Geographical Origin Has a Greater Impact on Grape Berry Fungal Community than Grape Variety and Maturation State.
ABSTRACT: We used barcoded sequencing to analyze the eukaryotic population in the grape berries at different ripening states in four Australian vineyards. Furthermore, we used an innovative compositional data analysis for assessing the diversity of microbiome communities. The novelty was the introduction of log-ratio balances between the detected genera. Altogether, our results suggest that fungal communities were more impacted by the geographical origin of the Australian vineyards than grape variety and harvest time. Even if the most abundant genera were Aureobasidium and Mycosphaerella, they were ubiquitous to all samples and were not discriminative. In fact, the balances and the fungal community structure seemed to be greatly affected by changes of the genera Penicillium, Colletotrichum, Aspergillus, Rhodotorula, and Botrytis. These results were not evident from the comparison of relative abundance based on OTU counts alone, remarking the importance of the balance analysis for microbiome studies.
Project description:Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments. Results suggested that microbiomes of berries collected at four different localities share a core composition characterized by Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Bacillales, and Rhodospirillales. However, any area seems to enrich berries microbiome with peculiar microbial traits. For example, berries belonging to the biodynamic vineyards of Mamoiada were rich in Bacillales typical of manure (i.e. Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, and Sporosarcina), whereas in the Santadi locality, berries showed soil bacteria such as Pasteurellales and Bacteroidales as well as Rhodospirillales and Lactobacillales which are commonly involved in wine fermentation. In the case of fungi, the most abundant taxa were Dothioraceae, Pleosporaceae, and Saccharomycodaceae, and although the proportion of these families varied among localities, they occurred ubiquitously in all vineyards. During vinification processes performed at the same wine cellar under controlled conditions and without using any yeast starter, more than 50% of bacteria groups of berries reached musts, and each locality had its own private bacteria signature, even if Saccharomyces cerevisiae represented the most abundant fungal species. This work suggests that natural berries microbiome could be influenced by pedoclimatic and anthropologic conditions (e.g., farming management), and the fruits' microorganisms persist during the fermentation process. For these reasons, a reliable wine genotyping should include the entire holobiont (plant and all its symbionts), and bioprospecting activities on grape microbiota could lead to improved viticulture yields and wine quality.
Project description:Wine production in Cyprus has strong cultural ties with the island's tradition, influencing local and foreign consumers' preferences and contributing significantly to Cyprus' economy. A key contributor to wine quality and sensorial characteristics development is the microbiota that colonizes grapes and performs alcoholic fermentation. Still, the microbial patterns of wines produced in different geographic regions (<i>terroir</i>) in Cyprus remain unknown. The present study investigated the microbial diversity of five <i>terroirs</i> in Cyprus, two from the PGI Lemesos region [Kyperounta (PDO Pitsilia) and Koilani (PDO Krasochoria)], and three from the PGI Pafos region [Kathikas (PDO Laona Akamas), Panayia, and Statos (PDO Panayia)], of two grape varieties, Xynisteri and Maratheftiko, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Through a longitudinal analysis, we examined the evolution of the bacterial and fungal diversity during spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Both varieties were characterized by a progressive reduction in their fungal alpha diversity (Shannon index) throughout the process of fermentation. Additionally, the study revealed a distinct separation among different <i>terroirs</i> in total fungal community composition (beta-diversity) for the variety Xynisteri. Also, Kyperounta <i>terroir</i> had a distinct total fungal beta-diversity from the other <i>terroirs</i> for Maratheftiko. Similarly, a significant distinction was demonstrated in total bacterial diversity between the PGI Lemesos region and the PGI Pafos <i>terroirs</i> for grape juice of the variety Xynisteri. Pre-fermentation, the fungal diversity for Xynisteri and Maratheftiko was dominated by the genera <i>Hanseniaspora</i>, <i>Aureobasidium</i>, <i>Erysiphe</i>, <i>Aspergillus</i>, <i>Stemphylium</i>, <i>Penicillium</i>, <i>Alternaria</i>, <i>Cladosporium</i>, and <i>Mycosphaerella</i>. During and post-fermentation, the species <i>Hanseniaspora nectarophila</i>, <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>, <i>Hanseniaspora guilliermondii</i>, and <i>Aureobasidium pullulans</i>, became the predominant in most must samples. Regarding the bacterial diversity, <i>Lactobacillus</i> and <i>Streptococcus</i> were the predominant genera for both grape varieties in all stages of fermentation. During fermentation, an increase was observed in the relative abundance of some bacteria, such as <i>Acetobacter</i>, <i>Gluconobacter</i>, and <i>Oenococcus oeni</i>. Finally, the study revealed microbial biomarkers with statistically significant higher relative representation, associated with each geographic region and each grape variety, during the different stages of fermentation. The present study's findings provide an additional linkage between the grape microbial community and the wine <i>terroir</i>.
Project description:Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.
Project description:Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc) at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI), Italian Alps (AI), and Northern Spain (NS)]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples). Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome composition and dynamics of cultivated species over time and space.
Project description:Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp <i>Polistes dominulus</i> could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes. Social wasps are understudied but relevant players in the sour rot ecology of vineyards.
Project description:Understanding the composition of microbials on the grape carposphere may provide direct guidance for the wine brewing. In this work, 16S rRNA and ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) fungal amplicon sequencing were performed to investigate the differences of epiphytic microbial communities inhabiting different varieties of wine grape berries. The results showed that the dominated phylum of different wine grape carpospheres were Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadete, and Bacteroidetes. The dominant bacterial genera of different wine grape varieties were Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Pantoea, Planomicrobium, Massilia, Curtobacterium, Corynebacterium, Cellulomonas, Sphingomonas, and Microvirga. The fungal communities of the grapes were dominated by Ascomycota for all nine wine varieties. The dominant fungal genera on grape carposphere were Alternaria, Cladosporium, unclassified Capnodiales, Phoma, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Aureobasidium, and Epicoccum. Community structure exerts a significant impact on bacterial Bray-Curtis dissimilarity on six red grapes and also a significant bacterial impact on three white grapes. Community structure exerts a significant impact on fungal Bray-Curtis dissimilarity on six red grapes but weak or no fungal impact on three white grapes. The results revealed that grape variety plays a significant role in shaping bacterial and fungal community, varieties can be distinguished based on the abundance of several key bacterial and fungal taxa.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir<h4>Importance</h4>Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional microbial biodiversity.
Project description:We herein evaluate intraspecific genetic diversity of fermentative vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae strains and evaluate relationships between grape varieties and geographical location on populational structures. From the musts obtained from 288 grape samples, collected from two wine regions (16 vineyards, nine grape varieties), 94 spontaneous fermentations were concluded and 2820 yeast isolates were obtained that belonged mainly (92%) to the species S. cerevisiae. Isolates were classified in 321 strains by the use of ten microsatellite markers. A high strain diversity (8-43 strains per fermentation) was associated with high percentage (60-100%) of fermenting samples per vineyard, whereas a lower percentage of spontaneous fermentations (0-40%) corresponded to a rather low strain diversity (1-10 strains per fermentation).For the majority of the populations, observed heterozygosity (Ho) was about two to five times lower than the expected heterozygosity (He). The inferred ancestry showed a very high degree of admixture and divergence was observed between both grape variety and geographical region. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 81-93% of the total genetic variation existed within populations, while significant differentiation within the groups could be detected. Results from AMOVA analysis and clustering of allelic frequencies agree in the distinction of genetically more dispersed populations from the larger wine region compared to the less extended region. Our data show that grape variety is a driver of populational structures, because vineyards with distinct varieties harbor genetically more differentiated S. cerevisiae populations. Conversely, S. cerevisiae strains from vineyards in close proximity (5-10 km) that contain the same grape variety tend to be less divergent. Populational similarities did not correlate with the distance between vineyards of the two wine regions. Globally, our results show that populations of S. cerevisiae in vineyards may occur locally due to multi-factorial influences, one of them being the grape variety.
Project description:Grape phylloxera is native to North America, where Vitis spp. acquired different mechanisms of resistance to leaf and root attack. Its appearance in European vineyards at the beginning of the 1860s, where the phylloxera-susceptible grapevine species V. vinifera L. is majorly cultivated, caused the devastation of a great number of vineyards, generating a deep crisis in the European wine production and trade industries. However, the origin and genetic structure of this pest across European vineyards still remain controversial and uncertain. Herein, we analysed the genetic structure of 1173 grape phylloxera individuals collected from 100 locations across eight European countries. Structure and phylogenetic analyses show that contemporary grape phylloxera populations in Europe are the result of at least two independent introductions from the native range that mirrors the historical records that also suggest two major outbreaks in Europe. The comparative analysis with samples from the native range trace back one of these two genetic groups to plants imported from the North East coast of North America, where the American species V. riparia and V. labrusca dominate. This study clarifies the level of genetic diversity of grape phylloxera in Europe and provides relevant information to resolve previous controversy about its origin.
Project description:In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.