Real world data on follicular lymphoma patients treated by rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS:Real-world data about the treatment outcomes of patients receiving rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance are required to understand better the treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). METHODS:A cross-sectional study analyzed FL patients who were treated with R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance. RESULTS:Of 139 patients, 85 patients received R-CVP and 54 received R-CHOP. The characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. Only grade 3 of FL was more common in R-CHOP. The complete response rate did not differ significantly between R-CHOP (50/54, 92.6%) and R-CVP (77/85, 90.6%). The number of disease relapses during rituximab maintenance did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.798). Therefore, the comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) showed no significant difference: the 3-year PFS rates for R-CVP and R-CHOP were 77% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.567). Although five of 56 hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients experienced HBV reactivation, all cases of HBV reactivation were identified during regular monitoring for HBV DNA in blood, and were successfully managed with antiviral treatment. CONCLUSION:The survival outcomes of FL patients on rituximab maintenance after responding to R-CVP or R-CHOP were similar. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance can be safely used for anti-HBc-positive patients if HBV DNA titer in blood can be regularly monitored.
Project description:R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:Bendamustine (B) with rituximab (R) is a standard frontline treatment for medically fit follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. The safety and efficacy of maintenance rituximab (MR) after BR induction has not been formally compared to observation for FL, resulting in disparate practice patterns. Prospective trials have shown benefit of MR after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone), yet recent data from the GALLIUM study comparing outcomes of patients treated with chemotherapy with R or obinutuzumab (G) showed higher than anticipated fatal adverse events with BR/BG. In order to assess the efficacy and tolerability of MR after BR, we retrospectively collected data on 640 newly diagnosed patients treated with FL. We found that patients who achieved partial remission (PR) after ?4 cycles of BR had improved duration of response (DOR) with MR vs. no maintenance, whereas those in complete remission did not. These findings were confirmed in a validation cohort. In the entire study population, the known fatal adverse event rate after BR was 2·5% and did not significantly differ in those receiving MR versus no maintenance. [Correction added on 14 January 2019, after online publication: The preceding sentence has been corrected in this current version.] Within the limitations inherent to retrospective analysis, these data suggest that FL patients with a PR to BR experience prolongation of remission with MR with an acceptable safety profile.
Project description:Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disease progression within < 2 years of initial chemoimmunotherapy and patient age > 60 years have been associated with poor overall survival (OS) in follicular lymphoma (FL). No standard treatment exists for these high-risk patients, and the effectiveness of sequential therapies remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We studied the course of FL with first-, second-, and third-line treatment. Using large population-based data, we identified 5234 patients with FL diagnosed in 2000 to 2009. Of these patients, 71% had received second-line therapy < 2 years, and 29% had received no therapy after first-line therapy, with a median OS of < 3 years. Treatment included rituximab, R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine), R-Other (other rituximab-containing), and other regimens. The Aalen-Johansen estimator and Cox proportional hazards models were used to quantify the outcomes and assess the effects of the clinical and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS:R-CHOP demonstrated the most favorable 5-year OS among first- (71%), second- (55%), and third-line (61%) therapies. First-line R-CHOP improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.64) and reduced the mortality risks after first-line (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77), second-line (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29-0.53), and third-line (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) treatments. B-symptoms, being married, and histologic grade 1/2 were associated with the use of earlier second-line therapy. Early progression from second- to third-line therapy was associated with poor OS. The repeated use of R-CHOP or R-CVP as first- and second-line treatment yielded high 2-year mortality rates (R-CHOP + R-CHOP, 17.3%; R-CVP + R-CVP, 21.1%). CONCLUSION:Our multistate approach assessed the effect of sequential therapy on the immediate and subsequent treatment-line outcomes. We found that R-CHOP in any line improved OS for patients with high-risk FL.
Project description:This randomized, noninferiority (NI), global, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) vs a standard rituximab-chemotherapy regimen (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CHOP] or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CVP]) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma. Investigators preassigned the standard treatment regimen they considered most appropriate for each patient; patients were randomized to receive BR (n = 224) or standard therapy (R-CHOP/R-CVP, n = 223) for 6 cycles; 2 additional cycles were permitted at investigator discretion. Response was assessed by a blinded independent review committee. BR was noninferior to R-CHOP/R-CVP, as assessed by the primary end point of complete response rate (31% vs 25%, respectively; P = .0225 for NI [0.88 margin]). The overall response rates for BR and R-CHOP/R-CVP were 97% and 91%, respectively (P = .0102). Incidences of vomiting and drug-hypersensitivity reactions were significantly higher in patients treated with BR (P < .05), and incidences of peripheral neuropathy/paresthesia and alopecia were significantly higher in patients treated with standard-therapy regimens (P < .05). These data indicate BR is noninferior to standard therapy with regard to clinical response with an acceptable safety profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00877006.
Project description:Standard of care for patients with symptomatic, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) is rituximab-containing chemoimmunotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance. This prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study analyzed how efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials translate into clinical practice in Germany. Both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory patients with FL, who responded to rituximab-containing induction and were scheduled for rituximab maintenance, were observed for 24 months. Effectiveness was measured by response and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, treatment patterns of induction and maintenance, as well as adverse events, were documented. The evaluable study population consisted of 310 first-line patients and 173 relapsed/refractory patients, including 116 patients with initial Ann-Arbor stage I/II and 20 patients with FL grade 3B. Regarding first-line induction, a shift from R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) to R-bendamustine was observed over time, as well as a decline in radiotherapy. 2-year progression-free survival rates were 88.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84.0-92.6) for first-line patients and 76.0% (95% CI: 68.8-83.3) for relapsed/refractory patients. Conversion from partial to complete remission (PR, CR) occurred in 53.4% of analyzed first-line patients with PR, resulting in 69.4% CRs at study end (relapsed/refractory: conversion in 42.9%, final CRs 57.9%). Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of rituximab in this setting. Both treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory patients with FL show favorable 2-year PFS rates and improvements in the remission status with postinduction rituximab monotherapy as maintenance and consolidation therapy.
Project description:Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a clinically and molecularly highly heterogeneous disease, yet prognostication relies predominantly on clinical tools. We recently demonstrated that integration of mutation status of 7 genes, including EZH2 and MEF2B, improves risk stratification. We mined gene expression data to uncover genes that are differentially expressed in EZH2- and MEF2B-mutated cases. We focused on FOXP1 and assessed its protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 763 tissue biopsies. For outcome correlation, a population-based training cohort of 142 patients with FL treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone, and a clinical trial validation cohort comprising 395 patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) ± rituximab were used. We found FOXP1 to be significantly downregulated in both EZH2- and MEF2B-mutated cases. By IHC, 76 specimens in the training cohort (54%) had high FOXP1 expression (>10%), which was associated with reduced 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rates (55% vs 70%). In the validation cohort, high FOXP1 expression status was observed in 248 patients (63%) and correlated with significantly shorter FFS in patients treated with R-CHOP (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; P = .017) but not in patients treated with CHOP (HR, 1.15; P = .44). The impact of high FOXP1 expression on FFS in immunochemotherapy-treated patients was additional to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index. High FOXP1 expression was associated with distinct molecular features such as TP53 mutations, expression of IRF4, and gene expression signatures reminiscent of dark zone germinal center or activated B cells. In summary, FOXP1 is a downstream phenotypic commonality of gene mutations and predicts outcome following rituximab-containing regimens.
Project description:PURPOSE:The BRIGHT study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00877006) was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with either rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle-cell lymphoma. This publication provides long-term follow-up data. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were monitored for a minimum of 5 years after completion of study treatment for the time-to-event end points of progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival per investigator assessment. Data on the number of patients who received second-line anticancer treatment and the occurrence of other malignancies were also collected. RESULTS:The medians were not reached for any of the time-to event end points for either the BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP study treatment groups by study completion. PFS rates at 5 years were 65.5% in the BR treatment group and 55.8% in the R-CHOP/R-CVP group. The difference in PFS was considered significant with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.85; P = .0025). The hazard ratio for event-free survival and duration of response (P = .0020 and .0134, respectively) also favored the BR regimen over R-CHOP/R-CVP. However, no significant difference in overall survival was observed. The overall safety profiles of BR, R-CHOP, and R-CVP were as expected; no new safety data were collected during long-term follow-up. A higher number of secondary malignancies was noted in the BR treatment group. CONCLUSION:Overall, BR demonstrated better long-term disease control than R-CHOP/R-CVP and should be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphoma.
Project description:Purpose SWOG S0016 was a phase III randomized study that compared the safety and efficacy of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) with CHOP-RIT (CHOP followed by consolidation with iodine-133-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy) for previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma. Understanding the long-term outcome of patients provides a benchmark for novel treatment regimens for FL. Patients and Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 531 previously untreated patients with FL were randomly assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or six cycles of CHOP-RIT. Patients with advanced-stage disease (bulky stage II, III, or IV) of any pathologic grade (1, 2, or 3) were eligible. Results After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 10-year estimates of progression-free and overall survival were 49% and 78% among all patients, respectively. Patients in the CHOP-RIT arm had significantly better 10-year progression-free survival compared with patients in the R-CHOP arm (56% v 42%; P = .01), but 10-year overall survival was not different between the two arms (75% v 81%; P = .13). There was no significant difference between the CHOP-RIT and R-CHOP arms in regard to incidence of second malignancies (15.1% v 16.1%; P = .81) or myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (4.9% v 1.8%; P = .058). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidences of death resulting from second malignancies were not different (7.1% v 3.2%; P = .16), but cumulative incidence of death resulting from myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia was higher in the CHOP-RIT arm compared with the R-CHOP arm (4% v 0.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Given these outstanding outcomes, immunochemotherapy should remain the standard induction approach for patients with high-risk FL until long-term follow-up of alternative approaches demonstrates superiority.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) are types of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that develop in the B lymphocytes (also known as B cells). OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review of studies relating to cost effectiveness, costs and resource use, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with FL or MZL. METHODS:Three separate systematic reviews were conducted to identify all published evidence on cost effectiveness, costs and resource use, and HRQoL between 2007 and March 2017 using the MEDLINE<sup>®</sup>, MEDLINE in-process, E-pubs ahead of print (Ovid SP<sup>®</sup>), Embase (Ovid SP<sup>®</sup>), NHS EED, and EconLit databases. Select congress proceedings were also searched. Two systematic reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full papers against eligibility criteria. Relevant data were extracted into bespoke data extraction templates (DETs) by a single systematic reviewer; these data were then validated for accuracy by a second reviewer against clean copies of the relevant publications. RESULTS:A total of 25 cost-effectiveness studies (24 in FL; 1 in FL and MZL) met the eligibility criteria. Markov models were the most utilised cost-effectiveness model. US FL studies reported an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $28,565/QALY for first-line rituximab-cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) versus CVP, and $43,000/QALY for second-line obinutuzumab plus bendamustine (G?+?B) followed by G maintenance versus B. In the UK, ICERs were £1529-10,834/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for first-line rituximab?+?chemotherapy versus chemotherapy, £27,988/QALY for second-line G?+?B?+?G-maintenance versus B, and £62,653/QALY for second-line idelalisib versus chemotherapy and/or rituximab. Five costs/resource use and four HRQoL studies were identified in FL, and none in MZL. US mean lifetime costs in first-line patients ranged from $108,000 (rituximab) to $130,300 (rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine and prednisolone [CHOP]), and from £2185 (watch-and-wait) to £17,054 (chemotherapy) in the UK. In a multinational study, more rituximab-refractory patients receiving G?+?B?+?G-maintenance reported a meaningful improvement in total FACT-Lym scores compared with patients receiving B. In the UK, total FACT-Lym scores were meaningfully higher for newly diagnosed patients compared with patients with progression (136.04 vs. 109.7). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:We found a small body of evidence of quality of life, and potentially cost-effective treatment options for FL; however, no evidence was reported on MZL specifically. The significant data gaps in knowledge in these diseases demonstrate a marked need for further studies.