Cardio-renal Exosomes in Myocardial Infarction Serum Regulate Proangiogenic Paracrine Signaling in Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Rationale: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in tissue repair and regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MSCs activation remain largely unknown, thus hindering their clinical translation. Exosomes are small vesicles that act as intercellular messengers, and their potential for stem cell activation in pathological conditions has not been fully characterized yet. Here, we aim to investigate whether serum exosomes are involved in the remote activation of MSCs after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: We established MI mouse model by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Afterwards, serum exosomes were isolated from control (Con Exo) and MI mice (MI Exo) by differential centrifugation. Exosomes were characterized through transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. Exosomal miRNA and protein levels were assessed using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. VEGF levels in the supernatant and serum were quantified by ELISA. Matrigel plug and tube formation assays were used to evaluate angiogenesis. To explore miR-1956 roles, overexpression and knock-down experiments were performed using mimic and inhibitor, respectively. Finally, miR-1956 target genes were confirmed using the luciferase reporter assay. Results: Both types of exosomes exhibited typical characteristics and could be internalized by adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). MI Exo enhanced ADMSCs proliferation through the activation of ERK1/2. Gain- and loss-of-function studies allowed the validation of miR-1956 (enriched in MI Exo) as the functional messenger that stimulates ADMSCs-mediated angiogenesis and paracrine VEGF signaling, by downregulating Notch-1. Finally, we found that the ischemic myocardium and kidney may be the main sources that release serum exosomes after MI. Conclusions: Cardio-renal exosomes deliver miR-1956 and activate paracrine proangiogenic VEGF signaling in ADMSCs after MI; this process also involves Notch-1, which functions as the core mediator.
Project description:Our group recently reported positive therapeutic benefit of human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EnMSCs) delivered to infarcted rat myocardium, an effect that correlated with enhanced secretion of protective cytokines and growth factors compared with parallel cultures of human bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). To define more precisely the molecular mechanisms of EnMSC therapy, in the present study, we assessed in parallel the paracrine and therapeutic properties of MSCs derived from endometrium, bone marrow, and adipose tissues in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). EnMSCs, BMMSCs, and adipose-derived MSCs (AdMSCs) were characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Paracrine and cytoprotective actions were assessed in vitro by coculture with neonatal cardiomyocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A rat MI model was used to compare cell therapy by intramyocardial injection of BMMSCs, AdMSCs, and EnMSCs. We found that EnMSCs conferred superior cardioprotection relative to BMMSCs or AdMSCs and supported enhanced microvessel density. Inhibitor studies indicated that the enhanced paracrine actions of EnMSCs were mediated by secreted exosomes. Analyses of exosomal microRNAs (miRs) by miR array and quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that miR-21 expression was selectively enhanced in exosomes derived from EnMSCs. Selective antagonism of miR-21 by anti-miR treatment abolished the antiapoptotic and angiogenic effects of EnMSCs with parallel effects on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a miR-21 target and downstream Akt. The results of the present study confirm the superior cardioprotection by EnMSCs relative to BMMSCs or AdMSCs and implicates miR-21 as a potential mediator of EnMSC therapy by enhancing cell survival through the PTEN/Akt pathway. The endometrium might be a preferential source of MSCs for cardiovascular cell therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:209-222.
Project description:Islet cell death and loss of function after isolation and before transplantation is considered a key barrier to successful islet transplantation outcomes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to protect isolated islets owing to their paracrine potential partially through the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The paracrine functions of MSCs are also mediated, at least in part, by the release of extracellular vesicles including exosomes. In the present study, we examined (i) the effect of exosomes from human MSCs on the survival and function of isolated mouse islets and (ii) whether exosomes contain VEGF and the potential impact of exosomal VEGF on the survival of mouse islets. Isolated mouse islets were cultured for three days with MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo), MSCs, or MSC-conditioned media without exosomes (MSC-CM-without-Exo). We investigated the effects of the exosomes, MSCs, and conditioned media on islet viability, apoptosis and function. Besides the expression of apoptotic and pro-survival genes, the production of human and mouse VEGF proteins was evaluated. The MSCs and MSC-Exo, but not the MSC-CM-without-Exo, significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and increased islet viability following the downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes and the upregulation of pro-survival factors, as well as the promotion of insulin secretion. Human VEGF was observed in the isolated exosomes, and the gene expression and protein production of mouse VEGF significantly increased in islets cultured with MSC-Exo. MSC-derived exosomes are as efficient as parent MSCs for mitigating cell death and improving islet survival and function. This cytoprotective effect was probably mediated by VEGF transfer, suggesting a pivotal strategy for ameliorating islet transplantation outcomes.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have beneficial effects on wound healing. MSCs function through direct cell-cell communication or indirectly through paracrine secretion of exosomes. Here, we found that MSC-derived exosomes had pro-wound healing effects via promotion of angiogenesis; however, this promoting effect was significantly reduced when senescence was induced in parental MSCs by hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). Further experiments showed that decreased miR-146a expression in exosomes derived from senescent MSCs (s-exo) contributed to these findings. <i>In vitro</i>, the pro-angiogenic effect of s-exo on tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was significantly reduced compared with that of exosomes derived from control MSCs (c-exo). <i>In vivo</i>, higher tube numbers and longer tube lengths were observed in the c-exo group compared with the s-exo group. Using microarray analysis, we found that miR-146a level in s-exo was lower than that in c-exo. Knockdown of miR-146a in c-exo decreased its capacity to promote angiogenesis, and overexpression of miR-146a in s-exo partially rescued its impaired pro-angiogenic capacity, thereby confirming that downregulation of miR-146a contributed to the reduced pro-wound healing capacity of s-exo. Our study is the first to demonstrate that cell senescence induced by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> alters the pro-angiogenic ability of exosomes by modulating the expression of exosomal miRNAs, especially miR-146a, thus providing new insights into the correlation between parental cell state and exosome content and function.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential application for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. Besides differentiation properties, MSCs protect ischemic cardiomyocytes by secretion of paracrine factors. In this study, we found exosomes enriched with miR-22 were secreted by MSCs following ischemic preconditioning (Exo(IPC)) and mobilized to cardiomyocytes where they reduced their apoptosis due to ischemia. Interestingly, by time-lapse imaging, we for the first time captured the dynamic shedding of miR-22 loaded exosomes from cytosol to extracellular space. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of miR-22 was mediated by direct targeting of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2). In vivo data showed that delivery of Exo(IPC) significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis. Our data identified a significant benefit of Exo(IPC) for the treatment of cardiac diseases by targeting Mecp2 via miR-22.
Project description:The composition and biological activity of donor cells is largely determined by the exosomes they secrete. In this study, we isolated exosomes from young (Young-Exo) and aged (Age-Exo) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and compared their regeneration activity. Young Exo MSCs were more efficient than Aged-Exo at promoting the formation of endothelial tube, reducing fibrosis, and inhibiting apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in vitro; and improving cardiac structure and function in vivo in the hearts of rats following myocardial infarction (MI). MicroRNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that miR-221-3p was significantly down-regulated in Aged-Exo. The aged MSCs were rejuvenated and their reparative cardiac ability restored when miR-221-3p was overexpressed in Aged-Exo. The protective effect was lost when miR-221-3p expression was knocked down in Young-Exo. These effects of miR-221-3p were achieved through enhancing Akt kinase activity by inhibiting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). In conclusion, exosomal miR-221-3p secreted from Aged MSCs attenuated the function of angiogenesis and promoted survival of cardiomyocytes. Up-regulation of miR-221-3p in aged MSCs improved their ability of angiogenesis, migration and proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis via the PTEN/Akt pathway.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Naturally secreted nanovesicles, known as exosomes, play important roles in stem cell-mediated cardioprotection. We have previously demonstrated that atorvastatin (ATV) pretreatment improved the cardioprotective effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to investigate if exosomes derived from ATV-pretreated MSCs exhibit more potent cardioprotective function in a rat model of AMI and if so to explore the underlying mechanisms.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Exosomes were isolated from control MSCs (MSC-Exo) and ATV-pretreated MSCs (MSCATV-Exo) and were then delivered to endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in vitro under hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) condition or in vivo in an acutely infarcted Sprague-Dawley rat heart. Regulatory genes and pathways activated by ATV pretreatment were explored using genomics approaches and functional studies. In vitro, MSCATV-Exo accelerated migration, tube-like structure formation, and increased survival of endothelial cells but not cardiomyocytes, whereas the exosomes derived from MSCATV-Exo-treated endothelial cells prevented cardiomyocytes from H/SD-induced apoptosis. In a rat AMI model, MSCATV-Exo resulted in improved recovery in cardiac function, further reduction in infarct size and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis compared to MSC-Exo. In addition, MSCATV-Exo promoted angiogenesis and inhibited the elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α in the peri-infarct region. Mechanistically, we identified lncRNA H19 as a mediator of the role of MSCATV-Exo in regulating expression of miR-675 and activation of proangiogenic factor VEGF and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Consistently, the cardioprotective effects of MSCATV-Exo was abrogated when lncRNA H19 was depleted in the ATV-pretreated MSCs and was mimicked by overexpression of lncRNA H19.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Exosomes obtained from ATV-pretreated MSCs have significantly enhanced therapeutic efficacy for treatment of AMI possibly through promoting endothelial cell function. LncRNA H19 mediates, at least partially, the cardioprotective roles of MSCATV-Exo in promoting angiogenesis.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial tissue inflammation and joint destruction associated with the activation of angiogenesis. Exosomes, which play a role in cell-to-cell communication as carriers of genetic information, transfer microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) between cells and have been studied as delivery vehicles for therapeutic molecules. The aim of the current study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived miR-150-5p exosomes on joint destruction in RA. The expression and secretion of miR-150-5p, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 14, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RA patients and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were examined by quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess angiogenesis. MSCs were transfected with an miR-150-5p expression plasmid, and MSC-derived exosomes were harvested. The effect of MSC-derived miR-150-5p exosomes (Exo-150) on MMP14 and VEGF expression was examined. The effects of Exo-150 on cell migration and invasion in cytokine-stimulated FLS from RA patients were examined by HUVEC tube formation and transwell assays. The effect of Exo-150 in vivo was examined in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Exo-150 decreased migration and invasion in RA FLS and downregulated tube formation in HUVECs by targeting MMP14 and VEGF. Injection of Exo-150 reduced hind paw thickness and the clinical arthritic scores in collagen-induced arthritis mice. Exo-150 reduced joint destruction by inhibiting synoviocyte hyperplasia and angiogenesis. Exosomes facilitate the direct intracellular transfer of miRNAs between cells and represent a potential therapeutic strategy for RA.
Project description:Exosomes (Exo) secreted from hypoxia-conditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were found to be protective for ischemic disease. However, the role of exosomal miRNA in the protective effect of hypoxia-conditioned BM-MSCs-derived Exo (Hypo-Exo) remains largely uncharacterized and the poor specificity of tissue targeting of Exo limits their clinical applications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of miRNA in Hypo-Exo on the repair of ischemic myocardium and its underlying mechanisms. We further developed modified Hypo-Exo with high specificity to the myocardium and evaluate its therapeutic effects. <b>Methods:</b> Murine BM-MSCs were subjected to hypoxia or normoxia culture and Exo were subsequently collected. Hypo-Exo or normoxia-conditioned BM-MSC-derived Exo (Nor-Exo) were administered to mice with permanent condition of myocardial infarction (MI). After 28 days, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Hypo-Exo, infarction area and cardio output in Hypo-Exo and Nor-Exo treated MI mice were compared through Masson's trichrome staining and echocardiography respectively. We utilized the miRNA array to identify the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between Nor-Exo and Hypo-Exo. One of the most enriched miRNA in Hypo-Exo was knockdown by applying antimiR in Hypoxia-conditioned BM-MSCs. Then we performed intramyocardial injection of candidate miRNA-knockdown-Hypo-Exo in a murine MI model, changes in the candidate miRNA's targets expression of cardiomyocytes and the cardiac function were characterized. We conjugated Hypo-Exo with an ischemic myocardium-targeted (IMT) peptide by bio-orthogonal chemistry, and tested its targeting specificity and therapeutic efficiency via systemic administration in the MI mice. <b>Results:</b> The miRNA array revealed significant enrichment of miR-125b-5p in Hypo-Exo compared with Nor-Exo. Administration of miR-125b knockdown Hypo-Exo significantly increased the infarction area and suppressed cardiomyocyte survival post-MI. Mechanistically, miR-125b knockdown Hypo-Exo lost the capability to suppress the expression of the proapoptotic genes <i>p53</i> and <i>BAK1</i> in cardiomyocytes. Intravenous administration of IMT-conjugated Hypo-Exo (IMT-Exo) showed specific targeting to the ischemic lesions in the injured heart and exerted a marked cardioprotective function post-MI. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our results illustrate a new mechanism by which Hypo-Exo-derived miR125b-5p facilitates ischemic cardiac repair by ameliorating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, our IMT- Exo may serve as a novel drug carrier that enhances the specificity of drug delivery for ischemic disease.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) gradually become attractive candidates for cardiac inflammation modulation, yet understanding of the mechanism remains elusive. Strikingly, recent studies indicated that exosomes secreted by MSCs might be a novel mechanism for the beneficial effect of MSCs transplantation after myocardial infarction. We therefore explored the role of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in the immunomodulation of macrophages after myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and its implications in cardiac injury repair.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Exosomes were isolated from the supernatant of MSCs using gradient centrifugation method. Administration of MSC-Exo to mice through intramyocardial injection after myocardial I/R reduced infarct size and alleviated inflammation level in heart and serum. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate liposomes abolished the curative effects of MSC-Exo. MSC-Exo modified the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. miRNA sequencing of MSC-Exo and bioinformatics analysis implicated miR-182 as a potent candidate mediator of macrophage polarization and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a downstream target. Diminishing miR-182 in MSC-Exo partially attenuated its modulation of macrophage polarization. Likewise, knock down of TLR4 also conferred cardioprotective efficacy and reduced inflammation level in a mouse model of myocardial I/R.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data indicate that MSC-Exo attenuates myocardial I/R injury in mice via shuttling miR-182 that modifies the polarization status of macrophages. This study sheds new light on the application of MSC-Exo as a potential therapeutic tool for myocardial I/R injury.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) activated with IFN-γ elicit stronger physical effects. Exosomes (Exos) secreted from MSCs show protective effects against myocardial injury. This study aimed to determine whether Exos derived from IFN-γ-treated MSCs exhibit more potent cardioprotective function and the underlying mechanisms.<h4>Methods</h4>H9c2 cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with Exos isolated from MSCs (Ctrl-Exo) or IFN-γ-primed MSCs (IFN-γ-Exo) under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions in vitro and in vivo in an infarcted rat heart. RNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed functional transcription factors (TFs). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) was used to confirm the upregulated TFs and miRNA in IFN-γ-primed MSCs. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to analyze the transcriptional regulation of miRNAs by STAT1. The target of miR-21-5p (miR-21) was determined by luciferase reporter assays and qPCR. The function of BTG2 was verified in vitro under OGD conditions.<h4>Result</h4>IFN-γ-Exo accelerated migration and tube-like structure formation and prevented OGD-induced apoptosis in H9c2. Similarly, IFN-γ-Exo treatment caused a decrease in fibrosis, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac function compared to Ctrl-Exo treatment. MiR-21 was significantly upregulated in IFN-γ-primed MSCs and IFN-γ-Exo. STAT1 transcriptionally induced miR-21 expression. Up-regulated miR-21 could inhibit BTG anti-proliferation factor 2 (BTG2) expressions. BTG2 promoted H9c2 cell apoptosis and reversed the protective effects of miR-21 under OGD conditions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IFN-γ-Exo showed enhanced therapeutic efficacy against acute MI, possibly by promoting angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis by upregulating miR-21, which directly targeted BTG2.