A Recombinant La Sota Vaccine Strain Expressing Multiple Epitopes of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Protects Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) Chickens against IBV and NDV Challenges.
ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are two major infectious diseases that are a threat to the domestic poultry industry. In this study, we successfully generated a recombinant LaSota candidate vaccine strain, rNDV-IBV-T/B, which expresses a short, synthetic, previously identified IBV S1 multi-epitope cassette using the reverse genetic system. The recombinant virus was propagated in nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs for 20 passages and genetic stability was confirmed by whole genome DNA sequencing. The recombinant virus had a hemagglutination (HA) titer of 210, mean death time (MDT) of 118 hours, and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 0.05. None of these were significantly different from the parental Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain (p > 0.05). Vaccination of white leghorn chickens at one day of age with 106 EID50 rNDV-IBV-T/B provided 90% protection against virulent IBV M41 challenge at three weeks of age, which was significantly higher than the protection of the control group vaccinated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (p < 0.05). The ciliostasis scores of rNDV-IBV-T/B-vaccinated and LaSota-vaccinated groups were 4.2 and 37.6, respectively, which indicated that rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination reduced the pathogenicity of IBV toward the trachea. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR assay showed that the rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination resulted in low levels of viral load (647.80 ± 49.65 RNA copies) in the trachea four days post-challenge, which is significantly lower than groups vaccinated with PBS (8591.25 ± 311.10 RNA copies) or LaSota (7742.60 ± 298.50 RNA copies) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the same dose of rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination provided complete protection against velogenic NDV F48E9 challenge. These results demonstrate that the rNDV-IBV-T/B strain is a promising vaccine candidate to control both IB and ND simultaneously. Furthermore, epitope-based live vector vaccines provide an alternative strategy for the development of cost-effective and, broadly, cross-protective vaccines.
Project description:Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two highly contagious diseases that severely threaten the poultry industry. The goal of this study is to prevent these two diseases and reduce the vaccine costs during storage and transportation. In this study, we design a thermostable recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) candidate live vaccine strain designated as rLS-T-HN-T/B, which expresses the multiple epitope cassette of the identified infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) (S-T/B). The rLS-T-HN-T/B strain was found to possess similar growth kinetics, passage stability, morphological characteristics, and virulence to the parental LaSota strain. After incubation at 56 °C at the indicated time points, the rLS-T-HN-T/B strain was determined by the hemagglutination (HA), and 50% embryo infectious dose (EID<sub>50</sub>) assays demonstrated that it accords with the criteria for thermostability. The thermostable rLS-T-HN-T/B and parental LaSota vaccines were stored at 25 °C for 16 days prior to immunizing the one-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. Three weeks postimmunization, the virus challenge results suggested that the chicks vaccinated with the rLS-T-HN-T/B vaccine were protected by 100% and 90% against a lethal dose of NDV and IBV, respectively. Furthermore, the trachea ciliary activity assay indicated that the mean ciliostasis score of the chicks vaccinated with thermostable rLS-T-HN-T/B vaccine was significantly superior to that of the LaSota and PBS groups (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The rLS-T-HN-T/B vaccine stored at 25 °C for 16 days remained capable of eliciting the immune responses and protecting against IBV and NDV challenges. However, the same storage conditions had a great impact on the parental LaSota strain vaccinated chicks, and the NDV challenge protection ratio was only 20%. We conclude that the thermostable rLS-T-HN-T/B strain is a hopeful bivalent candidate vaccine to control both IB and ND and provides an alternative strategy for the development of cost-effective vaccines for village chickens, especially in the rural areas of developing countries.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a major disease problem for the poultry industry worldwide. The currently used live-attenuated vaccines have the tendency to mutate and/or recombine with circulating field strains resulting in the emergence of vaccine-derived variant viruses. In order to circumvent these issues, and to develop a vaccine that is more relevant to Egypt and its neighboring countries, a recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota was constructed to express the codon-optimized S glycoprotein of the Egyptian IBV variant strain IBV/Ck/EG/CU/4/2014 belonging to GI-23 lineage, that is prevalent in Egypt and in the Middle East. A wild type and two modified versions of the IBV S protein were expressed individually by rNDV. A high level of S protein expression was detected in vitro by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. All rNDV-vectored IBV vaccine candidates were genetically stable, slightly attenuated and showed growth patterns comparable to that of parental rLaSota virus. Single-dose vaccination of 1-day-old SPF White Leghorn chicks with the rNDVs expressing IBV S protein provided significant protection against clinical disease after IBV challenge but did not show reduction in tracheal viral shedding. Single-dose vaccination also provided complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. However, prime-boost vaccination using rNDV expressing the wild type IBV S protein provided better protection, after IBV challenge, against clinical signs and significantly reduced tracheal viral shedding. These results indicate that the NDV-vectored IBV vaccines are promising bivalent vaccine candidates to control both infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in Egypt.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious respiratory, reproductive and urogenital tract disease in chickens worldwide, resulting in substantial economic losses for the poultry industry. Currently, live-attenuated IBV vaccines are used to control the disease. However, safety, attenuation and immunization outcomes of current vaccines are not guaranteed. Several studies indicate that attenuated IBV vaccine strains contribute to the emergence of variant viruses in the field due to mutations and recombination. Therefore, there is a need to develop a stable and safe IBV vaccine that will not create variant viruses. In this study, we generated recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (rNDVs) expressing the S1, S2 and S proteins of IBV using reverse genetics technology. Our results showed that the rNDV expressing the S protein of IBV provided better protection than the rNDV expressing S1 or S2 protein of IBV, indicating that the S protein is the best protective antigen of IBV. Immunization of 4-week-old SPF chickens with the rNDV expressing S protein elicited IBV-specific neutralizing antibodies and provided complete protection against virulent IBV and virulent NDV challenges. These results suggest that the rNDV expressing the S protein of IBV is a safe and effective bivalent vaccine candidate for both IBV and NDV.
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); namely rNDV-F and rNDV-F/VP2, respectively, were generated using the NDV F strain. The rNDV-F/VP2 virus was slightly attenuated, as compared to the rNDV-F virus, as evidenced from the mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index analysis. This result indicates that rNDV-F/VP2 behaves as a lentogenic virus and it is stable even after 10 serial passages in embryonated chicken eggs. When chickens were vaccinated with the rNDV F/VP2, it induced both humoral and cell mediated immunity, and was able to confer complete protection against very virulent IBDV challenge and 80% protection against virulent NDV challenge. These results suggest that rNDV-F could be an effective and inherently safe vaccine vector. Here, we demonstrate that a bivalent NDV-IBDV vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics method is safe, efficacious and cost-effective, which will greatly aid the poultry industry in developing countries.
Project description:The efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine expressing the fusion (F) NDV protein (adeno-F) was evaluated against challenges with virulent heterologous and homologous NDV strains to the F protein. In a preliminary study, two different doses (low and high) of adeno-F were tested against a virulent NDV strain containing the homologous NDV F protein, CA02. In a second study, at three weeks post-vaccination, the efficacy of the high dose of adeno-F was compared to a live attenuated NDV vaccine strain (LaSota) against three antigenically distinct virulent NDV challenge strains, one homologous (CA02) and two heterologous (TZ12, EG14) to F in the vectored vaccine. In both experiments, clinical signs, mortality, virus shedding, and humoral response were evaluated. In the first experiment, the survival rates from birds vaccinated with adeno-F at a high and low dose were 100% and 25%, respectively. In the second experiment, birds vaccinated with the high dose of adeno-F had a survival rate of 80%, 75%, and 65% after challenge with the CA02, TZ12, and EG14 viruses, respectively. All of the LaSota-vaccinated birds survived post-challenge no matter the NDV challenge strain. High antibody titers were detected after vaccination with LaSota by HI and ELISA tests. The majority of adeno-F-vaccinated birds had detectable antibodies using the ELISA test, but not using the HI test, before the challenge. The data show that both the similarity of the F protein of the adeno-F vaccine to the challenge virus and the adeno-F vaccination dose affect the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored NDV vaccine against a virulent NDV challenge.
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) avirulent strain LaSota was used to coexpress gp160 Env and p55 Gag from a single vector to enhance both Env-specific and Gag-specific immune responses. The optimal transcription position for both Env and Gag genes in the NDV genome was determined by generating recombinant NDV (rNDV)-Env-Gag (gp160 located between the P and M genes and Gag between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Gag-Env (Gag located between the P and M genes and gp160 between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Env/Gag (gp160 followed by Gag located between the P and M genes), and rNDV-Gag/Env (Gag followed by gp160 located between the P and M genes). All the recombinant viruses replicated at levels similar to those seen with parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs and in chicken fibroblast cells. Both gp160 and Gag proteins were expressed at high levels in cell culture, with gp160 found to be incorporated into the envelope of NDV. The Gag and Env proteins expressed by all the recombinants except rNDV-Env-Gag self-assembled into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs by the intranasal route with these rNDVs produced long-lasting Env- and Gag-specific humoral immune responses. The Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and Gag-specific humoral immune responses were higher in rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag than in the other recombinants. rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag were also more efficient in inducing cellular as well as protective immune responses to challenge with vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Env and Gag in mice. These results suggest that vaccination with a single rNDV coexpressing Env and Gag represents a promising strategy to enhance immunogenicity and protective efficacy against HIV.A safe and effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses is needed to control HIV-1. In this study, we showed that coexpression of Env and Gag proteins of HIV-1 performed using a single Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vector led to the formation of HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs with recombinant NDVs (rNDVs) elicited potent long-lasting systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV. Additionally, the rNDVs were efficient in inducing cellular immune responses to HIV and protective immunity to challenge with vaccinia viruses expressing HIV Env and Gag in mice. These results suggest that the use of a single NDV expressing Env and Gag proteins simultaneously is a novel strategy to develop a safe and effective vaccine against HIV.
Project description:A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate designated IBS002 was isolated from a commercial broiler farm in Malaysia. The virus was characterised as a virulent strain based on the multiple basic amino acid motif of the fusion (F) cleavage site (112)RRRKGF(117) and length of the C-terminus extension of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Furthermore, IBS002 was classified as a velogenic NDV with mean death time (MDT) of 51.2 h and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.76. A genetic distance analysis based on the full-length F and HN genes showed that both velogenic viruses used in this study, genotype VII NDV isolate IBS002 and genotype VIII NDV isolate AF2240-I, had high genetic variations with genotype II LaSota vaccine. In this study, the protection efficacy of the recombinant genotype VII NDV inactivated vaccine was also evaluated when added to an existing commercial vaccination program against challenge with velogenic NDV IBS002 and NDV AF2240-I in commercial broilers. The results indicated that both LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines offered full protection against challenge with AF2240-I. However, the LaSota vaccine only conferred partial protection against IBS002. In addition, significantly reduced viral shedding was observed in the recombinant genotype VII-vaccinated chickens compared to LaSota-vaccinated chickens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:H9N2 avian influenza virus is endemic in Egyptian poultry flocks. The role of the live viral vaccines such as LaSota in exaggeration of the clinical picture of H9N2 infection under field conditions is significantly important leading to severe economic losses due to higher mortality and lower growth performance. This experiment was designed to identify the possible interaction between experimental infection with H9N2 virus and NDV live vaccine (LaSota strain) in broiler chickens. Six groups each of 20 broiler chicks were used. Three groups (G1-3) were infected with H9N2 and vaccinated with LaSota, 3?days before, at the same day or 3?days post vaccination (dpv), while the remaining groups (G4-6) were non-vaccinated infected, vaccinated non-infected and non-vaccinated non-infected. RESULTS:The highest mortality rate (37.5%) was noticed in chickens of G1 (H9N2 infected 3?days prior LaSota vaccination). Also, this bird group had the most severe clinical signs, histopathological lesions and the longest viral shedding for 9?days post infection (dpi). In the 2nd and 3rd groups, the mortality rate was the similar (31.2%) with less pronounced clinical signs, histopathological lesions and H9N2 shedding was for only 6 dpi with the least shedding quantity in chickens of G3. The control non-vaccinated infected chickens (G4) had 18.7% mortality with the least degree of clinical signs, lesions and the highest viral shedding quantity but only for 6 dpi. At 35?days of age, there was a statistical significant decrease (P?<?0.05) in chicken's body weight of all H9N2 infected groups from G1 to G4 compared to non-infected control groups, G5 and G6 respectively. CONCLUSION:It was clear that laSota vaccination significantly affect H9N2 infection in broiler chickens regarding clinical signs, mortality rate, lesions, performance and viral shedding.
Project description:A reverse genetic system for avian paramyxovirus type-3 (APMV-3) strain Wisconsin was created and the infectious virus was recovered from a plasmid-based viral antigenomic cDNA. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned into the recombinant APMV-3 genome as a foreign gene. Stable expression of GFP by the recovered virus was confirmed for at least 10 consecutive passages. APMV-3 strain Wisconsin was evaluated against APMV-3 strain Netherlands and APMV-1 strain LaSota as a vaccine vector. The three viral vectors expressing GFP as a foreign protein were compared for level of GFP expression level, growth rate in chicken embryo fibroblast (DF-1) cells, and tissue distribution and immunogenicity in specific pathogen-free (SPF) day-old chickens. APMV-3 strain Netherlands showed highest growth rate and GFP expression level among the three APMV vectors in vitro. APMV-3 strain Wisconsin and APMV-1 strain LaSota vectors were mainly confined to the trachea after vaccination of day-old SPF chickens without any observable pathogenicity, whereas APMV-3 strain Netherlands showed wide tissue distribution in different body organs (brain, lungs, trachea, and spleen) with mild observable pathogenicity. In terms of immunogenicity, both APMV-3 strain-vaccinated groups showed HI titers two to three fold higher than that induced by APMV-1 strain LaSota vaccinated group. This study offers a novel paramyxovirus vector (APMV-3 strain Wisconsin) which can be used safely for vaccination of young chickens as an alternative for APMV-1 strain LaSota vector.
Project description:Background and Aim:Newcastle disease (ND) caused by avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is long known as an acute contagious and infectious disease of various bird species. Prior studies have acknowledged that the virus could cause up to 100% morbidity and mortality as well as reducing eggs production. In theory, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) in ND virus (NDV) is one of the surface glycoproteins that functions during the attachment, assembly, and maturation of the virus. On the fields, Indonesia has been recognized as an endemic country for ND where continuous outbreaks of ND in commercial chicken farms have been reported despite the implementation of periodical vaccination programs. Thus, this study aims at characterizing NDV isolated from periodically vaccinated commercial farms, comparing its genetic correlation based on their HN gene fragment with registered NDV originated from Indonesia as well as with existing vaccine strains. Materials and Methods:The HN gene fragment of NDV isolated from well-vaccinated farms was amplified using primer pairs of forward 5' GTGAGTGCAACCCCTTTAGGTTGT 3' and reverse 3' TAGACCCCAGTGATGCATGAGTTG 3' with a 694 bp product length. The nucleotide sequences of nine samples, which were gathered from Kulon Progo, Gunung Kidul (2), Boyolali (2), Magelang, Muntilan (2), Palembang, and Medan, were later compared with the sequences of HN gene of NDV available in NCBI Genbank database. The amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment were conducted using the Mega7 program. Result:The data analysis on amino acid sequences showed that the structure of amino acid residue at positions 345-353 for all isolates appears to be PDEQDYQIR. The structure is the same as for archived samples from Indonesia and either LaSota or B1 vaccine strains. The amino acid distance between observed isolates and LaSota vaccine strain is 8.2-8.8% with a homology value at 91.2-91.7%. Conclusion:Looking at amino acid sequence analysis, LaSota vaccines can considerably be stated as being protective against ND disease outbreak. However, the distant homology value from a perfect condition for the protection might have acted as the root cause of vaccination failures.