Differential Activation of TRPA1 by Diesel Exhaust Particles: Relationships between Chemical Composition, Potency, and Lung Toxicity.
ABSTRACT: Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) causes pulmonary irritation and inflammation, which can exacerbate asthma and other diseases. These effects may arise from the activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). This study shows that a representative DEP can activate TRPA1-expressing pulmonary C-fibers in the mouse lung. Furthermore, DEP collected from idling vehicles at an emissions inspection station, the tailpipe of an on-road "black smoker" diesel truck, waste DEP from a diesel exhaust filter regeneration machine, and NIST SRM 2975 can activate human TRPA1 in lung epithelial cells to elicit different biological responses. The potency of the DEP, particle extracts, and selected chemical components was compared in TRPA1 over-expressing HEK-293 and human lung cells using calcium flux and other toxicologically relevant end-point assays. Emission station DEP was the most potent and filter DEP the least. Potency was related to the percentage of ethanol extractable TRPA1 agonists and was equivalent when equal amounts of extract mass was used for treatment. The DEP samples were further compared using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and principal component analysis as well as targeted analysis of known TRPA1 agonists. Activation of TRPA1 was attributable to both particle-associated electrophiles and non-electrophilic agonists, which affected the induction of interleukin-8 mRNA via TRPA1 in A549 and IMR-90 lung cells as well as TRPA1-mediated mucin gene induction in human lung cells and mucous cell metaplasia in mice. This work illustrates that not all DEP samples are equivalent, and studies aimed at assessing mechanisms of DEP toxicity should account for multiple variables, including the expression of receptor targets such as TRPA1 and particle chemistry.
Project description:Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM < 2.5 ?m) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate, 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid, were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pretreated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans.
Project description:Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects.Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells.The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells.A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions.
Project description:Induction of effective inflammation in the lung in response to environmental and microbial stimuli is dependent on cooperative signaling between leukocytes and lung tissue cells. We explored how these inflammatory networks are modulated by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) using cocultures of human monocytes with epithelial cells. Cocultures, or monoculture controls, were treated with DEP in the presence or absence of LPS or flagellin. Production of cytokines was explored by Western blotting and ELISA; cell signaling was analyzed by Western blotting. Here, we show that responses of epithelial cells to DEP are amplified by the presence of monocytes. DEP amplified the responses of cellular cocultures to very low doses of TLR agonists. In addition, in the presence of DEP, the responses induced by LPS or flagellin were less amenable to antagonism by the physiological IL-1 antagonist, IL-1ra. This was paralleled by the uncoupling of IL-1 production and release from monocytes, potentially attributable to an ability of DEP to sequester or degrade extracellular ATP. These data describe a model of inflammation where DEP amplifies responses to low concentrations of microbial agonists and alters the nature of the inflammatory milieu induced by TLR agonists.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While exposure to diesel exhaust particles has been linked to aberrant immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma, little attention has been paid to their effects on the airway epithelial barrier. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on airway epithelial barrier function and composition using in vitro and in vivo model systems. METHODS:16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts and exposed to 5 to 50??g/cm2 SRM 2975 diesel particulate matter (DEP) suspended in cell culture medium or vehicle controls. Changes in barrier function were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to 4?kDa FITC Dextran. Neonatal BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized DEP (255?±?89??g/m3; 2?h per day for 5?days) and changes in the tight junction protein Tricellulin were assessed 2 weeks post exposure. RESULTS:A six-hour incubation of epithelial cells with diesel exhaust particles caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in epithelial barrier integrity as measured by decreased TEER and increased permeability to 4?kDa FITC-Dextran. This reduction in epithelial barrier integrity corresponded to a significant reduction in expression of the tight junction protein Tricellulin. siRNA mediated knockdown of Tricellulin recapitulated changes in barrier function caused by DEP exposure. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant reduction in lung Tricellulin 2 weeks post exposure at both the protein and mRNA level. CONCLUSION:Short term exposure to DEP causes a significant reduction in epithelial barrier integrity through a reduction in the tight junction protein Tricellulin. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant and sustained reduction in Tricellulin protein and mRNA in the lung, suggesting that early life exposure to inhaled DEP may cause lasting changes in airway epithelial barrier function.
Project description:Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ?20-30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diesel exhaust is carcinogenic and exposure to diesel particles cause health effects. We investigated the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles designed to have varying physicochemical properties in order to attribute health effects to specific particle characteristics. Particles from three fuel types were compared at 13% engine intake O2 concentration: MK1 ultra low sulfur diesel (DEP13) and the two renewable diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO13) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME13). Additionally, diesel particles from MK1 ultra low sulfur diesel were generated at 9.7% (DEP9.7) and 17% (DEP17) intake O2 concentration. We evaluated physicochemical properties and histopathological, inflammatory and genotoxic responses on day 1, 28, and 90 after single intratracheal instillation in mice compared to reference diesel particles and carbon black. RESULTS:Moderate variations were seen in physical properties for the five particles: primary particle diameter: 15-22?nm, specific surface area: 152-222?m2/g, and count median mobility diameter: 55-103?nm. Larger differences were found in chemical composition: organic carbon/total carbon ratio (0.12-0.60), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content (1-27??g/mg) and acid-extractable metal content (0.9-16??g/mg). Intratracheal exposure to all five particles induced similar toxicological responses, with different potency. Lung particle retention was observed in DEP13 and HVO13 exposed mice on day 28 post-exposure, with less retention for the other fuel types. RME exposure induced limited response whereas the remaining particles induced dose-dependent inflammation and acute phase response on day 1. DEP13 induced acute phase response on day 28 and inflammation on day 90. DNA strand break levels were not increased as compared to vehicle, but were increased in lung and liver compared to blank filter extraction control. Neutrophil influx on day 1 correlated best with estimated deposited surface area, but also with elemental carbon, organic carbon and PAHs. DNA strand break levels in lung on day 28 and in liver on day 90 correlated with acellular particle-induced ROS. CONCLUSIONS:We studied diesel exhaust particles designed to differ in physicochemical properties. Our study highlights specific surface area, elemental carbon content, PAHs and ROS-generating potential as physicochemical predictors of diesel particle toxicity.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) with increased asthmatic symptoms. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a predominant source of vehicle derived ambient PM, and experimental studies have demonstrated that they may have adjuvant potential when given with an antigen. We previously compared 3 DEP samples: N-DEP, A-DEP, and C-DEP in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) mucosal sensitization model and reported the adjuvant activity to be: C-DEP ≈ A-DEP > N-DEP. The present study analyzed gene expression changes from the lungs of these mice. Transcription profiling demonstrated that all the DEP samples altered cytokine and toll-like receptor pathways regardless of type, with or without antigen sensitization. Further analysis of DEP exposure with OVA showed that all DEP treatments altered networks involved in immune and inflammatory responses. The A- and C-DEP/OVA treatments induced differential expression of apoptosis pathways in association with stronger adjuvant responses, while expression of cell cycle control and DNA damage pathways were also altered in the C-DEP/OVA treatment. This comprehensive approach using gene expression analysis to examine changes at a pathway level provides detailed information on events occurring in the lung after DEP exposure, and confirms that the most bioactive sample induced many more individual genes and changes in immuno-regulatory and homeostatic pathways. Female BALB/C mice (8-10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 8 treatment groups containing 3 mice each and exposed to saline, 20 ug ovalbumin, 150 ug diesel exhaust particles (either C-DEP, A-DEP, or N-DEP), or diesel exhaust particles + ovalbumin by intranasal instillation on Days 0 and 13 and necropsied 18 hrs latter.
Project description:Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), a major component of urban air pollution, has been linked to atherogenesis and precipitation of myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that DEP exposure would increase and destabilise atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice.ApoE-/- mice were fed a 'Western diet' (8 weeks) to induce 'complex' atherosclerotic plaques, with parallel experiments in normal chow fed wild-type mice. During the last 4 weeks of feeding, mice received twice weekly instillation (oropharyngeal aspiration) of 35 ?L DEP (1 mg/mL, SRM-2975) or vehicle (saline). Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by en-face staining of the thoracic aorta and histological examination of the brachiocephalic artery.Brachiocephalic atherosclerotic plaques were larger in ApoE-/- mice treated with DEP (59 ± 10%) than in controls (32 ± 7%; P = 0.017). In addition, DEP-treated mice had more plaques per section of artery (2.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.8 ± 0.2; P = 0.048) and buried fibrous layers (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.028). These changes were associated with lung inflammation and increased antioxidant gene expression in the liver, but not with changes in endothelial function, plasma lipids or systemic inflammation.Increased atherosclerosis is caused by the particulate component of diesel exhaust producing advanced plaques with a potentially more vulnerable phenotype. These results are consistent with the suggestion that removal of the particulate component would reduce the adverse cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution). Selected exposure concentrations of both diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and DE gases, DEP oxidative reactivity via DTT activity, and in vitro DEP toxicity in murine endothelial cells were measured for each DE atmosphere. Cell toxicity was assessed via measurement of cell proliferation (colony formation assay), cell viability (MTT assay), and wound healing (scratch assay). Differences in DE composition were observed as a function of engine load. The mean 1-nitropyrene concentration was 15 times higher and oxidative reactivity was two times higher for low engine load versus high load. There were no substantial differences in measured toxicity among the three DE exposure parameters. These results indicate that alteration of applied engine load shifts the composition and can modify the biological reactivity of DE. While engine conditions did not affect the selected in vitro toxicity measures, the change in oxidative reactivity suggests that toxicological studies with DE need to take into account engine conditions in characterizing biological effects.