Acetylome analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogenic bacterium Brenneria nigrifluens.
ABSTRACT: Protein lysine acetylation, a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, metabolism, enzymatic activities, and protein interactions. Brenneria nigrifluens is a pathogen of walnut trees with shallow bark canker and can cause serious disease in walnut trees. Until now, a little has been known about the roles of lysine acetylation in plant pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the lysine acetylome of B. nigrifluens was determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, we identified 1,866 lysine acetylation sites distributed in 737 acetylated proteins. Bioinformatics results indicated that acetylated proteins participate in many different biological functions in B. nigrifluens. Four conserved motifs, namely, LKac , Kac *F, I*Kac , and L*Kac , were identified in this bacterium. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that all kinds of interactions are modulated by protein lysine acetylation. Overall, 12 acetylated proteins were related to the virulence of B. nigrifluens.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation, a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, metabolic pathways, enzymatic activities and protein interactions. Brenneria nigrifluens is the pathogen of shallow bark canker of walnut trees and can cause serious disease on walnut trees. Up to now, it is little known about the roles of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the lysine acetylome of B. nigrifluens was determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, we identified 1,866 lysine acetylation sites distributed in 737 acetylated proteins. Bioinformatics results indicate that acetylated proteins participate in many different biological functions in B. nigrifluens. Four conserved motifs, namely, LKac, Kac*F, I*Kac and L*Kac, were identified in this bacterium. Protein interaction network analysis indicates that all kinds of interactions are modulated by protein lysine acetylation. Overall, 14 acetylated proteins are related to the virulence of B. nigrifluens.
Project description:Introduction of antibodies specific for acetylated lysine has significantly improved the detection of endogenous acetylation sites by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe a new, commercially available mixture of anti-lysine acetylation (Kac) antibodies and show its utility for in-depth profiling of the acetylome. Specifically, seven complementary monoclones with high specificity for Kac were combined into a final anti-Kac reagent which results in at least a twofold increase in identification of Kac peptides over a commonly used Kac antibody. We outline optimal antibody usage conditions, effective offline basic reversed phase separation, and use of state-of-the-art LC-MS technology for achieving unprecedented coverage of the acetylome. The methods were applied to quantify acetylation sites in suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid-treated Jurkat cells. Over 10,000 Kac peptides from over 3000 Kac proteins were quantified from a single stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture labeled sample using 7.5 mg of peptide input per state. This constitutes the deepest coverage of acetylation sites in quantitative experiments obtained to-date. The approach was also applied to breast tumor xenograft samples using isobaric mass tag labeling of peptides (iTRAQ4, TMT6 and TMT10-plex reagents) for quantification. Greater than 6700 Kac peptides from over 2300 Kac proteins were quantified using 1 mg of tumor protein per iTRAQ 4-plex channel. The novel reagents and methods we describe here enable quantitative, global acetylome analyses with depth and sensitivity approaching that obtained for other well-studied post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and should have widespread application in biological and clinical studies employing mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has become increasingly clear that symbionts have crucial evolutionary and ecological ramifications for their host arthropods. However, little is known whether these symbiont infections influence the proteome and lysine acetylome of their host arthropods. Here we performed experiments to investigate the proteomes and acetylomes of Cardinium-infected (C*+) and -uninfected (C-) Bemisia tabaci Q with identical backgrounds, through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS:Of the 3353 proteins whose levels were quantitated in proteome, a total of 146 proteins dividing into 77 up-regulated and 69 down-regulated proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed as having at least a 1.2-fold change when C*+ strain was compared with C- strain. Furthermore, a total of 528 lysine acetylation sites in 283 protein groups were identified, among which 356 sites in 202 proteins were quantified. The comparison of acetylomes revealed 30 sites in 26 lysine acetylation proteins (Kac) were quantified as up-regulated targets and 35 sites in 29 Kac proteins were quantified as down-regulated targets. Functional analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins and Kac proteins were mainly involved in diverse physiological processes related to development, immune responses and energy metabolism, such as retinol metabolism, methane metabolism and fatty acid degradation. Notably, protein interaction network analyses demonstrated widespread interactions modulated by protein acetylation. CONCLUSION:Here we show the proteome and acetylom of B. tabaci Q in response to the symbiont Cardinium infection. This is the first study to utilize the tool of acetylome analysis for revealing physiological responses of arthropods to its symbiont infection, which will provide an important resource for exploring the arthropod-symbiont interaction.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mice lacking cyclophilin D (CypD(-/-)), a mitochondrial chaperone protein, have altered cardiac metabolism. As acetylation has been shown to regulate metabolism, we tested whether changes in protein acetylation might play a role in these metabolic changes in CypD(-/-) hearts. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to test the hypothesis that loss of CypD alters the cardiac mitochondrial acetylome. METHODS AND RESULTS:To identify changes in lysine-acetylated proteins and to map acetylation sites after ablation of CypD, we subjected tryptic digests of isolated cardiac mitochondria from wild-type and CypD(-/-) mice to immunoprecipitation using agarose beads coupled to antiacetyl lysine antibodies followed by mass spectrometry. We used label-free analysis for the relative quantification of the 875 common peptides that were acetylated in wild-type and CypD(-/-) samples and found 11 peptides (10 proteins) decreased and 96 peptides (48 proteins) increased in CypD(-/-) samples. We found increased acetylation of proteins in fatty acid oxidation and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. To evaluate whether this increase in acetylation might play a role in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation that was previously reported in CypD(-/-) hearts, we measured the activity of l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which was acetylated in the CypD(-/-) hearts. Consistent with the hypothesis, l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by ?50% compared with the wild-type mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS:These results implicate a role for CypD in modulating protein acetylation. Taken together, these results suggest that ablation of CypD leads to changes in the mitochondrial acetylome, which may contribute to altered mitochondrial metabolism in CypD(-/-) mice.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. Inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) exhibit potent antiparasitic activity, suggesting that interference with lysine acetylation pathways holds promise for future drug targeting. Using high resolution LC-MS/MS to identify parasite peptides enriched by immunopurification with acetyl-lysine antibody, we recently produced an acetylome of the proliferative intracellular stage of Toxoplasma. In this study, we used similar approaches to greatly expand the Toxoplasma acetylome by identifying acetylated proteins in non-replicating extracellular tachyzoites. The functional breakdown of acetylated proteins in extracellular parasites is similar to intracellular parasites, with an enrichment of proteins involved in metabolism, translation, and chromatin biology. Altogether, we have now detected over 700 acetylation sites on a wide variety of parasite proteins of diverse function in multiple subcellular compartments. We found 96 proteins uniquely acetylated in intracellular parasites, 216 uniquely acetylated in extracellular parasites, and 177 proteins acetylated in both states. Our findings suggest that dramatic changes occur at the proteomic level as tachyzoites transition from the intracellular to the extracellular environment, similar to reports documenting significant changes in gene expression during this transition. The expanded dataset also allowed a thorough analysis of the degree of protein intrinsic disorder surrounding lysine residues targeted for this post-translational modification. These analyses indicate that acetylated lysines in proteins from extracellular and intracellular tachyzoites are largely located within similar local environments, and that lysine acetylation preferentially occurs in intrinsically disordered or flexible regions.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification with a well-defined role in regulating histones. The impact of acetylation on other cellular functions remains relatively uncharacterized. We explored the budding yeast acetylome with a functional genomics approach, assessing the effects of gene overexpression in the absence of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). We generated a network of 463 synthetic dosage lethal (SDL) interactions involving class I and II KDACs, revealing many cellular pathways regulated by different KDACs. A biochemical survey of genes interacting with the KDAC RPD3 identified 72 proteins acetylated in vivo. In-depth analysis of one of these proteins, Swi4, revealed a role for acetylation in G1-specific gene expression. Acetylation of Swi4 regulates interaction with its partner Swi6, both components of the SBF transcription factor. This study expands our view of the yeast acetylome, demonstrates the utility of functional genomic screens for exploring enzymatic pathways, and provides functional information that can be mined for future studies.
Project description:N?-lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest data set of the lysine acetylome in plants to date. Almost all enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were found to be lysine acetylated. Six putative lysine acetylation sites were identified in a plastid-localized long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific incorporation of N-acetyllysine in acyl-CoA synthetase show that acetylation at K407 and K425 increases its enzyme activity. Moreover, the nonenzymatically catalyzed overall hyperacetylation of acyl-CoA synthetase by acetyl-phosphate can be effectively deacetylated and reversed by a sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent deacetylase with subcellular localization of both the plastid and nucleus in Phaeodactylum This work indicates the regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase activity by site-specific lysine acetylation and highlights the potential regulation of fatty acid metabolism by lysine actetylation in the plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum.
Project description:Despite of the progress in identifying many Lys acetylation (Kac) proteins, Kac substrates for Kac-regulatory enzymes remain largely unknown, presenting a major knowledge gap in Kac biology. Here we identified and quantified 4623 Kac sites in 1800 Kac proteins in SIRT1(+/+) and SIRT1(-/-) MEF cells, representing the first study to reveal an enzyme-regulated Kac subproteome and the largest Lys acetylome reported to date from a single study. Four hundred eighty-five Kac sites were enhanced by more than 100% after SIRT1 knockout. Our results indicate that SIRT1 regulates the Kac states of diverse cellular pathways. Interestingly, we found that a number of acetyltransferases and major acetyltransferase complexes are targeted by SIRT1. Moreover, we showed that the activities of the acetyltransferases are regulated by SIRT1-mediated deacetylation. Taken together, our results reveal the Lys acetylome in response to SIRT1, provide new insights into mechanisms of SIRT1 function, and offer biomarker candidates for the clinical evaluation of SIRT1-activator compounds.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens.