ABSTRACT: We present a 4-year-old girl with persistent anterior fontanelle and narrow sloping shoulders. The X-ray imaging revealed widely open anterior fontanelle, supernumerary teeth, and absence of clavicles. Therefore, the diagnosis was cleidocranial dysplasia, which is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disease, caused by the mutation in the gene on 6p21 encoding transcription factor CBFA1 (runt-related transcription factor 2-RUNX2). The girl remains under close surveilance, her anterior fontanelle closed spontaneously at the age of 9 years.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of clavicles, failure of cranial suture closure, dental anomalies, short stature and other changes in skeletal patterning and growth. The gene responsible for pathogenesis has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6p21, core binding factor alpha-1 (CBFA1) or runt related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2). Here we describe a CCD patient with a novel mutation in the RUNX2 gene. A five-and-a-half year old girl presented with severe short stature, dysmorphic facial appearance (hypertelorism, prominent forehead, high palate, midfacial hypoplasia), macrocephaly, large anterior fontanelle, increased anteroposterior chest diameter. Her shoulders were close to each other and her bilateral clavicles appeared short on physical examination. Bilateral hypoplastic clavicles, coxa valga, hypoplasia of iliac bones, wide symphysis pubis and phalangeal dysplastic features were detected on her skeletal X-ray examination. She was diagnosed as having CCD. Molecular analysis detected a novel heterozygous mutation ‘NM_001024630.3p.T155P(c.463A>C)’ in the RUNX2 gene. At age seven years and two months old, because of her severe short stature, growth hormone (GH) treatment was started and she responded well to GH therapy with no adverse effects. In conclusion, hypoplasia or aplasia of the clavicles, failure of cranial suture closure, dental anomalies and short stature should bring CCD to mind. We present a novel mutation in the RUNX2 gene for CCD. We obtained growth velocity gain with GH treatment in our patient.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) (MIM 119600) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterised by abnormal clavicles, patent sutures and fontanelles, supernumerary teeth, short stature, and a variety of other skeletal changes. The disease gene has been mapped to chromosome 6p21 within a region containing CBFA1, a member of the runt family of transcription factors. Mutations in the CBFA1 gene that presumably lead to synthesis of an inactive gene product were identified in patients with CCD. The function of CBFA1 during skeletal development was further elucidated by the generation of mutated mice in which the Cbfa1 gene locus was targeted. Loss of one Cbfa1 allele (+/-) leads to a phenotype very similar to human CCD, featuring hypoplasia of the clavicles and patent fontanelles. Loss of both alleles (-/-) leads to a complete absence of bone owing to a lack of osteoblast differentiation. These studies show that haploinsufficiency of CBFA1 causes the CCD phenotype. CBFA1 controls differentiation of precursor cells into osteoblasts and is thus essential for membranous as well as endochondral bone formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare skeletal disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance that is characterized by hypoplastic clavicles, delayed closure of the cranial sutures, dental abnormalities, and short stature, among other features. The responsible gene for CCD is RUNX2 located on the short arm of chromosome 6p21. In general, there are intrafamilial variations in height among CCD patients. Few studies have reported data on recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment for patients with CCD; thus, it remains to be elucidated whether rhGH treatment can improve short stature. Here, we report a case of a 6-year-old girl with CCD who has growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and a novel mutation of RUNX2. CASE PRESENTATION:At 5?years of age, this patient was diagnosed with GHD and rhGH treatment was initiated. Thereafter, she was diagnosed with CCD due to the presence of hypoplastic clavicles and an open fontanelle, which was also observed in her mother and brother. She responded well to rhGH treatment; her height improved from -?3.2 SD to -?2.4 SD after 13?months. CONCLUSION:A detailed patient history and physical examination are necessary for the early diagnosis of CCD. Similarly, to ascertain the effect of rhGH treatment, careful evaluation of the patient's final height post-therapy is needed.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by patent fontanelles, wide cranial sutures, hypoplasia of clavicles, short stature, supernumerary teeth, and other skeletal anomalies. We recently demonstrated that mutations in the transcription factor CBFA1, on chromosome 6p21, are associated with CCD. We have now analyzed the CBFA1 gene in 42 unrelated patients with CCD. In 18 patients, mutations were detected in the coding region of the CBFA1 gene, including 8 frameshift, 2 nonsense, and 9 missense mutations, as well as 2 novel polymorphisms. A cluster of missense mutations at arginine 225 (R225) identifies this residue as crucial for CBFA1 function. In vitro green fluorescent protein fusion studies show that R225 mutations interfere with nuclear accumulation of CBFA1 protein. There is no phenotypic difference between patients with deletions or frameshifts and those with other intragenic mutations, suggesting that CCD is generally caused by haploinsufficiency. However, we were able to extend the CCD phenotypic spectrum. A missense mutation identified in one family with supernumerary teeth and a radiologically normal skeleton indicates that mutations in CBFA1 can be associated exclusively with a dental phenotype. In addition, one patient with severe CCD and a frameshift mutation in codon 402 had osteoporosis leading to recurrent bone fractures and scoliosis, providing first evidence that CBFA1 may help maintain adult bone, in addition to its function in bone development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder resulting in skeletal and dental abnormalities due to the disturbance in ossification of the bones. The prevalence of CCD is one in a million of live births, and epileptic seizures are rarer in this disease. CASE PRESENTATION:Herein, we present a case of a 10-year-old girl, who not only suffered with cleidocranial dysplasia, but experienced frequent seizures. We initiated an anti-epileptic treatment for this patient with dose adjustments to her weight of levetiracetam (10?mg/kg, bid) for 3?months. The epileptic seizures were controlled, but the intelligence level and control of epilepsy need to be followed up for a longer duration. CONCLUSIONS:In clinical practice, if a patient has unusual facies, typical clavicle defect, skull bone enlargement, and unclosed anterior fontanelle, we should consider the possibility of cleidocranial dysplasia, genetic detection are helpful to make a confirmed diagnosis. In such cases, early diagnosis and treatment is important to correct deformities and improve the quality of life of patients.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant condition, causing hypoplasia of the clavicle, abnormal formation of teeth, skeletal and craniofacial bones. CCD is caused by the mutation of RUNX2/CBFA1 present in the short arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.1, a transcription factor essential for the formation of teeth, cartilage and bone. Patients with CCD show the classical features of excessive mobility of the shoulder bone, lack of resorption of the deciduous teeth, failure to erupt permanent teeth, multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth, and open fontanelle and sutures of the skull. In this article we report a case of CCD in a 16-year-old male patient, with an aim to highlight the clinical, radiological and recommended treatment guidelines.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare hereditary disorder that arises from heterozygous loss of function mutations in the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. As RUNX2 is mainly expressed in osteoblasts, CCD typically affects the skeletal and dental systems. Few studies have investigated RUNX2 mutation effects on non-skeletal systems. Here, we describe limb-girdle myopathy, an uncommon phenotype of CCD, in a patient with a heterozygous missense mutation (p.R225Q) in the RUNX2 gene.A 58 year-old man presented with progressive back pain and six months of weakness in the proximal parts of all four limbs. Physical examinations showed that he was short in stature (height, 164.4 cm; weight, 79.1 kg) with a dysmorphic face, including hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia, and chin protrusion. At a young age, he had received orthodontic surgery, due to dental abnormalities. Neurological examinations revealed sloping shoulders, weakness, and atrophy in the proximal areas of the arms, shoulder girdle muscles, and legs. The deep tendon reflex and sensory system were normal. Radiological examinations revealed mild scoliosis, shortened clavicles, and a depressed skull bone, which were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of CCD. Electromyography (EMG) studies showed myogenic polyphasic waves in the deltoid, biceps brachii, and rectus femoris muscles. Instead, the EMG findings were normal in the first dorsal interosseous, tibialis anterior and facial muscles. The EMG findings were compatible with a limb-girdle pattern with facial sparing. The patient's family history showed his father and eldest daughter with similar dysmorphic faces, skeletal disorders and proximal upper extremity weakness. We sequenced the RUNX2 gene and discovered a heterozygous missense mutation (c.G674A, p.R225Q), which altered the C-terminal end of the RUNX2 protein. This mutation was predicted to inactivate the protein and might affect its interactions with other proteins. This mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotypes in the family.We described limb-girdle myopathy in a patient with CCD that carried a heterozygous RUNX2 missense mutation. This uncommon phenotype expanded the phenotypic spectrum of the RUNX2 p.R225Q mutation. The role of RUNX2 in myogenic development merits future studies. Our findings remind clinicians that myopathic patients with myopathies combined with facial dysmorphism and shortened clavicles should consider the diagnosis of CCD.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia associated with cranial, clavicular, and dental anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the RUNX2 gene, which encodes an osteoblast-specific transcription factor and maps to chromosome 6p21. We report clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with clinical features of CCD including wormian bones, delayed fontanel closure, hypoplastic clavicles and pubic rami, and supernumerary dentition. Additional abnormalities of bone growth and connective tissue, including easy bruisability, scarring, bleeding, joint hypermobility, and developmental delay were also observed. Molecular cytogenetic studies identified a de novo apparently balanced three-way translocation 46,XY,t(4;6;21)(p16;p21.1;q21). Further mapping revealed the breakpoint on 6p21 to be approximately 50 kb upstream of exon 1 of the RUNX2 gene, with RUNX2 being intact on the derivative chromosome 6. We hypothesize that the proband's CCD has arisen from disruption of the developmentally regulated gene RUNX2 at the 6p21 breakpoint, due to a position effect mutation which may have altered the expression of the gene. Further studies might unravel a new regulatory element for RUNX2.
Project description:Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human skeletal disorder comprising hypoplastic clavicles, wide cranial sutures, supernumerary teeth, short stature, and other skeletal abnormalities. It is known that mutations in the human RUNX2 gene mapped at 6p21 are responsible for CCD. We analyzed the mutation patterns of the RUNX2 gene by direct sequencing in six Taiwanese index cases with typical CCD. One of the patients was a familial case and the others were sporadic cases. Sequencing identified four mutations. Three were caused by single nucleotide substitutions, which created a nonsense (p.R391X), two were missense mutations (p.R190W, p.R225Q), and the forth was a novel mutation (c.1119delC), a one-base deletion. Real time quantitative PCR adapted to determine copy numbers of the promoter, all exons and the 3'UTR region of the RUNX2 gene detected the deletion of a single allele in a sporadic case. The results extend the spectrum of RUNX2 mutations in CCD patients and indicate that complete deletions of the RUNX2 gene should be considered in those CCD patients lacking a point mutation detected by direct sequencing.
Project description:We report an unusual combination of features comprising delayed tooth eruption and closure of the anterior fontanel as the sole presenting features in a child with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Radiological survey revealed the presence of wormian bones in the skull, pseudoepiphysis at the base of the bilateral second metacarpal, and midline ossification defects at pubic symphysis in the presence of essentially normal clavicles. DNA sequencing of the RUNX2 gene detected a novel nonsense mutation in exon1 (c.166C>T; p.Q56X) in its glutamine-alanine (Q/A) repeat domain. The genotypes of all published cases of CCD with normal clavicles were reviewed. Additional dental and otolaryngological features were enlisted. Three cases with a milder dental phenotype and normal clavicles were associated with a mutation in the Q/A domain. Collectively, we found a novel CCD-causing nonsense mutation p.Q56X in the Q/A domain of the RUNX2 gene.