High expression of olfactomedin-4 is correlated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, and identification of novel predictors of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis is urgently needed. Chemoresistance-related molecules are correlated with poor prognosis and may be effective targets for cancer treatment. Here, we aimed to identify novel molecules correlated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. We established 10 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines from patients with pancreatic cancer and performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor tissues from PDXs after treatment with standard drugs. We established a gene-transferred tumor cell line to express chemoresistance-related molecules and analyzed the chemoresistance of the established cell line against standard drugs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of chemoresistance-related molecules using 80 pancreatic cancer tissues. From NGS analysis, we identified olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) as having high expression in the PDX group treated with anticancer drugs. In IHC analysis, OLFM4 expression was also high in PDXs administered anticancer drugs compared with that in untreated PDXs. Chemoresistance was observed by in vitro analysis of tumor cell lines with forced expression of OLFM4. In an assessment of tissue specimens from 80 patients with pancreatic cancer, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients in the low OLFM4 expression group had a better survival rate than patients in the high OLFM4 expression group. Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that high expression of OLFM4 was an independent prognostic factor predicting poor outcomes. Overall, our study revealed that high expression of OLFM4 was involved in chemoresistance and was an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer. OLFM4 may be a candidate therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is associated with an exceedingly poor prognosis, warranting the development of novel therapeutic strategies and discovery of prognostic predictors. Given that chemoresistance?related molecules are reportedly associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, the present study aimed to identify molecules that could be efficacious therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer. First, 10 patient?derived xenografts (PDXs) were established from patients with pancreatic cancer. Subsequently, after treating tumor tissue generated from the PDXs with standard drugs, next?generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using these tissues. The results of NGS analysis and immunohistochemical analysis on 80 pancreatic cancer tissues revealed that human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) expression in the anticancer drug?treated PDX group was higher than that in the untreated PDXs. In addition, chemoresistance ability was observed in tumor cell lines overexpressing HE4. Furthermore, Kaplan?Meier analysis of tumor tissues from 80 patients with pancreatic cancer was performed and it was found that patients with a high HE4 expression level had a poor survival rate compared with those who had a low HE4 expression level. Multivariate analysis also indicated the high expression level of HE4 was an independent poor prognostic biomarker. Thus, it was concluded that high gene and protein expression levels of HE4 mediate chemoresistance and are independent prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer has extremely poor prognosis, warranting the discovery of novel therapeutic and prognostic markers. The expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), a key component of the mucosal immune system, is increased in several cancers. However, its clinical relevance in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the prognostic value of pIgR in pancreatic cancer patients after surgical resection was assessed and it was determined that the expression of pIgR was correlated with poor prognosis. Ten pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines were established, followed by next-generation sequencing of tumor tissues from these lines after standard chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis of chemoresistance-related molecules using 77 pancreatic cancer tissues was also performed. The expression of pIgR mRNA in the PDX group treated with anticancer drugs was higher than in the untreated group. High pIgR expression in tissue specimens from 77 pancreatic cancer patients was significantly associated with poor prognosis and was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor, predicting poor outcomes. High pIgR mRNA and protein levels were independent prognostic factors, indicating that pIgR could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation by inhibiting gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM19), a strong STAT3 suppressor gene; however, the mechanisms of OLFM4 for regulating GRIM19-STAT3 cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. The functions and regulations of OLFM4, GRIM19, and STAT3 activation in HCC progression were evaluated using surgical specimens collected from 111 HCC patients or 2 HCC cell lines in vitro. Moreover, the cancer stem cell-like property of OLFM4 mediated by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), known as an intestinal stem cell marker, was investigated. OLFM4 was increased in HCC compared with adjacent liver tissue. The multivariate analysis revealed that high OLFM4 expression was an independent factor for poor prognosis. OLFM4 expression was negatively correlated with GRIM19 expression and positively correlated with STAT3 activation in HCC, thereby increasing cell cycle progression. OLFM4 knockdown in HCC cells increased GRIM19 expression and inhibited STAT3 activation; however, after double knockdown of GRIM19 and OLFM4, STAT3 activation decreased by OLFM4 knockdown was increased again. OLFM4 knockdown increased cell apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, and suppressed cancer stem cell-like property in HCC cells. The incidence of hematogenous recurrence was higher in HCC patients with high OLFM4 expression, suggesting that anoikis resistance of HCC was enhanced by OLFM4. In clinical cases, LGR5 expression and CD133 expression was correlated with OLFM4 expression in HCC, leading to poor patient prognosis. In vitro, LGR5 enhanced cancer stem cell-like property by up-regulating OLFM4 through the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusion: OLFM4 is induced by the LGR5-Wnt signaling pathway and is strongly associated with aggressive tumor progression and poor prognosis in HCC by regulating STAT3-induced tumor cell proliferation and cancer stem cell-like property. Therefore, OLFM4 is a novel prognostic predictor and a potential therapeutic target for patients with HCC.
Project description:Chemoresistance is one of the causes associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of chemoresistance. Exosome-mediated delivery of anti-cancer molecules and drugs have emerged as a new approach for cancer therapy. We first examined the expression of miR-374a-5p in gastric cancer serum by qRT-PCR and explored the clinicopathological parameters. We then performed in vitro cell and molecular studies, including CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and western blot, to determine the roles of miR-374a-5p in gastric cancer chemoresistance and identified its downstream target by luciferase reporter assay. We also used in vivo animal studies to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of miR-374a-5p inhibitor and exosome-mediated delivery of miR-374a-5p inhibitor in gastric cancer. miR-374a-5p expression level was elevated in gastric cancer serum, and its upregulation predicted poor prognosis. miR-374a-5p overexpression promoted while miR-374a-5p knockdown inhibited gastric cancer chemoresistance in vitro and in vivo. miR-374a-5p bound to Neurod1 to antagonize its effect on chemoresistance. Exosome-mediated delivery of miR-374a-5p inhibitor could increase Neurod1 expression, promote cell apoptosis, and suppress chemoresistance. miR-374a-5p had a promoting role in gastric cancer chemoresistance, which would provide a novel biomarker for gastric cancer diagnosis and prognosis and offer a potential target for gastric cancer drug resistance therapy.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), generally known as pancreatic cancer (PC), ranks the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the western world. While the incidence of pancreatic cancer is displaying a rising tendency every year, the mortality rate has not decreased significantly because of late diagnosis, early metastasis, and limited reaction to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection is typically the preferred option to treat early pancreatic cancer. Although 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel can profoundly improve the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer, the development of chemoresistance still leads to poor clinical outcomes. Chemoresistance is multifactorial as a result of the interaction among pancreatic cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and the tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, more pancreatic cancer patients will benefit from precision treatment and targeted drugs. Therefore, we outline new perspectives for enhancing the efficacy of gemcitabine after reviewing the related factors of gemcitabine metabolism, mechanism of action, and chemoresistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemoresistance is one of the main causes of poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients. Understanding the mechanisms implicated in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer is critical to improving patient outcomes. Recent evidences indicate that the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involving in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms of lncRNAs contribute to resistance in pancreatic cancer and remain largely unknown. The objective of this study is to construct a chemoresistance-related lncRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of pancreatic cancer and identify the key lncRNAs in regulating chemoresistance of the network. METHODS:Firstly, lncRNA expression profiling of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells was performed to identify lncRNAs related to chemoresistance by microarray analysis. Secondly, with insights into the mechanism of ceRNA, we used a bioinformatics approach to construct a chemoresistance-related lncRNAs-associated ceRNA network. We then identified the topological key lncRNAs in the ceRNA network and demonstrated its function or mechanism in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer using molecular biological methods. Further studies evaluated its expression to assess its potential association with survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. RESULTS:Firstly, we demonstrated that lncRNAs were dysregulated in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. We then constructed a chemoresistance-related lncRNA-associated ceRNA network and proposed that lncRNA Homo sapiens glutathione S-transferase mu 3, transcript variant 2 and noncoding RNA (GSTM3TV2; NCBI Reference Sequence: NR_024537.1) might act as a key ceRNA to enhance chemoresistance by upregulating L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1(OLR1) in pancreatic cancer. Further studies demonstrated that GSTM3TV2, overexpressed in gemcitabine-resistant cells, enhanced the gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we identified that GSTM3TV2 upregulated LAT2 and OLR1 by competitively sponging let-7 to promote gemcitabine resistance. In addition, we revealed that the expression levels of GSTM3TV2 were significantly increased in pancreatic cancer tissues and were associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that GSTM3TV2 is a crucial oncogenic regulator involved in chemoresistance and could be a new therapeutic target or prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor type with poor outcomes, and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in cancer progression and therapeutic resistance is critical. FBXW7 is a key regulator of tumor malignant potential, and its substrate MCL1 regulates therapeutic resistance in human malignancies. Therefore, determination of the relevance of FBXW7 expression is critical for improving patient outcomes. In this study, we investigated the function and clinical significance of FBXW7 in pancreatic cancer. FBXW7 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 122 pancreatic cancer tissues. Reduced FBXW7 expression was significantly associated with advanced venous invasion, high MCL1 expression, enhanced Ki-67 expression, and poor prognosis and was an independent poor prognostic factor. Among patients who underwent gemcitabine treatment after surgery, reduced FBXW7 expression was also significantly associated with poor prognosis. Knockdown of FBXW7 in vitro enhanced cell proliferation, and migration, and invasion abilities and promoted gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, FBXW7-knockdown cells showed accumulation of MCL1, and the enhanced chemoresistance observed in FBXW7-knockdown cells was eliminated by MCL1 suppression. These results suggested that FBXW7 was associated with cancer progression and mediated sensitivity to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel via MCL1 accumulation in pancreatic cancer. Thus, the FBXW7/MCL1 axis may be a promising therapeutic tool to overcome refractory pancreatic cancer.
Project description:A poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) associated with chemoresistance has not changed for the past three decades. A multidisciplinary diagnosis followed by surgery and chemo(radiation)therapy is the main treatment approach. However, gemcitabine- and 5-fluorouracil-based therapies did not present satisfying outcomes. Novel regimens targeting pancreatic cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment, and immunosuppression are emerging. Biomarkers concerning the treatment outcome and patient selection are being discovered in preclinical or clinical studies. Combination therapies of classic chemotherapeutic drugs and novel agents or novel therapeutic combinations might bring hope to the dismal prognosis for PDAC patients.
Project description:Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances provide various treatment options, pancreatic adenocarcinoma has poor prognosis due to its late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. Gemcitabine is the effective first-line drug in pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment. However, gemcitabine chemoresistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells has been a major obstacle for limiting its treatment effect. Our study found that p70S6K1 plays an important role in gemcitabine chemoresistence. MiR-145 is a tumor suppressor which directly targets p70S6K1 for inhibiting its expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, providing new therapeutic scheme. Our findings revealed a new mechanism underlying gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly disease characterized by high expression of extracellular matrix in tumor tissue, which contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Here, we developed 3D pancreatic cancer spheroids, based on pancreatic cancer cells and fibroblast co-culture, which demonstrate innate desmoplastic properties and stay poorly permeable for model nanoparticles. Our study revealed that establishment of tumors by transplantation of spheroids significantly improved subcutaneous xenograft model of PDAC, which stays the most widely used animal model for testing of new drugs and drug delivery approaches. Spheroid based tumors abundantly produced different extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen I, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. These tumors were highly reproducible with excellent uniformity in terms of ECM architecture recapitulating clinical PDAC tumors, whereas in more common cell based xenografts a significant intertumor heterogeneity in extracellular matrix production was found. Moreover, spheroid based xenografts demonstrated higher expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-survival PDAC hallmarks in opposite to cell based counterparts. We believe that future development of this model will provide an effective instrument for testing of anti-cancer drugs with improved predictive value.