Molecular mechanisms of topoisomerase 2 DNA-protein crosslink resolution.
ABSTRACT: The compaction of DNA and the continuous action of DNA transactions, including transcription and DNA replication, create complex DNA topologies that require Type IIA Topoisomerases, which resolve DNA topological strain and control genome dynamics. The human TOP2 enzymes catalyze their reactions via formation of a reversible covalent enzyme DNA-protein crosslink, the TOP2 cleavage complex (TOP2cc). Spurious interactions of TOP2 with DNA damage, environmental toxicants and chemotherapeutic "poisons" perturbs the TOP2 reaction cycle, leading to an accumulation of DNA-protein crosslinks, and ultimately, genomic instability and cell death. Emerging evidence shows that TOP2-DNA protein crosslink (DPC) repair entails multiple strand break repair activities, such as removal of the poisoned TOP2 protein and rejoining of the DNA ends through homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of TOP2-DPC resolution, with specific emphasis on the recently uncovered ZATTZnf451-licensed TDP2-catalyzed TOP2-DPC reversal mechanism.
Project description:Topoisomerase 2 (TOP2) DNA transactions proceed via formation of the TOP2 cleavage complex (TOP2cc), a covalent enzyme-DNA reaction intermediate that is vulnerable to trapping by potent anticancer TOP2 drugs. How genotoxic TOP2 DNA-protein cross-links are resolved is unclear. We found that the SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase ZATT (ZNF451) is a multifunctional DNA repair factor that controls cellular responses to TOP2 damage. ZATT binding to TOP2cc facilitates a proteasome-independent tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) hydrolase activity on stalled TOP2cc. The ZATT SUMO ligase activity further promotes TDP2 interactions with SUMOylated TOP2, regulating efficient TDP2 recruitment through a "split-SIM" SUMO2 engagement platform. These findings uncover a ZATT-TDP2-catalyzed and SUMO2-modulated pathway for direct resolution of TOP2cc.
Project description:Eukaryotic type II topoisomerases (Top2? and Top2?) are homodimeric enzymes; they are essential for altering DNA topology by the formation of normally transient double strand DNA cleavage. Anticancer drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone) and also Top2 oxidation and DNA helical alterations cause potentially irreversible Top2·DNA cleavage complexes (Top2cc), leading to Top2-linked DNA breaks. Top2cc are the therapeutic mechanism for killing cancer cells. Yet Top2cc can also generate recombination, translocations, and apoptosis in normal cells. The Top2 protein-DNA covalent complexes are excised (in part) by tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2/TTRAP/EAP2/VPg unlinkase). In this study, we show that irreversible Top2cc induced in suicidal substrates are not processed by TDP2 unless they first undergo proteolytic processing or denaturation. We also demonstrate that TDP2 is most efficient when the DNA attached to the tyrosyl is in a single-stranded configuration and that TDP2 can efficiently remove a tyrosine linked to a single misincorporated ribonucleotide or to polyribonucleotides, which expands the TDP2 catalytic profile with RNA substrates. The 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of TDP2 bound to a substrate bearing a 5'-ribonucleotide defines a mechanism through which RNA can be accommodated in the TDP2 active site, albeit in a strained conformation.
Project description:Anticancer topoisomerase "poisons" exploit the break-and-rejoining mechanism of topoisomerase II (TOP2) to generate TOP2-linked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This characteristic underlies the clinical efficacy of TOP2 poisons, but is also implicated in chromosomal translocations and genome instability associated with secondary, treatment-related, haematological malignancy. Despite this relevance for cancer therapy, the mechanistic aspects governing repair of TOP2-induced DSBs and the physiological consequences that absent or aberrant repair can have are still poorly understood. To address these deficits, we employed cells and mice lacking tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2), an enzyme that hydrolyses 5'-phosphotyrosyl bonds at TOP2-associated DSBs, and studied their response to TOP2 poisons. Our results demonstrate that TDP2 functions in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and liberates DSB termini that are competent for ligation. Moreover, we show that the absence of TDP2 in cells impairs not only the capacity to repair TOP2-induced DSBs but also the accuracy of the process, thus compromising genome integrity. Most importantly, we find this TDP2-dependent NHEJ mechanism to be physiologically relevant, as Tdp2-deleted mice are sensitive to TOP2-induced damage, displaying marked lymphoid toxicity, severe intestinal damage, and increased genome instability in the bone marrow. Collectively, our data reveal TDP2-mediated error-free NHEJ as an efficient and accurate mechanism to repair TOP2-induced DSBs. Given the widespread use of TOP2 poisons in cancer chemotherapy, this raises the possibility of TDP2 being an important etiological factor in the response of tumours to this type of agent and in the development of treatment-related malignancy.
Project description:Topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons as anticancer drugs work by trapping TOP2 cleavage complexes (TOP2cc) to generate DNA damage. Repair of such damage by tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) could render cancer cells resistant to TOP2 poisons. Inhibiting TDP2, thus, represents an attractive mechanism-based chemosensitization approach. Currently known TDP2 inhibitors lack cellular potency and/or permeability. We report herein two novel subtypes of the deazaflavin TDP2 inhibitor core. By introducing an additional phenyl ring to the N-10 phenyl ring (subtype 11) or to the N-3 site of the deazaflavin scaffold (subtype 12), we have generated novel analogues with considerably improved biochemical potency and/or permeability. Importantly, many analogues of both subtypes, particularly compounds 11a, 11e, 12a, 12b, and 12h, exhibited much stronger cancer cell sensitizing effect than the best previous analogue 4a toward the treatment with etoposide, suggesting that these analogues could serve as effective cellular probes.
Project description:Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) reverses Topoisomerase 2 DNA-protein crosslinks (TOP2-DPCs) in a direct-reversal pathway licensed by ZATTZNF451 SUMO2 E3 ligase and SUMOylation of TOP2. TDP2 also binds ubiquitin (Ub), but how Ub regulates TDP2 functions is unknown. Here, we show that TDP2 co-purifies with K63 and K27 poly-Ubiquitinated cellular proteins independently of, and separately from SUMOylated TOP2 complexes. Poly-ubiquitin chains of ? Ub3 stimulate TDP2 catalytic activity in nuclear extracts and enhance TDP2 binding of DNA-protein crosslinks in vitro. X-ray crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of TDP2-Ub complexes reveal that the TDP2 UBA domain binds K63-Ub3 in a 1:1 stoichiometric complex that relieves a UBA-regulated autoinhibitory state of TDP2. Our data indicates that that poly-Ub regulates TDP2-catalyzed TOP2-DPC removal, and TDP2 single nucleotide polymorphisms can disrupt the TDP2-Ubiquitin interface.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity are a potential source of genome instability and chromosome translocation. TOP2-induced DNA double-strand breaks are rejoined in part by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), but whether this process suppresses or promotes TOP2-induced translocations is unclear. Here, we show that TDP2 rejoins DSBs induced during transcription-dependent TOP2 activity in breast cancer cells and at the translocation 'hotspot', MLL. Moreover, we find that TDP2 suppresses chromosome rearrangements induced by TOP2 and reduces TOP2-induced chromosome translocations that arise during gene transcription. Interestingly, however, we implicate TDP2-dependent NHEJ in the formation of a rare subclass of translocations associated previously with therapy-related leukemia and characterized by junction sequences with 4-bp of perfect homology. Collectively, these data highlight the threat posed by TOP2-induced DSBs during transcription and demonstrate the importance of TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining in protecting both gene transcription and genome stability.DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by topoisomerase II (TOP2) are rejoined by TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) but whether this promotes or suppresses translocations is not clear. Here the authors show that TDP2 suppresses chromosome translocations from DSBs introduced during gene transcription.
Project description:Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase II (TDP2) is a recently discovered enzyme that specifically repairs DNA damages induced by topoisomerase II (Top2) poisons and causes resistance to these drugs. Inhibiting TDP2 is expected to enhance the efficacy of clinically important Top2-targeting anticancer drugs. However, TDP2 as a therapeutic target remains poorly understood. We report herein the discovery of isoquinoline-1,3-dione as a viable chemotype for selectively inhibiting TDP2. The initial hit compound 43 was identified by screening our in-house collection of synthetic compounds. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies identified numerous analogues inhibiting TDP2 in low micromolar range without appreciable inhibition against the homologous TDP1 at the highest testing concentration (111 ?M). The best compound 64 inhibited recombinant TDP2 with an IC50 of 1.9 ?M. The discovery of this chemotype may provide a platform toward understanding TDP2 as a drug target.
Project description:Topoisomerase II (TOP2) relieves topological stress in DNA by introducing double-strand breaks (DSBs) via a transient, covalently linked TOP2 DNA-protein intermediate, termed TOP2 cleavage complex (TOP2cc). TOP2ccs are normally rapidly reversible, but can be stabilized by TOP2 poisons, such as the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide (ETO). TOP2 poisons have shown significant variability in their therapeutic effectiveness across different cancers for reasons that remain to be determined. One potential explanation for the differential cellular response to these drugs is in the manner by which cells process TOP2ccs. Cells are thought to remove TOP2ccs primarily by proteolytic degradation followed by DNA DSB repair. Here, we show that proteasome-mediated repair of TOP2cc is highly error-prone. Pre-treating primary splenic mouse B-cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of trapped TOP2ccs, suppressed the DNA damage response (DDR) and completely protected cells from ETO-induced genome instability, thereby preserving cellular viability. When degradation of TOP2cc was suppressed, the TOP2 enzyme uncoupled itself from the DNA following ETO washout, in an error-free manner. This suggests a potential mechanism of developing resistance to topoisomerase poisons by ensuring rapid TOP2cc reversal.
Project description:The camptothecin derivatives topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors, irinotecan and topotecan, are FDA approved for the treatment of colorectal, ovarian, lung and breast cancers. Because of the chemical instability of camptothecins, short plasma half-life, drug efflux by the multidrug-resistance ABC transporters, and the severe diarrhea produced by irinotecan, indenoisoquinoline TOP1 inhibitors (LMP400, LMP776, and LMP744), which overcome these limitations, have been developed and are in clinical development. Further modifications of the indenoisoquinolines led to the fluoroindenoisoquinolines, one of which, LMP517, is the focus of this study. LMP517 showed better antitumor activity than its parent compound LMP744 against H82 (small cell lung cancer) xenografts. Genetic analyses in DT40 cells showed a dual TOP1 and TOP2 signature with selectivity of LMP517 for DNA repair-deficient tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)- and Ku70-knockout cells. RADAR assays revealed that LMP517, and to a lesser extent LMP744, induce TOP2 cleavage complexes (TOP2cc) in addition to TOP1ccs. Histone ?H2AX detection showed that, unlike classical TOP1 inhibitors, LMP517 targets cells independently of their position in the cell cycle. Our study establishes LMP517 as a dual TOP1 and TOP2 inhibitor with therapeutic potential.
Project description:TDP2 is a multifunctional enzyme previously known for its role in signal transduction as TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) and ETS1-associated protein 2 (EAPII). The gene has recently been renamed TDP2 because it plays a critical role for the repair of topoisomerase II cleavage complexes (Top2cc) and encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes 5'-tyrosine-DNA adducts that mimic abortive Top2cc. Here we further elucidate the DNA-processing activities of human recombinant TDP2 and its biochemical characteristics. The preferred substrate for TDP2 is single-stranded DNA or duplex DNA with a four-base pair overhang, which is consistent with the known structure of Top2cc or Top3cc. The k(cat)/K(m) of TDP1 and TDP2 was determined. It was found to be 4 × 10(5) s(-1)M(-1) for TDP2 using single-stranded 5'-tyrosyl-DNA. The processing of substrates as short as five nucleotides long suggests that TDP2 can directly bind DNA ends. 5'-Phosphodiesterase activity requires a phosphotyrosyl linkage and tolerates an extended group attached to the tyrosine. TDP2 requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) for efficient catalysis but is weakly active with Ca(2+) or Zn(2+). Titration with Ca(2+) demonstrates a two-metal binding site in TDP2. Sequence alignment suggests that TDP2 contains four conserved catalytic motifs shared by Mg(2+)-dependent endonucleases, such as APE1. Substitutions at each of the four catalytic motifs identified key residues Asn-120, Glu-152, Asp-262, and His-351, whose mutation to alanine significantly reduced or completely abolished enzymatic activity. Our study characterizes the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of TDP2. In addition, a two-metal catalytic mechanism is proposed.