Fluorescent TAP as a Platform for Virus-Induced Degradation of the Antigenic Peptide Transporter.
ABSTRACT: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a key player in the major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted antigen presentation, makes an attractive target for viruses that aim to escape the immune system. Mechanisms of TAP inhibition vary among virus species. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is unique in its ability to target TAP for proteasomal degradation following conformational arrest by the UL49.5 gene product. The exact mechanism of TAP removal still requires elucidation. For this purpose, a TAP-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein is instrumental, yet GFP-tagging may affect UL49.5-induced degradation. Therefore, we constructed a series of TAP-GFP variants using various linkers to obtain an optimal cellular fluorescent TAP platform. Mel JuSo (MJS) cells with CRISPR/Cas9 TAP1 or TAP2 knockouts were reconstituted with TAP-GFP constructs. Our results point towards a critical role of GFP localization on fluorescent properties of the fusion proteins and, in concert with the type of a linker, on the susceptibility to virally-induced inhibition and degradation. The fluorescent TAP platform was also used to re-evaluate TAP stability in the presence of other known viral TAP inhibitors, among which only UL49.5 was able to reduce TAP levels. Finally, we provide evidence that BoHV-1 UL49.5-induced TAP removal is p97-dependent, which indicates its degradation via endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD).
Project description:The lifelong infection by varicelloviruses is characterized by a fine balance between the host immune response and immune evasion strategies used by these viruses. Virus-derived peptides are presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports the peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, where the loading of MHC-I molecules occurs. The varicelloviruses bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), pseudorabies virus, and equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 have been found to encode a UL49.5 protein that inhibits TAP-mediated peptide transport. To investigate to what extent UL49.5-mediated TAP inhibition is conserved within the family of Alphaherpesvirinae, the homologs of another five varicelloviruses, one mardivirus, and one iltovirus were studied. The UL49.5 proteins of BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesvirus 1, and felid herpesvirus 1 were identified as potent TAP inhibitors. The varicella-zoster virus and simian varicellovirus UL49.5 proteins fail to block TAP; this is not due to the absence of viral cofactors that might assist in this process, since cells infected with these viruses did not show reduced TAP function either. The UL49.5 homologs of the mardivirus Marek's disease virus 1 and the iltovirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus did not block TAP, suggesting that the capacity to inhibit TAP via UL49.5 has been acquired by varicelloviruses only. A phylogenetic analysis of viruses that inhibit TAP through their UL49.5 proteins reveals an interesting hereditary pattern, pointing toward the presence of this capacity in defined clades within the genus Varicellovirus.
Project description:Detection and elimination of virus-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes depends on recognition of virus-derived peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. A critical step in this process is the translocation of peptides from the cytoplasm into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Here, we identified the bovine herpesvirus 1-encoded UL49.5 protein as a potent inhibitor of TAP. The expression of UL49.5 results in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface and inhibits detection and lysis of the cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. UL49.5 homologs encoded by two other varicelloviruses, pseudorabies-virus and equine herpesvirus 1, also block TAP. Homologs of UL49.5 are widely present in herpesviruses, acting as interaction partners for glycoprotein M, but in several varicelloviruses UL49.5 has uniquely evolved additional functions that mediate its participation in TAP inhibition. Inactivation of TAP by UL49.5 involves two events: inhibition of peptide transport through a conformational arrest of the transporter and degradation of TAP by proteasomes. UL49.5 is degraded along with TAP via a reaction that requires the cytoplasmic tail of UL49.5. Thus, UL49.5 represents a unique immune evasion protein that inactivates TAP through a unique two-tiered process.
Project description:The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) directly participates in the immune response as a key component of the cytosolic peptide to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I protein loading machinery. This makes TAP an important target for viruses avoiding recognition by CD8+ T lymphocytes. Its activity can be suppressed by the UL49.5 protein produced by bovine herpesvirus 1, although the mechanism of this inhibition has not been understood so far. Therefore, the main goal of our study was to investigate the 3D structure of bovine herpesvirus 1 - encoded UL49.5 protein. The final structure of the inhibitor was established using circular dichroism (CD), 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular dynamics (MD) in membrane mimetic environments. In NMR studies, UL49.5 was represented by two fragments: the extracellular region (residues 1-35) and the transmembrane-intracellular fragment (residues 36-75), displaying various functions during viral invasion. After the empirical structure determination, a molecular docking procedure was used to predict the complex of UL49.5 with the TAP heterodimer. Our results revealed that UL49.5 adopted a highly flexible membrane-proximal helical structure in the extracellular part. In the transmembrane region, we observed two short ?-helices. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic part had an unordered structure. Finally, we propose three different orientations of UL49.5 in the complex with TAP. Our studies provide, for the first time, the experimental structural information on UL49.5 and structure-based insight in its mechanism of action which might be helpful in designing new drugs against viral infections.
Project description:Although counteracting innate defenses allows oncolytic viruses (OVs) to better replicate and spread within tumors, CD8(+) T-cells restrict their capacity to trigger systemic anti-tumor immune responses. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) evades CD8(+) T-cells by producing ICP47, which limits immune recognition of infected cells by inhibiting the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Surprisingly, removing ICP47 was assumed to benefit OV immuno-therapy, but the impact of inhibiting TAP remains unknown because human HSV-1 ICP47 is not effective in rodents. Here, we engineer an HSV-1 OV to produce bovine herpesvirus UL49.5, which unlike ICP47, antagonizes rodent and human TAP. Significantly, UL49.5-expressing OVs showed superior efficacy treating bladder and breast cancer in murine models that was dependent upon CD8(+) T-cells. Besides injected subcutaneous tumors, UL49.5-OV reduced untreated, contralateral tumor size and metastases. These findings establish TAP inhibitor-armed OVs that evade CD8(+) T-cells as an immunotherapy strategy to elicit potent local and systemic anti-tumor responses.
Project description:The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) comprises two subunits, TAP1 and TAP2, each containing a hydrophobic membrane-spanning region (MSR) and a nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The TAP1/TAP2 complex is required for peptide translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To understand the role of each structural unit of the TAP1/TAP2 complex, we generated two chimeras containing TAP1 MSR and TAP2 NBD (T1MT2C) or TAP2 MSR and TAP1 NBD (T2MT1C). We show that TAP1/T2MT1C, TAP2/T1MT2C, and T1MT2C/T2MT1C complexes bind peptide with an affinity comparable to wild-type complexes. By contrast, TAP1/T1MT2C and TAP2/T2MT1C complexes, although observed, are impaired for peptide binding. Thus, the MSRs of both TAP1 and TAP2 are required for binding peptide. However, neither NBD contains unique determinants required for peptide binding. The NBD-switched complexes, T1MT2C/T2MT1C, TAP1/T2MT1C, and TAP2/T1MT2C, all translocate peptides, but with progressively reduced efficiencies relative to the TAP1/TAP2 complex. These results indicate that both nucleotide binding sites are catalytically active and support an alternating catalytic sites model for the TAP transport cycle, similar to that proposed for P-glycoprotein. The enhanced translocation efficiency of TAP1/T2MT1C relative to TAP2/T1MT2C complexes correlates with enhanced binding of the TAP1 NBD-containing constructs to ATP-agarose beads. Preferential ATP interaction with TAP1, if occurring in vivo, might polarize the transport cycle such that ATP binding to TAP1 initiates the cycle. However, our observations that TAP complexes containing two identical TAP NBDs can mediate translocation indicate that distinct properties of the nucleotide binding site per se are not essential for the TAP catalytic cycle.
Project description:Antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes via major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules depends on the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). For efficient antigen supply to MHC I molecules in the ER, TAP assembles a macromolecular peptide-loading complex (PLC) by recruiting tapasin. In evolution, TAP appeared together with effector cells of adaptive immunity at the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates and diversified further within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we compared TAP function and interaction with tapasin of a range of species within two classes of jawed vertebrates. We found that avian and mammalian TAP1 and TAP2 form heterodimeric complexes across taxa. Moreover, the extra N-terminal domain TMD0 of mammalian TAP1 and TAP2 as well as avian TAP2 recruits tapasin. Strikingly, however, only TAP1 and TAP2 from the same taxon can form a functional heterodimeric translocation complex. These data demonstrate that the dimerization interface between TAP1 and TAP2 and the tapasin docking sites for PLC assembly are conserved in evolution, whereas elements of antigen translocation diverged later in evolution and are thus taxon specific.
Project description:The human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. TAP plays an essential role in the antigen presentation pathway by translocating cytosolic peptides derived from proteasomal degradation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Here, the peptides are loaded into major histocompatibility class I molecules to be in turn exposed at the cell surface for recognition by T-cells. TAP is a heterodimer formed by the association of two half-transporters, TAP1 and TAP2, with a typical ABC transporter core that consists of two nucleotide binding domains and two transmembrane domains. Despite the availability of biological data, a full understanding of the mechanism of action of TAP is limited by the absence of experimental structures of the full-length transporter. Here, we present homology models of TAP built on the crystal structures of P-glycoprotein, ABCB10, and Sav1866. The models represent the transporter in inward- and outward-facing conformations that could represent initial and final states of the transport cycle, respectively. We described conserved regions in the endoplasmic reticulum-facing loops with a role in the opening and closing of the cavity. We also identified conserved ?-stacking interactions in the cytosolic part of the transmembrane domains that could explain the experimental data available for TAP1-Phe-265. Electrostatic potential calculations gave structural insights into the role of residues involved in peptide binding, such as TAP1-Val-288, TAP2-Cys-213, TAP2-Met-218. Moreover, these calculations identified additional residues potentially involved in peptide binding, in turn verified with replica exchange simulations performed on a peptide bound to the inward-facing models.
Project description:Proteasome subunits (PSMB) and transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) loci are located in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II region play important roles in immune response and protein degradation in neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PSMB and TAP and Parkinson's disease (PD).A case-control study was conducted by genotyping SNPs in PSMB8, PSMB9, TAP1, and TAP2 genes in the Chinese population. Subjects included 542 sporadic patients with PD and 674 healthy controls. Nine identified SNPs in PSMB8, PSMB9, TAP1, and TAP2 were genotyped through SNaPshot testing.The stratified analysis of rs17587 was specially performed on gender. Data revealed that female patients carry a higher frequency of rs17587-G/G versus (A/A + G/A) compared with controls. But there was no significant difference with respect to the genotypic frequencies of the SNPs in PSMB8, TAP1, and TAP2 loci in PD patients.Chinese females carrying the rs17587-G/G genotype in PSMB9 may increase a higher risk for PD, but no linkage was found between other SNPs in HLA Class II region and PD.
Project description:The function of the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complex is to shuttle antigenic peptides from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum to load MHC class I molecules for CD8(+) T-cell immunosurveillance. Here we report the promoter and coding regions of the canine TAP1 and TAP2 genes, which encode the homologous subunits forming the TAP heterodimer. By sampling genetically divergent breeds, polymorphisms in both genes were identified, although there were few amino acid differences between alleles. Splice variants were also found. When aligned to TAP genes of other species, functional regions appeared conserved, and upon phylogenetic analysis, canine sequences segregated appropriately with their orthologs. Transfer of the canine TAP2 gene into a murine TAP2-defective cell line rescued surface MHC class I expression, confirming exporter function. This data should prove useful in investigating the association of specific TAP defects or alleles with immunity to intracellular pathogens and cancer in dogs.
Project description:TAP1/TAP2 complexes translocate peptides from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to enable immune surveillance by CD8(+) T cells. Peptide transport is preceded by peptide binding to a cytosol-accessible surface of TAP1/TAP2 complexes, but the location of the TAP peptide-binding pocket remains unknown. Guided by the known contributions of polymorphic TAP variants to peptide selection, we combined homology modeling of TAP with experimental measurements to identify several TAP residues that interact with peptides. Models for peptide-TAP complexes were generated, which indicate bent conformation for peptides. The peptide binding site of TAP is located at the hydrophobic boundary of the cytosolic membrane leaflet, with striking parallels to the glutathione binding site of NaAtm1, a transporter that functions in bacterial heavy metal detoxification. These studies illustrate the conservation of the ligand recognition modes of bacterial and mammalians transporters involved in peptide-guided cellular surveillance.