Efficacy and safety of anti-viral therapy for Hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis: A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To assess the potency of anti-viral treatment for hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN). Method: We searched for controlled clinical trials on anti-viral therapy for HBV-GN in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed from inception to March 11th 2019. Seven trials, including 182 patients met the criteria for evaluating. The primary outcome measures were proteinuria and changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the secondary outcome measure was hepatitis B e-antigen clearance. A fixed or random effect model was established to analyze the data. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the effects of clinical trial type, anti-viral drug type, age, and follow-up duration. RESULTS:The total remission rate of proteinuria (OR = 10.48, 95% CI: 4.60-23.89, I2 = 0%), complete remission rate of proteinuria (OR = 11.64, 95% CI: 5.17-26.21, I2 = 23%) and clearance rate of Hepatitis Be Antigen (HBeAg) were significantly higher in the anti-viral treatment group than in the control group (OR = 27.08, 95% CI: 3.71-197.88, I2 = 63%). However, antiviral therapy was not as effective regarding the eGFR (MD = 5.74, 95% CI: -4.24-15.73). In the subgroup analysis, age and drug type had significant impacts on proteinuria remission, and study type and follow-up duration only slightly affected the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION:Antiviral therapy induced remission of proteinuria and increased HBeAg clearance but failed to improve the eGFR. Pediatric patients were more sensitive to antiviral therapy than adults. IFNs seem more effective but are accompanied by more adverse reactions than NAs.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy (HBV-MN) is the most common renal extra-hepatic manifestation in patients with chronic HBV infection. In September 2015, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, and the reference lists of retrieved articles, to identify relevant studies. Descriptions of antiviral drugs used to treat HBV-MN were included in our review. Two authors independently screened all relevant articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Nine hundred and fifty-four papers have been considered after electronic and manual searching, only five relevant studies were identified. Complete remission (OR = 26.87, 95% CI: 8.06 to 89.52), total remission (OR = 10.31, 95% CI: 3.59 to 29.63) of proteinuria and HBeAg clearance (OR = 20.91, 95% CI: 6.90 to 63.39) increased significantly after antiviral therapy. No significant differences were seen between interferon and nucleoside analog treatments. Our study found that antiviral therapy was an effective treatment in HBV-MN patients; interferon and nucleoside analogs were equally effective at causing proteinuria remission and HBeAg clearance.
Project description:Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)–negative chronic hepatitis B infection has a presentation and clinical course that is divergent from that of HBeAg?positive infection. The former usually presents with lower viral levels but faster progression to liver disease. We sought to better understand the balance between replication and the immune response against hepatitis B virus (HBV).Viral kinetics in 50 HBeAg?negative patients under various treatment protocols with interferon ? and/or nucleoside or nucleotide analogs was analyzed. HBV DNA level was measured frequently and the data fitted to a viral dynamic model. A meta?analysis of all published studies of viral kinetics in HBeAg?positive and HBeAg?negative infection was also conducted.We found that the clearance of both HBV virions and infected cells was significantly faster in HBeAg?negative infection than in HBeAg?positive infection. In HBeAg?negative infection, there was also a negative correlation between baseline HBV DNA levels and infected cell half?life, suggesting that the higher the viral load the faster the turnover of infected cells.These results reveal the dual role played by the immune response in maintaining lower viral levels and inducing faster turnover of infected cells, the latter of which may be responsible for the more aggressive nature of HBeAg?negative infection.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, which progresses to fatal liver diseases and remains a global health problem. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B are unable to cure hepatitis. Thus, new antiviral drugs must be developed. In this study, the viral inhibition effects of dandelion and taraxasterol were assessed in HepG2.2.15 cell line. Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg. (compositae) with English name dandelion is used as a traditional herb for liver disorders and as a common antiviral agent. Taraxasterol is one of the active compounds of dandelion. The secretion of HBV DNA and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg was detected using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ELISA, respectively. Intracellular HBsAg was detected by immunofluorescence. In order to demonstrate the potential mechanism of anti-viral activity, the expression levels of host factors polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were detected with Western blotting and qPCR. Dandelion and taraxasterol effectively reduced the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg and the HBV DNA in cell supernatants, and significantly reduced the intracellular HBsAg as indicated by immunofluorescence results. Taraxasterol may be one of the main effective components of dandelion. It significantly decreased the protein expression levels of PTBP1 and SIRT1. The present study revealed that dandelion and its component taraxasterol could inhibit HBV and may be a potential anti-HBV drug, whose potential targets were the host factors PTBP1 and SIRT1.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy of tenofovir and entecavir in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B. METHODS:The Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Clinical Trials and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the comparison between tenofovir and entecavir in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) since the date of database inception to July 2019. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the obtained studies and extracted the outcome indexes. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS:Early on, tenofovir had a greater ability to inhibit the hepatitis B virus, I2 = 0% [RR = 1.08, 95% CI (1.03, 1.13), P<0.01] (96 weeks). Entecavir can normalize the ALT levels earlier, I2 = 0% [RR = 0.87, 95% CI (0.77, 0.98), P = 0.02] (48 weeks). However, there was no statistically significant difference between TDF and ETV at 144 weeks. Tenofovir was as effective as entecavir in terms of HBeAg clearance and HBeAg seroconversion, I2 = 0% [RR = 1.05, 95% CI (0.68, 1.62), P = 0.82]; I2 = 69% [RR = 0.93, 95% CI (0.54, 1.61), P = 0.80]. The difference in the incidence of elevated creatine kinase levels was not statistically significant I2 = 0% [RR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.27, 1.60), P = 0.35]. CONCLUSIONS:Tenofovir and entecavir were equally effective in the treatment of patients with nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B. In addition, TDF has an advantage in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Additional RCTs and a large-sample prospective cohort study should be performed.
Project description:Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward.The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected children. The genotype and phenotype of human cytokines, innate immunity, and human leukocyte antigens are also associated with the onset of immune clearance of HBV and severity of inflammation. Immune escape HBV mutant strains, emerged during the immune clearance phase under host immune surveillance, may cause different impacts on viral biosynthesis, host immune responses, and clinical course.Early events in childhood during chronic HBV infection may serve as important predictors for the later outcome in adulthood. Understanding the mechanisms triggering liver inflammation and their long-term impacts may enhance the development of better and earlier therapeutic strategies for patients with chronic HBV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interferon-alpha2 (IFNalpha2) is routinely used for anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment. However, the therapeutic efficiency is unsatisfactory, particularly in East Asia. Such inefficiency might be a result of the short half-life, relatively low local concentration and strong side-effects of interferons. Frequent and repeated injection is also a big burden for patients. In the present study, a single dose of vector-delivered IFNalpha1 was tested for its anti-HBV effects. METHODS:Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV-IFNalpha1) was generated to deliver the IFNalpha1 gene into hepatocytes. IFNalpha1, hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and e (HBeAg) antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blotting. The level of viral DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:AAV-IFNalpha1 effectively transduced HBV-producing cells (HepAD38) and mouse hepatocytes, where IFNalpha1 was expressed in a stable manner. Both intracellular and extracellular HBsAg and HBeAg were significantly reduced in vitro. In the HBV-producing mice, the concentration of IFNalpha1 in the liver was eight-fold higher than that in plasma. Compared with control groups, HBeAg/HBsAg antigen levels were reduced by more than ten-fold from day 1-5, and dropped to an undetectable level on day 9 in the AAV-IFNalpha1 group. Concurrently, the level of viral DNA decreased over 30-fold for several weeks. CONCLUSIONS:A single dose administration of AAV-IFNalpha1 viral vector displayed prolonged transgene expression and superior antiviral effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the use of AAV-IFNalpha1 might be a potential alternative strategy for anti-HBV therapy.
Project description:We present a case of fetal liver failure caused by the activation of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) nine months after lamivudine treatment. A 57-year old man visited our hospital for the treatment of decompensated chronic hepatitis B. Lamivudine was started in December 2001. Subsequently, serum HBV was negative for HBV DNA with seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe and improvement of liver function. However, HBV DNA and HBeAg were again detected in September 2002. He was complicated by breakthrough hepatitis and admitted to our hospital in November for severely impaired liver function. Vidarabine treatment was started and serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased transiently. However, after the start of alpha-interferon treatment, HBV DNA level increased and liver function deteriorated. He died 1 mo after admission. An analysis of amino acid sequences in the polymerase region revealed that rtM204I/V with rtL80I/V occurred at the time of viral breakthrough. After the start of antiviral treatment, rtL180M was detected in addition to rtM204I/V and rtL80I/V, and became predominant in the terminal stage of the disease. HBV clone with a high replication capacity may be produced by antiviral treatment leading to the worsening of liver function. Antiviral therapy for patients with breakthrough hepatitis in advanced liver disease should be carefully performed.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute hepatitis B (AHB), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the serum generally indicates ongoing viral replication and disease progression. However, the mechanism by which HBeAg regulates HBV infection remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that participate in host innate immunity. After binding to receptors, IFNs activate the JAK/STAT pathway to stimulate expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), leading to induction of antiviral responses. Here, we revealed that HBeAg represses IFN/JAK/STAT signaling to facilitate HBV replication. Initially, HBeAg stimulates the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2). Subsequently, SOCS2 impairs IFN/JAK/STAT signaling through reducing the stability of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), downregulating the expression of type I and III IFN receptors, attenuating the phosphorylation and nucleus translocation of STAT1. Finally, SOCS2 inhibits the expression of ISGs, which leads to the repression of IFN action and facilitation of viral replication. These results demonstrate an important role of HBeAg in the regulation of IFN action, and provide a possible molecular mechanism by which HBV resists the IFN therapy and maintains persistent infection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Alterations in the immune system can result in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) flares either during pregnancy or after delivery in women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess changes in serum biochemical and virological markers of HBV infection during and after pregnancy in a large North American cohort of pregnant women with chronic HBV. METHODS:Adult pregnant women enrolled in the Hepatitis B Research Network between 2011 and 2016 were included. Serum ALT values and HBV DNA viral levels were obtained at <28 weeks and >28 weeks of gestation and <16 weeks, 16-31 weeks, and 32-48 weeks postpartum. Outcomes of ALT flares included severity, duration, and initiation of antiviral therapy. RESULTS:Among the 158 pregnant women with chronic HBV, the median age was 33 years, 73% were Asian, and 63% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative. The median HBV DNA level was substantially higher in the HBeAg-positive vs HBeAg-negative women (1.3 × 10 vs 343 IU/mL), but serum ALT levels at their first study visit were similar. Among untreated pregnant women, there was a very mild increase in serum ALT postpartum among both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative women (P < 0.001). Serum ALT flares (range 107-513 U/L) developed in 3.4% (5/149) during pregnancy and in 4.3% (4/92) after delivery. Twenty-two percent were initiated on antiviral therapy. After withdrawal of prophylactic anti-HBV therapy, 17.2% (5/29) developed serum ALT flares (range 107-208 U/L) within 14 weeks of drug discontinuation, and 3 additional women had flares despite continuous anti-HBV therapy during pregnancy or postpartum. Many ALT flares were not associated with significant changes in HBV DNA levels. No flares were severe with elevations of bilirubin or clinical decompensation. DISCUSSION:Spontaneous ALT flares in untreated pregnant women with chronic HBV are infrequent, mild, and self-limited both prepartum and postpartum. Although flares after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy postpartum are more common, they were also mild and self-limited. Further studies of the immunopathogenesis of pregnancy-related flares are needed, as well as effects on long-term outcome of the mother and infant.
Project description:The immune mechanisms underlying failure to achieve hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion associated with viral control in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain unclear. Here we investigated the role of CD4(-)CD8(-) T (double-negative T; DNT) cells including TCR??(+) DNT (?? DNT) and TCR??(+) DNT (?? DNT) cells. Frequencies of circulating DNT cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in a retrospective cohort of 51 telbivudine-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients, 25 immune tolerant carriers (IT), 33 inactive carriers (IC), and 37 healthy controls (HC). We found that ?? DNT cell frequencies did not significantly change during treatment, being lower at baseline (P?=?0.019) in patients with HBeAg seroconversion after 52 weeks of antiviral therapy (n?=?20) than in those without (n?=?31), and higher in the total CHB and IT than IC and HC groups (P<0.001). ?? DNT cell frequencies were similar for all groups. In vitro, ?? DNT cells suppressed HBV core peptide-stimulated interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-? production in TCR??(+)CD8(+) T cells, which may require cell-cell contact, and could be partially reversed by anti-NKG2A. These findings suggest that ?? DNT cells limit CD8(+) T cell response to HBV, and may impede HBeAg seroconversion in CHB.