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The Conifer Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum): Effectome Analysis and Roles in Interspecific Fungal Interactions.

ABSTRACT: Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen is an economically important basidiomycete, causing root and stem rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in Northern Europe. The H. parviporum genome encodes numerous small secreted proteins, which might be of importance for interacting with mycorrhiza symbionts, endophytes, and other saprotrophs. We hypothesized that small secreted proteins from H. parviporum (HpSSPs) are involved in interspecific fungal interaction. To identify HpSSP-coding genes potentially involved, we screened the H. parviporum effectome and compared their transcriptomic profiles during fungal development and in planta tree infection. We further conducted phylogenetic analysis, and identified a subset of hypothetical proteins with nonpredicted domain or unknown function as HpSSPs candidates for further characterization. The HpSSPs candidates were selected based on high-quality sequence, cysteine residue frequency, protein size, and in planta expression. We subsequently explored their roles during in vitro interaction in paired cultures of H. parviporum with ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius gentilis, endophytic Phialocephala sphaeroides, saprotrophs (Mycena sp., Phlebiopsis gigantea, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium), respectively. The transcriptomic profile revealed that a large proportion of effector candidates was either barely expressed or highly expressed under all growth conditions. In vitro dual-culture test showed that P. sphaeroides and C. gentilis were overgrown by H. parviporum. The barrage zone formation or no physical contact observed in paired cultures with the saprotrophs suggest they had either combative interaction or antibiosis effect with H. parviporum. Several HpSSPs individuals were up- or downregulated during the nonself interactions. The results of HpSSPs gene expression patterns provide additional insights into the diverse roles of SSPs in tree infection and interspecific fungal interactions.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6955712 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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