Context-Dependent Roles for SIRT2 and SIRT3 in Tumor Development Upon Calorie Restriction or High Fat Diet.
ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction (CR) is considered one of the most robust ways to extend life span and reduce the risk of age-related diseases, including cancer, as shown in many different organisms, whereas opposite effects have been associated with high fat diets (HFDs). Despite the proven contribution of sirtuins in mediating the effects of CR in longevity, the involvement of these nutrient sensors, specifically, in the diet-induced effects on tumorigenesis has yet to be elucidated. Previous studies focusing on SIRT1, do not support a critical role for this sirtuin family member in CR-mediated cancer prevention. However, the contribution of other family members which exhibit strong deacetylase activity is unexplored. To fill this gap, we aimed at investigating the role of SIRT2 and SIRT3 in mediating the anti and pro-tumorigenic effect of CR and HFD, respectively. Our results provide strong evidence supporting distinct, context-dependent roles played by these two family members. SIRT2 is indispensable for the protective effect of CR against tumorigenesis. On the contrary, SIRT3 exhibited oncogenic properties in the context of HFD-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting that SIRT3 inhibition may mitigate the cancer-promoting effects of HFD. Given the different functions regulated by SIRT2 and SIRT3, unraveling downstream targets/pathways involved may provide opportunities to develop new strategies for cancer prevention.
Project description:Genetic ablation as well as pharmacological inhibition of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), an NAD+-dependent protein deacylase, have therapeutic effects in various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we described the discovery of a dual SIRT1/SIRT2 inhibitor called cambinol (IC50 56 and 59 µM, respectively), which showed cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and a marked anti-proliferative effect in a Burkitt lymphoma mouse xenograft model. A number of recent studies have shown a protective effect of SIRT1 and SIRT3 in neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases as well as in certain cancers prompting us to initiate a medicinal chemistry effort to develop cambinol-based SIRT2-specific inhibitors devoid of SIRT1 or SIRT3 modulating activity. Here we describe potent cambinol-based SIRT2 inhibitors, several of which show potency of ~600 nM with >300 to >800-fold selectivity over SIRT1 and 3, respectively. In vitro, these inhibitors are found to be toxic to lymphoma and epithelial cancer cell lines. In particular, compounds 55 (IC50 SIRT2 0.25 µM and <25% inhibition at 50 µM against SIRT1 and SIRT3) and 56 (IC50 SIRT2 0.78 µM and <25% inhibition at 50 µM against SIRT1 and SIRT3) showed apoptotic as well as strong anti-proliferative properties against B-cell lymphoma cells.
Project description:SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family of protein lysine deacylases, has been identified as a promising therapeutic target for treating cancer. In addition to catalyzing deacetylation, SIRT2 has recently been shown to remove fatty acyl groups from K-Ras4a and promote its transforming activity. Among the SIRT2-specific inhibitors, only the thiomyristoyl lysine compound TM can weakly inhibit the demyristoylation activity of SIRT2. Therefore, more potent small-molecule SIRT2 inhibitors are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of SIRT2 inhibition, and to understand the function of protein lysine defatty-acylation. Herein we report a SIRT2 inhibitor, JH-T4, which can increase K-Ras4a lysine fatty acylation. This is the first small-molecule inhibitor that can modulate the lysine fatty acylation levels of K-Ras4a. JH-T4 also inhibits SIRT1 and SIRT3 in?vitro. The increased potency of JH-T4 is likely due to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxy group and SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3. This is further supported by in?vitro studies with another small-molecule inhibitor, NH-TM. These studies provide useful insight for future SIRT2 inhibitor development.
Project description:Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] causes malignant cell transformation. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial adaptive response to stress, such as metabolic reprogramming and antioxidant defense mechanisms. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, SIRT3 was upregulated and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and proton leak were reduced. Knockdown of SIRT3 by its shRNA further decreased mitochondrial ATP production, proton leak, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that SIRT3 positively regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity. Mitophagy is critical to maintain proper cellular functions. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells expressions of Pink 1 and Parkin, two mitophagy proteins, were elevated, and mitophagy remained similar as that in passage-matched normal BEAS-2B cells, indicating that in -Cr(VI)-transformed cells mitophagy is suppressed. Knockdown of SIRT3 induced mitophagy, suggesting that SIRT3 plays an important role in mitophagy suppression of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) was constitutively activated, and protein levels of p62 and p-p62Ser349 were elevated. Knockdown of SIRT3 or treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) decreased the binding of p-p62Ser349 to Keap1, resulting in increased binding of Keap1 to Nrf2 and consequently reduced Nrf2 activation. The results from CHIP assay showed that in Cr(VI)-transformed cells binding of Nrf2 to antioxidant response element (ARE) of SIRT3 gene promoter was dramatically increased. Knockdown of SIRT3 suppressed cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Overexpression of SIRT3 in normal BEAS-2B cells exhibited mitophagy suppression phenotype and increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The present study demonstrated that upregulation of SIRT3 causes mitophagy suppression and plays an important role in cell survival and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells.
Project description:Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) and SIRT3 are cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD-dependent deacetylases. SIRT2 and SIRT3 target proteins involved in metabolic, proliferation and inflammation pathways and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, metabolic and oncologic disorders. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects have been attributed to SIRT2 and SIRT3, and single deficiency in SIRT2 or SIRT3 had minor or no impact on antimicrobial innate immune responses. Here, we generated a SIRT2/3 double deficient mouse line to study the interactions between SIRT2 and SIRT3. SIRT2/3-/- mice developed normally and showed subtle alterations of immune cell populations in the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, blood and peritoneal cavity that contained notably more anti-inflammatory B-1a cells and less NK cells. In vitro, SIRT2/3-/- macrophages favored fatty acid oxidation (FAO) over glycolysis and produced increased levels of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In line with metabolic adaptation and increased numbers of peritoneal B-1a cells, SIRT2/3-/- mice were robustly protected from endotoxemia. Yet, SIRT2/3 double deficiency did not modify endotoxin tolerance. Overall, these data suggest that sirtuins can act in concert or compensate each other for certain immune functions, a parameter to be considered for drug development. Moreover, inhibitors targeting multiple sirtuins developed for clinical purposes may be useful to treat inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Sirtuins constitute a family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of various acyl groups from the ?-amino group of lysines. They regulate a series of cellular processes and their misregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making sirtuins attractive drug targets. To date, only a few sirtuin modulators have been reported that are suitable for cellular research and their development has been hampered by a lack of structural information. In this work, microseed matrix seeding (MMS) was used to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 in its apo form and of human Sirt2 in complex with ADP ribose (ADPR). Crystal formation using MMS was predictable, less error-prone and yielded a higher number of crystals per drop than using conventional crystallization screening methods. The crystals were used to solve the crystal structures of apo Sirt3 and of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR at an improved resolution, as well as the crystal structures of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR and the indoles EX527 and CHIC35. These Sirt2-ADPR-indole complexes unexpectedly contain two indole molecules and provide novel insights into selective Sirt2 inhibition. The MMS approach for Sirt2 and Sirt3 may be used as the basis for structure-based optimization of Sirt2/3 inhibitors in the future.
Project description:Human studies suggest that high-fat diets (HFDs) increase the risk of breast cancer. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis rat model is commonly used to evaluate the effects of lifestyle factors such as HFD on mammary tumor risk. Past studies focused primarily on the effects of continuous maternal exposure on the risk of offspring at the end of puberty (PND50). We assessed the effects of prenatal HFD exposure on cancer susceptibility in prepubertal mammary glands and identified key gene networks associated with such disruption. During pregnancy, dams were fed AIN-93G-based diets with isocaloric high olive oil, butterfat or safflower oil. The control group received AIN-93G. Female offspring were treated with DMBA on PND21. However, a significant increase in tumor volume and a trend of shortened tumor latency were observed in rats with HFD exposure against the controls (P=.048 and P=.067, respectively). Large-volume tumors harbored carcinoma in situ. Transcriptome profiling identified 43 differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of the HFBUTTER group as compared with control. Rapid hormone signaling was the most dysregulated pathway. The diet also induced aberrant expression of Dnmt3a, Mbd1 and Mbd3, consistent with potential epigenetic disruption. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence supporting susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands to DMBA-induced tumorigenesis that can be modulated by dietary fat that involves aberrant gene expression and likely epigenetic dysregulation.
Project description:Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a sirtuin family deacetylase, which maintains genome integrity and prevents tumorigenesis. Although Sirt2 deficiency in mice leads to tumorigenesis, the functional significance of somatic SIRT2 mutations in human tumors is unclear. Using structural insight combined with bioinformatics and functional analyses, we show that naturally occurring cancer-associated SIRT2 mutations at evolutionarily conserved sites disrupt its deacetylation of DNA-damage response proteins by impairing SIRT2 catalytic activity or protein levels but not its localization or binding with substrate. We observed that these SIRT2 mutant proteins fail to restore the replication stress sensitivity, impairment in recovery from replication stress, and impairment in ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) focus accumulation of SIRT2 deficiency. Moreover, the SIRT2 mutant proteins failed to rescue the spontaneous induction of DNA damage and micronuclei of SIRT2 deficiency in cancer cells. Our findings support a model for SIRT2's tumor-suppressive function in which somatic mutations in SIRT2 contribute to genomic instability by impairing its deacetylase activity or diminishing its protein levels in the DNA-damage response. In conclusion, our work provides a mechanistic basis for understanding the biological and clinical significance of SIRT2 mutations in genome maintenance and tumor suppression.
Project description:The silent information regulator 2 related enzyme 2 (SIRT2) has been reported to have an important role in tumorigenesis. Although two distinct effects of SIRT2 have recently been revealed, which explain opposing expression patterns in different types of cancer, the specific function of SIRT2 in ovarian cancer remains unknown. The present study investigated the expression of SIRT2 in serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) and its pathogenic mechanism. It was observed that SIRT2 expression in SOC was significantly downregulated when compared with ovarian surface epithelium via western blot and immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis revealed that attenuated expression of SIRT2 was associated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification of ovarian cancer. Reduced SIRT2 expression during tumorigenesis failed to repress cyclin‑dependent kinase 4 expression, which eventually led to accelerated cell proliferation. Furthermore, the wound healing assay and Transwell assay determined that reduced expression of SIRT2 promoted SOC cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that SIRT2 has a tumor‑suppressor function in ovarian cells and it might be a viable target for further SOC treatment.
Project description:Metabolic homeostasis is differently regulated in males and females. Little is known about the mitochondrial Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) protein in the context of sex-related differences in the development of metabolic dysregulation. To test our hypothesis that the role of Sirt3 in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) is sex-related, we measured metabolic, antioxidative, and mitochondrial parameters in the liver of Sirt3 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice of both sexes fed with a standard or HFD for ten weeks. We found that the combined effect of Sirt3 and an HFD was evident in more parameters in males (lipid content, glucose uptake, ppar?, cyp2e1, cyp4a14, Nrf2, MnSOD activity) than in females (protein damage and mitochondrial respiration), pointing towards a higher reliance of males on the effect of Sirt3 against HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation. The male-specific effects of an HFD also include reduced Sirt3 expression in WT and alleviated lipid accumulation and reduced glucose uptake in KO mice. In females, with a generally higher expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis, either the HFD or Sirt3 depletion compromised mitochondrial respiration and increased protein oxidative damage. This work presents new insights into sex-related differences in the various physiological parameters with respect to nutritive excess and Sirt3.
Project description:Acetylation has recently emerged as an important mechanism for controlling a broad array of proteins mediating cellular adaptation to metabolic fuels. Acetylation is governed, in part, by SIRTs (sirtuins), class III NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in liver during fasting and aging. However, the role of acetylation or SIRTs in pathogenic hepatic fuel metabolism under nutrient excess is unknown. In the present study, we isolated acetylated proteins from total liver proteome and observed 193 preferentially acetylated proteins in mice fed on an HFD (high-fat diet) compared with controls, including 11 proteins not previously identified in acetylation studies. Exposure to the HFD led to hyperacetylation of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, methionine metabolism, liver injury and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress response. Livers of mice fed on the HFD had reduced SIRT3 activity, a 3-fold decrease in hepatic NAD(+) levels and increased mitochondrial protein oxidation. In contrast, neither SIRT1 nor histone acetyltransferase activities were altered, implicating SIRT3 as a dominant factor contributing to the observed phenotype. In Sirt3?(/)? mice, exposure to the HFD further increased the acetylation status of liver proteins and reduced the activity of respiratory complexes III and IV. This is the first study to identify acetylation patterns in liver proteins of HFD-fed mice. Our results suggest that SIRT3 is an integral regulator of mitochondrial function and its depletion results in hyperacetylation of critical mitochondrial proteins that protect against hepatic lipotoxicity under conditions of nutrient excess.