Inflammation-induced IgE promotes epithelial hyperplasia and tumour growth.
ABSTRACT: IgE is the least abundant circulating antibody class but is constitutively present in healthy tissues bound to resident cells via its high-affinity receptor, FcεRI. The physiological role of endogenous IgE antibodies is unclear but it has been suggested that they provide host protection against a variety of noxious environmental substances and parasitic infections at epithelial barrier surfaces. Here we show, in mice, that skin inflammation enhances levels of IgE antibodies that have natural specificities and a repertoire, VDJ rearrangements and CDRH3 characteristics similar to those of IgE antibodies in healthy tissue. IgE-bearing basophils are recruited to inflamed skin via CXCL12 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)/IL-3-dependent upregulation of CXCR4. In the inflamed skin, IgE/FcεRI-signalling in basophils promotes epithelial cell growth and differentiation, partly through histamine engagement of H1R and H4R. Furthermore, this IgE response strongly drives tumour outgrowth of epithelial cells harbouring oncogenic mutation. These findings indicate that natural IgE antibodies support skin barrier defences, but that during chronic tissue inflammation this role may be subverted to promote tumour growth.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cell type(s) mediating the maternal influence on allergic disease in children remain unclear. We set out to define the relationship between maternal allergy and frequencies of cord blood (CB) basophils, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs); to characterize surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions on these cells; and to investigate the association between maternal and CB serum IgE levels with surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions.<h4>Methods</h4>One hundred and three mother/infant dyads were recruited prenatally, and maternal allergic history was recorded. Maternal blood was collected prior to delivery, and CB was collected after birth. Flow cytometry was used to identify CB basophils and pDCs and to determine surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions.<h4>Results</h4>Frequencies of CB basophils and pDCs were low and not related to maternal history of allergy. Percentages of CB basophils with surface-bound IgE were significantly higher in infants of allergic mothers compared with infants of non-allergic mothers (median, 59.60% vs. 19.70%, p = 0.01). IgE on CB basophils correlated with CB IgE levels (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001), but not with maternal IgE levels (r = 0.26, p = 0.06). IgE on CB pDCs was low and not significantly associated with maternal or CB IgE levels. Similarly, FcεRI expression by CB basophils and pDCs was not significantly associated with maternal or CB IgE levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Frequencies of CB basophils and pDCs are not influenced by maternal allergy. CB basophils and pDCs have surface-bound IgE and express FcεRI; however, only IgE on CB basophils appears influenced by maternal allergy.
Project description:Basophils are involved in manifestations of hypersensitivity, however, the current understanding of their propensity for activation and their prognostic value in cancer patients remains unclear. As in healthy and atopic individuals, basophil populations were identified in blood from ovarian cancer patients (n = 53) with diverse tumor histologies and treatment histories. Ex vivo basophil activation was measured by CD63 expression using the basophil activation test (BAT). Irrespective of prior treatment, basophils could be activated by stimulation with IgE- (anti-FcεRI and anti-IgE) and non-IgE (fMLP) mediated triggers. Basophil activation was detected by ex vivo exposure to paclitaxel, but not to other anti-cancer therapies, in agreement with a clinical history of systemic hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel. Protein and gene expression analyses support the presence of basophils (CCR3, CD123, FcεRI) and activated basophils (CD63, CD203c, tryptase) in ovarian tumors. Greater numbers of circulating basophils, cells with greater capacity for ex vivo stimulation (n = 35), and gene signatures indicating the presence of activated basophils in tumors (n = 439) were each associated with improved survival in ovarian cancer. Circulating basophils in cancer patients respond to IgE- and non-IgE-mediated signals and could help identify hypersensitivity to therapeutic agents. Activated circulating and tumor-infiltrating basophils may be potential biomarkers in oncology.
Project description:<h4>Purpose of review</h4>Studies show that inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTKis), currently FDA-approved for the treatment of B cell malignancies, can prevent IgE-mediated reactions through broad inhibition of the FcεRI signaling pathway in human mast cells and basophils. This review will summarize recent data supporting the use of these drugs as novel therapies in various allergic disorders.<h4>Recent findings</h4>Recent studies have shown that BTKis can prevent IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in primary human mast cells and basophils. Two oral doses of the second-generation BTKi acalabrutinib can completely prevent moderate passive systemic anaphylaxis in humanized mice and even protect against death during severe anaphylaxis. Furthermore, two doses of ibrutinib can reduce or eliminate skin prick test responses to foods and aeroallergens in allergic subjects. BTKis in development also show efficacy in clinical trials for chronic urticaria. Unlike other therapies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, BTKis appear to have rapid onset and transient effects, making them ideal candidates for intermittent use to prevent acute reactions such as IgE-mediated anaphylaxis.<h4>Summary</h4>These studies suggest that BTKis may be capable of preventing IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, paving the way for future trials in food allergy and urticaria.
Project description:Basophils are rare, circulating granulocytes proposed to be involved in T helper (T<sub>H</sub>) type 2 immunity, mainly through secretion of interleukin (IL)-4. In addition to IL-4, basophils produce IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in response to immunoglobulin E (IgE) crosslinking. Differentiation of T<sub>H</sub>17 cells requires IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, but whether basophils play a significant role in T<sub>H</sub>17 induction is unknown. Here we show a role for basophils in T<sub>H</sub>17 cell development by using in vitro T cell differentiation and in vivo T<sub>H</sub>17-mediated inflammation models. Bone marrow derived-basophils (BMBs) and splenic basophils produce significant amounts of IL-6 as well as IL-4 following stimulation with IgE crosslink or cholera toxin (CT). In addition, through IL-6 secretion, BMBs cooperate with dendritic cells to promote T<sub>H</sub>17 cell differentiation. In the T<sub>H</sub>17 lung inflammation model, basophils are recruited to the inflamed lungs following CT challenge, and T<sub>H</sub>17 responses are significantly reduced in the absence of basophils or IL-6. Furthermore, reconstitution with wild-type, but not IL-6-deficient, basophils restored CT-mediated lung inflammation. Lastly, basophil-deficient mice showed reduced phenotypes of T<sub>H</sub>17-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, our results indicate that basophils are an important inducer of T<sub>H</sub>17 cell differentiation, which is dependent on IL-6 secretion.
Project description:IgE binding to its high affinity receptor FcεRI on mast cells and basophils is a key step in the mechanism of allergic disease and a target for therapeutic intervention. Early indications that IgE adopts a bent structure in solution have been confirmed by recent x-ray crystallographic studies of IgEFc, which further showed that the bend, contrary to expectation, is enhanced in the crystal structure of the complex with receptor. To investigate the structure of IgEFc and its conformational changes that accompany receptor binding in solution, we created a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor using biologically encoded fluorescent proteins fused to the N- and C-terminal IgEFc domains (Cε2 and Cε4, respectively) together with the theoretical basis for quantitating its behavior. This revealed not only that the IgEFc exists in a bent conformation in solution but also that the bend is indeed enhanced upon FcεRI binding. No change in the degree of bending was seen upon binding to the B cell receptor for IgE, CD23 (FcεRII), but in contrast, binding of the anti-IgE therapeutic antibody omalizumab decreases the extent of the bend, implying a conformational change that opposes FcεRI engagement. HomoFRET measurements further revealed that the (Cε2)(2) and (Cε4)(2) domain pairs behave as rigid units flanking the conformational change in the Cε3 domains. Finally, modeling of the accessible conformations of the two Fab arms in FcεRI-bound IgE revealed a mutual exclusion not seen in IgG and Fab orientations relative to the membrane that may predispose receptor-bound IgE to cross-linking by allergens.
Project description:For many years, the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) FcεRI, which is expressed by mast cells and basophils, has been widely held to be the exemplar of cross-linking (that is, aggregation dependent) signaling receptors. We found, however, that FcεRI signaling could occur in the presence or absence of receptor cross-linking. Using both cell and cell-free systems, we showed that FcεRI signaling was stimulated by surface-associated monovalent ligands through the passive, size-dependent exclusion of the receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase CD45 from plasma membrane regions of FcεRI-ligand engagement. Similarly to the T cell receptor, FcεRI signaling could also be initiated in a ligand-independent manner. These data suggest that a simple mechanism of CD45 exclusion-based receptor triggering could function together with cross-linking-based FcεRI signaling, broadening mast cell and basophil reactivity by enabling these cells to respond to both multivalent and surface-presented monovalent antigens. These findings also strengthen the case that a size-dependent, phosphatase exclusion-based receptor triggering mechanism might serve generally to facilitate signaling by noncatalytic immune receptors.
Project description:The recent emergence of anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) drugs and their candidates for humans has endorsed the significance of IgE-dependent pathways in allergic disorders. IgE is distributed locally in the tissues or systemically to confer a sensory mechanism in a domain of adaptive immunity to the otherwise innate type of effector cells, namely, mast cells and basophils. Bound on the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI, IgE enables fast memory responses against revisiting threats of venoms, parasites, and bacteria. However, the dysregulation of IgE-dependent reactions leads to potentially life-threatening allergic diseases, such as asthma and anaphylaxis. Therefore, reactivity of the IgE sensor is fine-tuned by various IgE-associating molecules. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis for how IgE-dependent mast cell activation is regulated by the IgE-associating molecules, including the newly developed therapeutic candidates.
Project description:Basophils and mast cells have high affinity IgE receptors (Fc?RI) on their plasma membrane and play important roles in Fc?RI-associated allergic diseases, such as pollen allergy, food allergy, chronic spontaneous urticarial (CSU), and atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, several reports have revealed that high IgE antibody concentrations activate mast cells-which reside in tissue-in the absence of any antigens (allergens). However, IgE antibody-induced activation of basophils-which circulate in blood-has not been reported. Here, we investigated whether IgE antibodies may regulate functions of human peripheral basophils without antigens in vitro. We successfully removed IgE antibodies bound to Fc?RI on the surface of human peripheral basophils by treating with 0.1% lactic acid. We also demonstrated that high IgE antibody concentrations (>1 ?M) induced histamine release, polarization, and CD203c upregulation of IgE antibody-stripped basophils. Thus, high IgE antibody concentrations directly activate basophils, which express IgE-free Fc?RI on the cell surface. This mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of patients with AD and CSU who have higher serum IgE concentrations compared to healthy donors.
Project description:Rhinovirus and IgE act in concert to promote asthma exacerbations. While basophils are the principal cell type in the blood that is activated by IgE, their role in virus-induced asthma episodes remains elusive.To monitor IgE responsiveness in circulating basophils of rhinovirus-infected atopic asthmatics during acute infection and convalescence.The capacity for basophils to respond to IgE was assessed by testing the effects of allergen, or cross-linking anti-Fc?RI and anti-IgE antibodies, on surface TSLP receptor in 24-hour PBMC cultures. Activation profiles of basophils from atopic asthmatics challenged intranasally with human rhinovirus 16 were monitored directly ex vivo or else in 24-hour cultures, at baseline (day 0), and then at days 4 and 21 post-challenge.Basophils in atopic asthmatics, but not in non-atopic controls, upregulated TSLP receptor upon IgE receptor ligation. The magnitude of this response was correlated with the proportion of serum total IgE that was allergen-specific (r = 0.615, P < 0.05). Following rhinovirus infection, all subjects developed nasal symptoms that peaked 3-5 days after viral challenge. Basophils displayed maximal IgE responsiveness 3 weeks post-challenge as judged by TSLP receptor levels in 24-hour cultures. No significant change in total IgE or specific IgE antibodies was detected during rhinovirus infection. By contrast, levels of IgE receptor-associated spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk, were increased on day 4 (P < 0.05), and elevated levels were also detected three weeks post-challenge.Circulating basophils display increased IgE responsiveness 3 weeks after rhinovirus infection in atopic asthmatics. This observation, coupled with increased expression of Syk, implicates basophils in promoting, or else prolonging, rhinovirus-induced inflammation in atopic asthmatics.
Project description:In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), self-reactive antibodies can target the kidney (lupus nephritis), leading to functional failure and possible mortality. We report that activation of basophils by autoreactive IgE causes their homing to lymph nodes, promoting T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cell differentiation and enhancing the production of self-reactive antibodies that cause lupus-like nephritis in mice lacking the Src family protein tyrosine kinase Lyn (Lyn(-/-) mice). Individuals with SLE also have elevated serum IgE, self-reactive IgEs and activated basophils that express CD62 ligand (CD62L) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), parameters that are associated with increased disease activity and active lupus nephritis. Basophils were also present in the lymph nodes and spleen of subjects with SLE. Thus, in Lyn(-/-) mice, basophils and IgE autoantibodies amplify autoantibody production that leads to lupus nephritis, and in individuals with SLE IgE autoantibodies and activated basophils are factors associated with disease activity and nephritis.