represented by larger numbers of cows. Mean levels of F ROH ranged from 0.027 (ER) to 0.091 (BS). Three of the original Swiss cattle populations, ER (F ROH: 0.027), OB (F ROH: 0.029), and SI (F ROH: 0.039), showed low levels of genomic inbreeding, whereas it was much higher in EV (F ROH: 0.074). Private signatures of selection for the original Swiss cattle populations are reported for BTA4, 5, 11 and 26.The low levels of genomic inbreeding observed in the original Swiss cattle populations ER, OB and SI compared to the other breeds are explained by a lesser use of artificial insemination and greater use of natural service. Natural service results in more sires having progeny at each generation and thus this breeding practice is likely the major reason for the remarkable levels of genetic diversity retained within these populations. The fact that the EV population is regionally restricted and its small census size of herd-book cows explain its high level of genomic inbreeding.
Project description:Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne) revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH) showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland.
Project description:In the presented research, BovineSNP50 microarrays (Illumina) were applied to determine runs of homozygosity in the genomes of 11 cattle breeds maintained in Poland. These cattle breeds represent three basic utility types: milk, meat and dual purpose. Analysis of runs of homozygosity allowed the evaluation of the level of autozygosity within each breed in order to calculate the genomic inbreeding coefficient (FROH), as well as to identify regions of the genome with a high frequency of ROH occurrence, which may reflect traces of directional selectin left in their genomes. Visible differences in the length and distribution of runs of homozygosity in the genomes of the analyzed cattle breeds have been observed. The highest mean number and mean sums of lengths of runs of homozygosity were characteristic for Hereford cattle and intermediate for the Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White variety, Holstein-Friesian Red-and-White variety, Simmental, Limousin, Montbeliarde and Charolais breeds. However, lower values were observed for cattle of conserved breeds. Moreover, the selected livestock differed in the level of inbreeding estimated using the FROH coefficient. In regions of the genome with a high frequency of ROH occurrence, which may reflect the impact of directional selection, a number of genes were observed that can be potentially related to the production traits which are under selection pressure for specific production types. The most important detected genes were GHR, MSTN, DGAT1, FABP4, and TRH, with a known influence on the milk and meat traits of the studied cattle breeds.
Project description:Angler (RVA) and Red-and-White dual-purpose (RDN) cattle were in the past decades crossed with influential Red Holstein (RH) sires. However, genome-wide diversity studies in these breeds are lacking. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the genome-wide diversity and population structure of the three German cattle breeds. Using 40,851 single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 337 individuals, runs of homozygosity (ROH) were analysed in each breed. Clustering and a high-resolution network visualisation analyses were performed on an extended dataset that included 11 additional (outgroup) breeds. Genetic diversity levels were high with observed heterozygosity above 0.35 in all three breeds. Only RVA had a recent past effective population size (Ne) estimate above 100 at 5 generations ago. ROH length distribution followed a similar pattern across breeds and the majority of ROH were found in the length class of >5 to 10 Mb. Estimates of average inbreeding calculated from ROH (FROH) were 0.021 (RVA), 0.045 (RDN) and 0.053 (RH). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between FROH and pedigree inbreeding (FPED) and between FROH and inbreeding derived from the excess of homozygosity (FHOM), while the intercept of the regression of FROH on FPED was above zero. The population structure analysis showed strong evidence of admixture between RVA and RH. Introgression of RDN with RH genes was minimally detected and for the first time, the study uncovered Norwegian Red Cattle ancestry in RVA. Highly heterogeneous genetic background was found for RVA and RH and as expected, the breeds of the extended dataset effectively differentiated mostly based on geographical origin, validating our findings. The results of this study confirm the impact of RH sires on RVA and RDN populations. Furthermore, a close monitoring is suggested to curb further reduction of Ne in the breeds.
Project description:Genetic characterization of African goats is one of the current priorities in the improvement of goats in the continent. This study contributes to the characterization effort by determining the levels and number of generations to common ancestors ("age") associated with inbreeding in African goat breeds and identifies regions that contain copy number variation mistyped as being homozygous. Illumina 50k single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data for 608 goats from 31 breeds were used to compute the level and age of inbreeding at both local (marker) and global levels (FG) using a model-based approach based on a hidden Markov model. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) segments detected using the Viterbi algorithm led to ROH-based inbreeding coefficients for all ROH (FROH) and for ROH longer than 2 Mb (FROH > 2Mb). Some of the genomic regions identified as having ROH are likely to be hemizygous regions (copy number deletions) mistyped as homozygous regions. Although the proportion of these miscalled ROH is small and does not substantially affect estimates of levels of inbreeding for individual animals, the inbreeding metrics were adjusted by removing these regions from the ROH. All the inbreeding metrics varied widely across breeds, with overall means of 0.0408, 0.0370, and 0.0691 and medians of 0.0125, 0.0098, and 0.0366 for FROH, FROH > 2Mb, and FG, respectively. Several breeds (including Menabe and Sofia from Madagascar) had high proportions of recent inbreeding, while Small East African, Ethiopian, and most of the West African breeds (including West African Dwarf) had more ancient inbreeding.
Project description:The majority of the nearly 400 existing local pig breeds are adapted to specific environments and human needs. The demand for large production quantities and the industrialized pig production have caused a rapid decline of many local pig breeds in recent decades. Black Slavonian pig and Turopolje pig, the latter highly threatened, are the two Croatian local indigenous breeds typically grown in extensive or semi-intensive systems. In order to guide a long-term breeding program to prevent the disappearance of these breeds, we analyzed their genetic diversity, inbreeding level and relationship with other local breeds across the world, as well as modern breeds and several wild populations, using high throughput genomic data obtained using the Illumina Infinium PorcineSNP60 v2 BeadChip. Multidimensional scaling analysis positioned Black Slavonian pigs close to the UK/North American breeds, while the Turopolje pig clustered within the Mediterranean breeds. Turopolje pig showed a very high inbreeding level (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.400 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.332) that considerably exceeded the level of full-sib mating, while Black Slavonian pig showed much lower inbreeding (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.098 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.074), indicating a planned mating strategy. In Croatian local breeds we identified several genome regions showing adaptive selection signals that were not present in commercial breeds. The results obtained in this study reflect the current genetic status and breeding management of the two Croatian indigenous local breeds. Given the small populations of both breeds, a controlled management activity has been implemented in Black Slavonian pigs since their commercial value has been recognized. In contrast, the extremely high inbreeding level observed in Turopolje pig argues for an urgent conservation plan with a long-term, diversity-oriented breeding program.
Project description:Both natural and artificial selection are among the main driving forces shaping genetic variation across the genome of livestock species. Selection typically leaves signatures in the genome, which are often characterized by high genetic differentiation across breeds and/or a strong reduction in genetic diversity in regions associated with traits under intense selection pressure. In this study, we evaluated selection signatures and genomic inbreeding coefficients, FROH, based on runs of homozygosity (ROH), in six Ugandan goat breeds: Boer (n = 13), and the indigenous breeds Karamojong (n = 15), Kigezi (n = 29), Mubende (n = 29), Small East African (n = 29), and Sebei (n = 29). After genotyping quality control, 45,294 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained for further analyses. A total of 394 and 6 breed-specific putative selection signatures were identified across all breeds, based on marker-specific fixation index (FST-values) and haplotype differentiation (hapFLK), respectively. These regions were enriched with genes involved in signaling pathways associated directly or indirectly with environmental adaptation, such as immune response (e.g., IL10RB and IL23A), growth and fatty acid composition (e.g., FGF9 and IGF1), and thermo-tolerance (e.g., MTOR and MAPK3). The study revealed little overlap between breeds in genomic regions under selection and generally did not display the typical classic selection signatures as expected due to the complex nature of the traits. In the Boer breed, candidate genes associated with production traits, such as body size and growth (e.g., GJB2 and GJA3) were also identified. Furthermore, analysis of ROH in indigenous goat breeds showed very low levels of genomic inbreeding (with the mean FROH per breed ranging from 0.8% to 2.4%), as compared to higher inbreeding in Boer (mean FROH = 13.8%). Short ROH were more frequent than long ROH, except in Karamojong, providing insight in the developmental history of these goat breeds. This study provides insights into the effects of long-term selection in Boer and indigenous Ugandan goat breeds, which are relevant for implementation of breeding programs and conservation of genetic resources, as well as their sustainable use and management.
Project description:Genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) are suitable for understanding population history, calculating genomic inbreeding, deciphering genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases as well as identifying genes linked with agro-economic traits. Autozygosity and ROH islands, genomic regions with elevated ROH frequencies, were characterized in 112 animals of seven Indian native cattle breeds (B. indicus) using BovineHD BeadChip. In total, 4138 ROH were detected. The average number of ROH per animal was maximum in draft breed, Kangayam (63.62 ± 22.71) and minimum in dairy breed, Sahiwal (24.62 ± 11.03). The mean ROH length was maximum in Vechur (6.97 Mb) and minimum in Hariana (4.04 Mb). Kangayam revealed the highest ROH based inbreeding (FROH > 1Mb = 0.113 ± 0.059), whereas Hariana (FROH > 1Mb = 0.042 ± 0.031) and Sahiwal (FROH > 1Mb = 0.043 ± 0.048) showed the lowest. The high standard deviation observed in each breed highlights a considerable variability in autozygosity. Out of the total autozygous segments observed in each breed except Vechur, > 80% were of short length (< 8 Mb) and contributed almost 50% of the genome proportion under ROH. However, in Vechur cattle, long ROH contributed 75% of the genome proportion under ROH. ROH patterns revealed Hariana and Sahiwal breeds as less consanguineous, while recent inbreeding was apparent in Vechur. Maximum autozygosity observed in Kangayam is attributable to both recent and ancient inbreeding. The ROH islands were harbouring higher proportion of QTLs for production traits (20.68% vs. 14.64%; P? 0.05) but lower for reproductive traits (11.49% vs. 15.76%; P? 0.05) in dairy breeds compared to draft breed. In draft cattle, genes associated with resistant to diseases/higher immunity (LYZL1, SVIL, and GPX4) and stress tolerant (CCT4) were identified in ROH islands; while in dairy breeds, for milk production (PTGFR, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3). Significant difference in ROH islands among large and short statured breeds was observed at chromosome 3 and 5 involving genes like PTGFR and HMGA2 responsible for milk production and stature, respectively. PCA analysis on consensus ROH regions revealed distinct clustering of dairy, draft and short stature cattle breeds.
Project description:Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous homozygous genotype segments in the genome that are present in an individual since the identical haplotypes are inherited from each parent. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of ROH in the genomes of Landrace, Songliao black and Yorkshire pigs. We calculated two types of genome inbreeding coefficients and their correlation, including the inbreeding coefficient based on ROH (FROH) and the inbreeding coefficient based on the difference between the observed and expected number of homozygous genotypes (FHOM). Furthermore, we identified candidate genes in the genomic region most associated with ROH. We identified 21,312 ROH in total. The average number of ROH per individual was 32.99 ± 0.38 and the average length of ROH was 6.40 ± 0.070 Mb in the three breeds. The FROH results showed that Yorkshire pigs exhibited the highest level of inbreeding (0.092 ± 0.0015) and that Landrace pigs exhibited the lowest level of inbreeding (0.073 ± 0.0047). The average correlation between FROH and FHOM was high (0.94) within three breeds. The length of ROH provides insight into the inbreeding history of these three pig breeds. In this study, Songliao black pigs presented a higher frequency and average length of long ROH (>40 Mb) compared with those of Landrace and Yorkshire pigs, which indicated greater inbreeding in recent times. Genes related to reproductive traits (GATM, SPATA46, HSD17B7, VANGL2, DAXX, CPEB1), meat quality traits (NR1I3, APOA2, USF1) and energy conversion (NDUFS2) were identified within genomic regions with a high frequency of ROH. These genes could be used as target genes for further marker-assisted selection and genome selection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess genome-wide autozygosity in a Nellore cattle population and to characterize ROH patterns and autozygosity islands that may have occurred due to selection within its lineages. It attempts also to compare estimates of inbreeding calculated from ROH (FROH), genomic relationship matrix (FGRM), and pedigree-based coefficient (FPED). RESULTS:The average number of ROH per animal was 55.15?±?13.01 with an average size of 3.24 Mb. The Nellore genome is composed mostly by a high number of shorter segments accounting for 78% of all ROH, although the proportion of the genome covered by them was relatively small. The genome autozygosity proportion indicates moderate to high inbreeding levels for classical standards, with an average value of 7.15% (178.70 Mb). The average of FPED and FROH, and their correlations (-?0.05 to 0.26) were low. Estimates of correlation between FGRM-FPED was zero, while the correlation (-?0.01 to -?0.07) between FGRM-FROH decreased as a function of ROH length, except for FROH?>?8Mb (-?0.03). Overall, inbreeding coefficients were not high for the genotyped animals. Autozygosity islands were evident across the genome (n?=?62) and their genomic location did not largely differ within lineages. Enriched terms (p?<?0.01) associated with defense response to bacteria (GO:0042742), immune complex reaction (GO:0045647), pregnancy-associated glycoproteins genes (GO:0030163), and organism growth (GO:0040014) were described within the autozygotic islands. CONCLUSIONS:Low FPED-FROH correlation estimates indicate that FPED is not the most suitable method for capturing ancient inbreeding when the pedigree does not extend back many generations and FROH should be used instead. Enriched terms (p <?0.01) suggest a strong selection for immune response. Non-overlapping islands within the lineages greatly explain the mechanism underlying selection for functionally important traits in Nellore cattle.