Validation of an Ex Vivo Permeation Method for the Intestinal Permeability of Different BCS Drugs and Its Correlation with Caco-2 In Vitro Experiments.
ABSTRACT: The absorption study of drugs through different biological membranes constitutes an essential step in the development of new pharmaceutical dosage forms. Concerning orally administered forms, methods based on monolayer cell culture of Caco-2 (Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma) have been developed to emulate intestinal mucosa in permeability studies. Although it is widely accepted, it has disadvantages, such as high costs or high technical complexity, and limitations related to the simplified structure of the monolayer or the class of molecules that can be permeated according to the transport mechanisms. The aim of this work was to develop a new ex vivo methodology which allows the evaluation of the intestinal apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) while using fewer resources and to assess the correlation with Caco-2. To this end, pig (Sus scrofa) duodenum segments were mounted in Franz diffusion cells and used to permeate four different drugs: ketorolac tromethamine (Kt), melatonin (Mel), hydrochlorothiazide (Htz), and furosemide (Fur). No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed corelating Papp values from Franz diffusion cells and Caco-2 cell experiments for Kt, Htz, and Fur. However, there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) correlating Papp values and Mel. The difference is explained by the role of Mel in the duodenal epithelial paracellular permeability reduction. Ex vivo permeation may be an equivalent method to Caco-2 for drugs that do not produce intestinal membrane phenomena that could affect absorption.
Project description:The purpose of the study was to develop a per-6-thiolated ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) by substituting all primary hydroxyl groups of ?-CD with thiol groups and to assess its solubility-improving and permeation-enhancing properties for a BCS Class IV drug in vitro as well as in vivo. The primary hydroxyl groups of ?-CD were replaced by iodine, followed by substitution with -SH groups. The structure of per-6-thiolated ?-CD was approved by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The per-6-thiolated was characterized for thiol content, -SH stability, cytotoxicity, and solubility-improving properties by using the model BCS Class IV drug furosemide (FUR). The mucoadhesive properties of the thiolated oligomer were investigated via viscoelastic measurements with porcine mucus, whereas permeation-enhancing features were evaluated on the Caco-2 cell monolayer and rat gut mucosa. Furthermore, oral bioavailability studies were performed in rats. The per-6-thiolated ?-CD oligomer displayed 4244 ± 402 ?mol/g thiol groups. These -SH groups were stable at pH ? 4, exhibiting a pKa value of 8.1, but subject to oxidation at higher pH. Per-6-thiolated ?-CD was not cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells in 0.5% (m/v) concentration within 24 h. It improved the solubility of FUR in the same manner as unmodified ?-CD. The addition of per-6-thiolated ?-CD (0.5% m/v) increased the mucus viscosity up to 5.8-fold at 37 °C within 4 h. Because of the incorporation in per-6-thiolated ?-CD, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of FUR was 6.87-fold improved on the Caco-2 cell monolayer and 6.55-fold on the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, in vivo studies showed a 4.9-fold improved oral bioavailability of FUR due to the incorporation in per-6-thiolated ?-CD. These results indicate that per-6-thiolated ?-CD would be a promising auxiliary agent for the mucosal delivery of, in particular, BCS Class IV drugs.
Project description:Insight into the mechanisms of intestinal transport and metabolism of aspalathin will provide important information for dose optimisation, in particular for studies using mouse models. Aspalathin transportation across the intestinal barrier (Caco-2 monolayer) tested at 1-150 µM had an apparent rate of permeability (Papp) typical of poorly absorbed compounds (1.73 × 10-6 cm/s). Major glucose transporters, sodium glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and efflux protein (P-glycoprotein, PgP) (1.84 × 10-6 cm/s; efflux ratio: 1.1) were excluded as primary transporters, since the Papp of aspalathin was not affected by the presence of specific inhibitors. The Papp of aspalathin was also not affected by constituents of aspalathin-enriched rooibos extracts, but was affected by high glucose concentration (20.5 mM), which decreased the Papp value to 2.9 × 10-7 cm/s. Aspalathin metabolites (sulphated, glucuronidated and methylated) were found in mouse urine, but not in blood, following an oral dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of the pure compound. Sulphates were the predominant metabolites. These findings suggest that aspalathin is absorbed and metabolised in mice to mostly sulphate conjugates detected in urine. Mechanistically, we showed that aspalathin is not actively transported by the glucose transporters, but presumably passes the monolayer paracellularly.
Project description:Solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) are a nanotechnology with favourable characteristics to enhance drug delivery and improve the treatment of several diseases, showing benefit for improved oral bioavailability and injectable long-acting medicines. The physicochemical properties and composition of nanoformulations can influence the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nanoparticles; consequently, the development of nanoparticles for drug delivery should consider the potential role of nanoparticle characteristics in the definition of pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological behaviour of efavirenz SDNs and the identification of optimal nanoparticle properties and composition. Seventy-seven efavirenz SDNs were included in the analysis. Cellular accumulation was evaluated in HepG2 (hepatic) and Caco-2 (intestinal), CEM (lymphocyte), THP1 (monocyte), and A-THP1 (macrophage) cell lines. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp) was measured using a monolayer of Caco-2 cells. The Papp values were used to evaluate the potential benefit on pharmacokinetics using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The generated SDNs had an enhanced intestinal permeability and accumulation in different cell lines compared to the traditional formulation of efavirenz. Nanoparticle size and excipient choice influenced efavirenz apparent permeability and cellular accumulation, and this appeared to be cell line dependent. These findings represent a valuable platform for the design of SDNs, giving an empirical background for the selection of optimal nanoparticle characteristics and composition. Understanding how nanoparticle components and physicochemical properties influence pharmacological patterns will enable the rational design of SDNs with desirable pharmacokinetics.
Project description:PURPOSE:To examine the utility of human plasma as an assay medium in Caco-2 permeability studies to overcome poor mass balance and inadequate sink conditions frequently encountered with lipophilic compounds. METHODS:Caco-2 permeability was assessed for reference compounds with known transport mechanisms using either pH 7.4 buffer or human plasma as the assay medium in both the apical and basolateral chambers. When using plasma, Papp values were corrected for the unbound fraction in the donor chamber. The utility of the approach was assessed by measuring the permeability of selected antimalarial compounds using the two assay media. RESULTS:Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity and P-gp transporter function were unaffected by the presence of human plasma in the donor and acceptor chambers. For many of the reference compounds having good mass balance with buffer as the medium, higher Papp values were observed with plasma, likely due to improved acceptor sink conditions. The lipophilic antimalarial compounds exhibited low mass balance with buffer, however the use of plasma markedly improved mass balance allowing the determination of more reliable Papp values. CONCLUSIONS:The results support the utility of human plasma as an alternate Caco-2 assay medium to improve mass balance and permeability measurements for lipophilic compounds.
Project description:Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category.
Project description:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Artemisia annua has been used for > 2000yrs to treat fever and is more recently known for producing the important antimalarial drug, artemisinin. AIM OF THE STUDY:Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are effective for treating malaria, but are often unavailable to those in need. Dried leaves of A. annua (DLA) have recently been studied as a cost effective alternative to traditional ACTs. DLA was shown to dramatically increase oral bioavailability compared to pure artemisinin, so more investigation into the mechanisms causing this increased bioavailability is needed. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, we used a simulated digestion system coupled with Caco-2 cell permeability assays to investigate the intestinal permeability of DLA compared to pure artemisinin. We also determined the effects of different phytochemicals (7 flavonoids, 3 monoterpenes, 2 phenolic acids, scopoletin and inulin) and the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 on artemisinin intestinal permeability. RESULTS:Artemisinin permeability, when delivered as digested DLA, significantly increased by 37% (Papp = 8.03 × 10-5cms-1) compared to pure artemisinin (Papp = 5.03 × 10-5cms-1). However, none of the phytochemicals tested or CYP3A4 had any significant effect on the intestinal permeability of artemisinin. We also showed that essential oil derived from A. annua negatively affected the intestinal permeability of artemisinin, but only after simulated digestion. Finally, we showed that A. annua essential oil reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, but only in the presence of bile. Although also reduced by essential oils, artemisinin Papp subsequently recovered in the presence of plant matrix. CONCLUSIONS:These results shed light on the mechanisms by which DLA enhances the oral bioavailability of artemisinin.
Project description:Bufalin (BFL) has excellent physiological activities such as defending tumors, improving cardiac function, and so on. However, due to its poor water-solubility and bioavailability, the clinical application of BFL remains limited. In order to improve bioavailability of BFL, in our previous research, a novel peptide-dendrimer (PD) was synthesized and applied to encapsulate BFL. In the present study, we investigate the absorption property and mechanism of BFL in free form and BFL-peptide-dendrimer inclusion (BPDI) delivery system by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model in vitro. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of BFL in free or BPDI form were over 1.0 × 10-6 cm/s. Meanwhile, their almost equal bi-directional transport and linear transport percentage with time and concentration course indicated that BFL in both forms was absorbed mainly through passive diffusion. The most important result is that the Papp values of BFL increased about three-fold more BPDI than those of its free form, which indicated the intestinal permeability of BFL could be improved while BFL was encapsulated in BPDI form. Therefore, PD encapsulation may be a potential delivery system to increase the bioavailability of BFL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anisakis spp. are nematode parasites found in a wide range of marine organisms. Human beings may accidentally become infected, showing the symptoms of anisakiasis and allergic responses. There has been evidence of increased intestinal permeability in A. simplex-sensitized subjects and that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients when fishery products are re-introduced into their diet. The aims of this work were to study the effect of A. simplex crude extract on the intestinal integrity and permeability by using Caco-2 cell monolayer. To analyse the capacity of Ani s 4 allergen to cross the epithelial barrier. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Cellular bioenergetics, transepithelial electrical resistance, viability, permeability, reactive oxygen species generation and immunofluorescent staining of tight junction proteins were analysed. A. simplex crude extract compromises the Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is detected at 1 hour of culture and integrity is recovered after 24 hours of culture. The epithelial barrier disruption is accompanied by an increase in paracellular permeability and reactive oxygen species production and by a delocalization of occludin and zonula occludens-1. Finally, Ani s 4, a thermostable and resistant to digestion allergen with cystatin activity, is able to cross the epithelial barrier in Caco-2 monolayer and reach a cumulative mean percentage of 22.7% of total concentration in the basolateral side after 24 hours of culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our results demonstrate that A. simplex induces an early and reversible alteration of integrity and permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayer and that an underlying mechanism of this effect would involve the oxidative stress and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Additionally, it has been shown that Ani s 4 allergen is able to cross the epithelial barrier. These findings could explain the increased intestinal permeability observed in Anisakis-sensitized patients, the changes over time in IgE sensitization to A. simplex allergens, and the specific IgE persistence in Anisakis allergy.
Project description:Nanocrystals research has been an area of significant interest lately, providing oral bioavailability benefits to solubility- and/or dissolution rate-limited drugs. Drug nanocrystals are generated using top-down or bottom-up technologies. Combination technologies (Nanoedge, Nanopure XP and SmartCrystal) have been recently developed to generate nanocrystals of improved properties. Our lab has also contributed in this field by providing a 'novel' platform technology, NanoCrySP, for the generation of nanocrystals. NanoCrySP-generated nanocrystals have improved the oral bioavailability of various molecules. In this study, we aim to assess the permeability behavior of nanocrystals generated by NanoCrySP. Three samples of Dipyridamole (DPM) drug were used in this study: (1) DPM (micron-sized powder), (2) nanocrystals of DPM (NS), generated by media milling (as control) and, (3) nanocrystalline solid dispersion containing DPM (NSD) in the matrix of mannitol (MAN), generated using NanoCrySP technology. In vitro (Caco-2 cell lines) and ex vivo (everted gut sac) studies were conducted in this work. Cellular permeability (Papp) from apical-to-basolateral side in Caco-2 cell monolayer was found to be in the order NS > NSD > DPM, which was the same as their apparent solubility values. Higher Papp from a basolateral-to-apical side suggested a significant contribution of the P-gp efflux transport for DPM, while NS exhibited much higher inhibition of the efflux mechanism than NSD. Both NS and NSD showed higher permeation from the jejunum region in the ex vivo everted gut sac study. Interestingly, Papp of NSD was similar to NS in ex vivo everted gut sac model, however, NSD showed higher mucoadhesion than NS and DPM in this study.
Project description:Objective:In vivo studies suggest that intestinal barrier integrity is dependent on mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we aim to provide mechanistic support, using an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative in vivo situation. Methods: Human Caco-2 cells were cultured for 10 days in culture flasks or for 14 days on transwell inserts in either glucose-containing or galactose-containing medium. Mitochondria were visualized and cellular respiration and levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins were determined. Mitochondrial ATP depletion was induced using CCCP, rotenone, or piericidin A (PA). Monolayer permeability was assessed using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein flux. Gene expression and cellular distribution of tight junction proteins were analyzed. Results: Caco-2 cells cultured in galactose-containing, but not in glucose-containing, medium showed increased mitochondrial connectivity, oxygen consumption rates and levels of OXPHOS proteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production using CCCP, rotenone or PA resulted in a dose-dependent increase in Caco-2 monolayer permeability. In-depth studies with PA showed a six fold decrease in cellular ATP and revealed increased gene expression of tight junction proteins (TJP) 1 and 2, occludin, and claudin 1, but decreased gene expression of claudin 2 and 7. Of these, claudin 7 was clearly redistributed from the cellular membrane into the cytoplasm, while the others were not (TJP1, occludin) or slightly (claudin 2, actin) affected. In vivo studies suggest that intestinal barrier integrity is dependent on mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we aim to provide mechanistic support, using an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative in vivo situation. Conclusions: Well-functioning mitochondria are essential for maintaining cellular energy status and monolayer integrity of galactose grown Caco-2 cells. Energy depletion-induced Caco-2 monolayer permeability may be facilitated by changes in the distribution of claudin 7.