Sesamin, a Naturally Occurring Lignan, Inhibits Ligand-Induced Lipogenesis through Interaction with Liver X Receptor Alpha (LXR?) and Pregnane X Receptor (PXR).
ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates various biological processes, including de novo lipogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, and inflammation. Selective inhibition of LXR may aid the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sesamin is a naturally occurring lignan in many dietary plants and has a wide range of beneficial effects on metabolism. The mechanism underlying sesamin action especially on the regulation of LXR remains elusive. Reporter assays, mRNA and protein expression, and in silico modeling were used to identify sesamin as an antagonist of LXR?. Sesamin was applied to the hepatic HepaRG and intestinal LS174T cells and showed that it markedly ameliorated lipid accumulation in the HepaRG cells, by reducing LXR? transactivation, inhibiting the expression of downstream target genes. This effect was associated with the stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, followed by decreased T0901317-LXR?-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream target genes. Mechanistically, sesamin reduced the recruitment of SRC-1 but enhanced that of SMILE to the SREBP-1c promoter region under T0901317 treatment. It regulated the transcriptional control exerted by LXR? by influencing its interaction with coregulators and thus decreased mRNA and protein levels of genes downstream of LXR? and reduced lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Additionally, sesamin reduced valproate- and rifampin-induced LXR? and pregnane X receptor (PXR) transactivation. This was associated with reduced expression of target genes and decreased lipid accumulation. Thus, sesamin is an antagonist of LXR? and PXR and suggests that it may alleviate drug-induced lipogenesis via the suppression of LXR? and PXR signaling.
Project description:Lipogenesis is under the concerted action of ChREBP, SREBP-1c and other transcription factors in response to glucose and insulin. The isolated porcine preadipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes to investigate the roles and interrelation of these transcription factors in the context of glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis in pigs. In ChREBP-silenced adipocytes, glucose-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~70%, however insulin-induced lipogenesis was unaffected. Moreover, insulin had no effect on ChREBP expression of unperturbed adipocytes irrespective of glucose concentration, suggesting ChREBP mediate glucose-induced lipogenesis. Insulin stimulated SREBP-1c expression and when SREBP-1c activation was blocked, and the insulin-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~55%, suggesting SREBP-1c is a key transcription factor mediating insulin-induced lipogenesis. LXR? activation promoted lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression. In ChREBP-silenced or SREBP-1c activation blocked adipocytes, LXR? activation facilitated lipogenesis and SREBP-1c expression, but had no effect on ChREBP expression. Therefore, LXR? might mediate lipogenesis via SREBP-1c rather than ChREBP. When ChREBP expression was silenced and SREBP-1c activation blocked simultaneously, glucose and insulin were still able to stimulated lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression, and LXR? activation enhanced these effects, suggesting LXR? mediated directly glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis. In summary, glucose and insulin stimulated lipogenesis through both dissimilar and identical regulation pathway in porcine adipocytes.
Project description:Regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) by fatty acid flux was investigated in CaCo-2 cells. Cells were incubated with 1 mM taurocholate with or without 250 microM 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 or 22:6 fatty acids. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels and gene and protein expression of SREBPs were estimated. 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 fatty acids decreased the amount of mature SREBP-1 and mRNA levels of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. SREBP-2 gene or mature protein expression was not altered. Liver X receptor (LXR) activation by T0901317 increased gene expression of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase without altering SREBP-2. 20:5, but not 18:1, prevented the full expression of SREBP-1c mRNA by T0901317. T0901317 increased SREBP-1 mass without altering the mass of mature SREBP-2. Although only 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 suppressed SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and FAS expression, all fatty acids decreased the rate of fatty acid synthesis. T0901317 increased endogenous fatty acid synthesis yet did not increase secretion of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. In CaCo-2 cells, polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease gene and protein expression of SREBP-1 and FAS mRNA, probably through interference with LXR activity. Since all fatty acids decreased fatty acid synthesis, mechanisms other than changes in SREBP-1c expression must be entertained. Increased endogenous fatty acid synthesis does not promote triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein secretion.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is increasingly recognized as one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as the alternative and complementary medicine, may provide some profound health benefit. "Jiang-Zhi" Granule (JZG) was composed based on TCM pathogenesis of NAFL: the retention of inner dampness, heat and blood stasis. This study investigated effects of JZG on liver X receptor-? (LXR?)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway in high-fat-diet-(HFD-)induced hepatic steatosis, as well as in free-fatty-acid-(FFA-)and T0901317-treated HepG2 cells. The results showed that JZG had an antisteatotic effect on HFD-fed rats. JZG decreased the activation of SREBP-1c through inhibiting LXR?-mediated SREBP-1c transcription, as well as through inhibiting the maturation of SREBP-1c independent of LXR?. These findings may provide molecular evidence for the use of JZG as a promising therapeutic option for NAFL and support us to continue JZG treatment in NAFL. For JZG treatment to be widely accepted, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III trial is ongoing.
Project description:Inflammation in response to excess low-density lipoproteins in the blood is an important driver of atherosclerosis development. Due to its ability to enhance ATP-binding cassette A1-dependent (ABCA1-dependent) reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), liver X receptor (LXR) is an attractive target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, LXR also upregulates the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), leading to increased hepatic triglyceride synthesis, an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Here, we developed a strategy to separate the favorable and unfavorable effects of LXR by exploiting the specificity of the coactivator thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 80 (TRAP80). Using human hepatic cell lines, we determined that TRAP80 selectively promotes the transcription of SREBP-1c but not ABCA1. Adenovirus-mediated expression of shTRAP80 inhibited LXR-dependent SREBP-1c expression and RNA polymerase II recruitment to the LXR responsive element (LXRE) of SREBP-1c, but not to the LXRE of ABCA1. In murine models, liver-specific knockdown of TRAP80 ameliorated liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia induced by LXR activation and maintained RCT stimulation by the LXR ligand. Together, these data indicate that TRAP80 is a selective regulator of hepatic lipogenesis and is required for LXR-dependent SREBP-1c activation. Moreover, targeting the interaction between TRAP80 and LXR should facilitate the development of potential LXR agonists that effectively prevent atherosclerosis.
Project description:Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, EPA in the diet is easily oxidized at room temperature and several types of oxidized EPA (OEPA) derivatives are generated. To compare the efficiencies of OEPAs on lipid metabolism with EPA, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) was treated with EPA or OEPAs and their effects on lipid metabolism related genes were studied. OEPAs more potently suppressed the expression of sterol-responsive element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a major transcription factor that activates the expression of lipogenic genes, and its downstream target genes than did EPA under conditions of lipid synthesis enhanced by T0901317, a synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. Furthermore, PGC-1?, a coactivator of both LXR? and SREBP-1, was markedly down-regulated by OEPAs compared with EPA. The treatment of OEPAs also significantly down-regulated the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPA), the initiating enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis, more than EPA. Therefore, the advantageous effects of OEPAs on cardiovascular diseases might be due to their SREBP-1c, PGC-1? and GPA mediated ameliorating effects.
Project description:Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) increases lipogenesis at the transcriptional level, and its expression is upregulated by liver X receptor ? (LXR?). The LXR?/SREBP-1c signaling may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously reported that a cholesterol metabolite, 5-cholesten-3?,25-diol 3-sulfate (25HC3S), inhibits the LXR? signaling and reduces lipogenesis by decreasing SREBP-1c expression in primary hepatocytes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of 25HC3S on lipid homeostasis in diet-induced NAFLD mouse models. NAFLD was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6J mice. The effects of 25HC3S on lipid homeostasis, inflammatory responses, and insulin sensitivity were evaluated after acute treatments or long-term treatments. Acute treatments with 25HC3S decreased serum lipid levels, and long-term treatments decreased hepatic lipid accumulation in the NAFLD mice. Gene expression analysis showed that 25HC3S significantly suppressed the SREBP-1c signaling pathway that was associated with the suppression of the key enzymes involved in lipogenesis: fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. In addition, 25HC3S significantly reduced HFD-induced hepatic inflammation as evidenced by decreasing tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 ?/? mRNA levels. A glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test showed that 25HC3S administration improved HFD-induced insulin resistance. The present results indicate that 25HC3S as a potent endogenous regulator decreases lipogenesis, and oxysterol sulfation can be a key protective regulatory pathway against lipid accumulation and lipid-induced inflammation in vivo.
Project description:The expression of SREBP-1 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1) isoforms differs between tissues and cultured cell lines in that SREBP-1a is the major isoform in established cell lines, whereas SREBP-1c predominates in liver and most other human tissues. SREBP-1c is transcriptionally less active than SREBP-1a, but is a main mediator of hepatic insulin action and is selectively up-regulated by LXR (liver X receptor) agonists. LXR-mediated transactivation is co-activated by PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha), which displays deficient expression in skeletal-muscle-derived cell lines. In the present paper, we show that PGC-1alpha expression is also deficient in HepG2 cells and in a human brown adipocyte cell line (PAZ6). In transient transfection studies, PGC-1alpha selectively amplified the LXR-mediated transcription from the human SREBP-1c promoter in HepG2 and PAZ6 cells via two LXR-response elements with extensive similarity to the respective murine sequence. Mutational analysis showed that the human LXR-response element-1 (hLXRE-1) was essential for co-activation of LXR-mediated SREBP-1c gene transcription by PGC-1alpha. Ectopic overexpression of PGC-1alpha in HepG2 cells enhanced basal SREBP-1c and, to a lesser extent, -1a mRNA expression, but only SREBP-1c expression was augmented further in an LXR/RXR (retinoic X receptor)-dependent fashion, thereby inducing mRNA abundance levels of SREBP-1c target genes, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These results indicate that PGC-1alpha contributes to the regulation of SREBP-1 gene expression, and can restore the SREBP-1 isoform expression pattern of HepG2 cells to that of human liver.
Project description:Hemistepsin A (HsA) is a guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone that inhibits hepatitis and liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effects of HsA on liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated hepatic lipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Up to 10 ?M, HsA did not affect the viability of HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Pretreatment with 5-10 ?M HsA significantly decreased the luciferase activity of the LXR response element, which was transactivated by T0901317, GW 3965, and LXR?/retinoid X receptor ? overexpression. In addition, it significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of LXR? in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. It also suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and lipogenic genes and reduced the triglyceride accumulation triggered by T0901317. Intraperitoneal injection of HsA (5 and 10 mg/kg) in mice significantly alleviated the T0901317-mediated increases in hepatocyte diameter and the percentage of regions in hepatic parenchyma occupied by lipid droplets. Furthermore, HsA significantly attenuated hepatic triglyceride accumulation by restoring the impaired expression of LXR?-dependent lipogenic genes caused by T0901317. Therefore, based on its inhibition of the LXR?-dependent signaling pathway, HsA has prophylactic potential for steatosis. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(2): 106-111].
Project description:Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is a hepatotropic virus that causes severe hepatic damage characterized by basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, vacuolar degeneration, and multifocal necrosis in hepatocytes. Many aspects of FAdV-4 infection and pathogenesis, however, remain unknown. Here, we found that FAdV-4-induced hepatic injury is accompanied by the accumulation of oil droplets (triglycerides) in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, a typical indicator of steatosis, in FAdV-4-infected chickens. Significant upregulation of adipose synthesis-related genes, such as liver X receptor-α (LXR-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and significant downregulation of low-density lipoprotein secretion-related genes and lipid oxidation- and lipid decomposition-related genes were observed in the infected chickens. FAdV-4 infection in cultured leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cells caused similar signs of steatosis, with alterations in various lipogenesis-related genes. We eliminated the effect of LXR-α activation on FAdV-4-induced steatosis and found that treatment with an LXR-α antagonist (SR9243) and RNA interference (small interfering RNA targeting LXR-α [Si-LXR-α]) decreased the number of oil droplets and the accumulation of lipogenic genes, but treatment with an LXR-α agonist (T0901317) increased the number of oil droplets and the accumulation of lipogenic genes in the cells. Additionally, SR9243 treatment or Si-LXR-α transfection led to significant reductions in viral DNA level, protein expression, and virus production, whereas T0901317 treatment caused significant increases in viral DNA level, protein expression, and virus production. However, inhibition of SREBP-1c activity had no significant effect on virus production. Collectively, these results indicated that FAdV-4-induced steatosis involves activation of the LXR-α signaling pathway, which might be a molecular mechanism underlying the hepatic injury associated with FAdV-4 infection.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is an important hepatotropic adenovirus in chicken, but the underlying mechanism of FAdV-4-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. We report here that infection with FAdV-4 induced the accumulation of oil droplets (triglycerides) in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, a typical indicator of steatosis, in the livers of chickens. FAdV-4-induced steatosis might be caused by a disrupted balance of fat metabolism, as evidenced by differential regulation of various lipase genes. The significant upregulation of liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) prompted us to investigate the interplay between LXR-α activation and FAdV-4-induced steatosis. Treatment with an agonist, an antagonist, or RNA interference targeting LXR-α in cultured leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cells indicated that FAdV-4-induced steatosis was dependent upon LXR-α activation, which contributed to virus replication. These results provide important mechanistic insights, revealing that FAdV-4 induces hepatic steatosis by activating the LXR-α signaling pathway and highlighting the therapeutic potential of strategies targeting the LXR-α pathway for the treatment of FAdV-4 infection.
Project description:Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced nuclear SREBP-1c abundance, and blunted the lipogenic response to feeding, LXR agonist treatment, or obesity-linked insulin resistance. Desaturation of the ER membrane may serve as an auxiliary signal of the fed state that promotes lipid synthesis in response to nutrient availability.