ABSTRACT: Methyl jasmonate is capable of initiating or improving the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plants and therefore has opened up a concept for the biosynthesis of valuable constituents. In this study, the effect of different doses of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation on the accumulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in the hairy root cultures of the medicinal plant, Rhazya stricta throughout a time course (one-seven days) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out for targeted ten major non-polar alkaloids. Furthermore, overall alterations in metabolite contents in elicited and control cultures were investigated applying proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Methyl jasmonate caused dosage- and time course-dependent significant rise in the accumulation of TIAs as determined by GC-MS. The contents of seven alkaloids including eburenine, quebrachamine, fluorocarpamine, pleiocarpamine, tubotaiwine, tetrahydroalstonine, and ajmalicine increased compared to non-elicited cultures. However, MeJA-elicitation did not induce the accumulation of vincanine, yohimbine (isomer II), and vallesiachotamine. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR metabolic profiles revealed a discrimination between elicited hairy roots and control cultures with significant increase in total vindoline-type alkaloid content and elevated levels of organic and amino acids. In addition, elicited and control samples had different sugar and fatty acid profiles, suggesting that MeJA also influences the primary metabolism of R. stricta hairy roots. It is evident that methyl jasmonate is applicable for elevating alkaloid accumulation in "hairy root" organ cultures of R. strica.
Project description:Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) contains a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). This study focused on the composition of alkaloids obtained from transformed hairy root cultures of R. stricta employing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). In the UPLC-MS analyses, a total of 20 TIAs were identified from crude extracts. Eburenine and vincanine were the main alkaloids followed by polar glucoalkaloids, strictosidine lactam and strictosidine. Secodine-type alkaloids, tetrahydrosecodinol, tetrahydro- and dihydrosecodine were detected too. The occurrence of tetrahydrosecodinol was confirmed for the first time for R. stricta. Furthermore, two isomers of yohimbine, serpentine and vallesiachotamine were identified. The study shows that a characteristic pattern of biosynthetically related TIAs can be monitored in Rhazya hairy root crude extract by this chromatographic method.
Project description:The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ), while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17?-estradiol (5?M) effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000?M). However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str), illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.
Project description:Hairy root cultures are considered as a valuable source of bioactive phytoconstituents with expanding applicability for their production. In the present study, hairy root cultures of <i>Polyscias filicifolia</i> (<i>Araliaceae</i>), a traditional Southeast Asian medicinal plant, were established. The transformation with <i>Agrobacterium rhizogenes</i> ATCC 15834 allowed to obtain 15 root lines. The K-1 line, demonstrating the highest growth capabilities, was subjected to further investigations. To enhance the biosynthetic potential of hairy roots, methyl jasmonate elicitation approach was applied (MeJA; at different doses and exposure time), with subsequent transfer of elicited roots to control medium. This strategy resulted in chlorogenic acid production up to 1.59 mg/g dry weight. HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analysis demonstrated variation in extracts composition and allowed to identify different caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. Next, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anti-photogenotoxic properties of hairy roots extracts were determined. None of the tested extracts were cytotoxic. In addition, they demonstrated significant antigenotoxic activity with the highest protective potential; up to 52% and 49% of inhibition of induction ratio (IR) induced by the 2-aminoanthracene was revealed for extracts derived from hairy roots elicited for 3 days with 50 µM MeJA and roots elicited for 7 days with 100 µM MeJA and then transferred for 30 days to control medium, respectively. These same extracts exhibited the highest anti-photogenotoxic potential, up to 36% of inhibition of chloropromazine-induced genotoxicity.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Methyl jasmonate elicitation of Taxus cultures enhances paclitaxel accumulation, but represses growth by inhibition of cell cycle progression. Growth repression is evident both at the culture level and transcriptional level. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation is an effective strategy to induce and enhance synthesis of the anticancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol(®)) in Taxus cell suspension cultures; however, concurrent decreases in growth are often observed, which is problematic for large-scale bioprocessing. Here, increased accumulation of paclitaxel in Taxus cuspidata suspension cultures with MeJA elicitation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in cell growth, evident within the first 3 days post-elicitation. Both MeJA-elicited and mock-elicited cultures exhibited similar viability with no apoptosis up to day 16 and day 24 of the cell culture period, respectively, suggesting that growth repression is not attributable to cell death. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that MeJA perturbed cell cycle progression of asynchronously dividing Taxus cells. MeJA slowed down cell cycle progression, impaired the G1/S transition as observed by an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, and decreased the number of actively dividing cells. Through a combination of deep sequencing and gene expression analyses, the expression status of Taxus cell cycle-associated genes correlated with observations at the culture level. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the mechanisms governing MeJA perception and subsequent events leading to repression of Taxus cell growth.
Project description:In this study, the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the phytomass and triterpenoid production of diploid and tetraploid Centella asiatica hairy roots were investigated. Hairy root cultures were obtained from diploid and induced tetraploid plants of C. asiatica infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 43057. MeJA triggered triterpenoid production in both ploidy hairy roots, whereas triterpenoids were not produced in the untreated hairy roots. Among the treatments, the 50?µM MeJA treatment yielded the maximum triterpenoid production in diploid hairy roots of 27.25?±?0.27?µg/mg Dry weight (DW) total triterpenoid at day 21. For the tetraploid hairy root cultures, the 28th-day hairy root culture produced a maximum amount of triterpenoids of 16.29?±?6.32?µg/mg DW in response to the 50?µM MeJA treatment, whereas the 100?µM MeJA treatment produced a similar triterpenoid amount (16.31?±?9.24?µg/mg DW) at day 14. Moreover, in response to 50?µM MeJA, we obtained different ratios of aglycone to glycoside, i.e., 1:7 and 1:2, between the diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures. Asiaticoside was the dominant phytochemical, followed by asiatic acid and madecassic acid. This study provides valuable information for producing triterpenoids for C. asiatica commercial products and preparations by using hairy root cultures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus), accumulates a wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Ethylene (ET) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) were previously reported as effective elicitors for the production of various valuable secondary metabolites of C. roseus, while a few ET or MeJA induced transcriptomic research is yet reported on this species. In this study, the de-novo transcriptome assembly of C. roseus is performed by using the next-generation sequencing technology. RESULTS:The result shows that phenolic biosynthesis genes respond specifically to ET in leaves, monoterpenoid biosynthesis genes respond specifically to MeJA in roots. By screening the database, 23 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter partial sequences are identified in C. roseus. On this basis, more than 80 key genes that encode key enzymes (namely TIA pathway, transcriptional factor (TF) and candidate ABC transporter) of alkaloid synthesis in TIA biosynthetic pathways are chosen to explore the integrative responses to ET and MeJA at the transcriptional level. Our data indicated that TIA accumulation is strictly regulated by the TF ethylene responsive factor (ERF) and bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1). The heatmap, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) of C. roseus, shows that ERF co-expression with ABC2 and ABC8 specific expression in roots affect the root-specific accumulation of vinblastine in C. roseus. On the contrast, BIS1 activities follow a similar pattern of ABC3 and CrTPT2 specific expression in leaves, which affects the leaf-specific accumulation of vindoline in C. roseus. CONCLUSIONS:Results presented above illustrate that ethylene has a stronger effect than MeJA on TIA induction at both transcriptional and metabolite level. Furthermore, meta-analysis reveals that ERF and BIS1 form a positive feedback loop connecting two ABC transporters respectively and are actively involved in TIAs responding to ET and MeJA in C. roseus.
Project description:Scutellaria lateriflora is well known for its medical applications because of the presence of flavanoids and alkaloids. The present study aimed to explore the molecular aspects and regulations of flavanoids. Five partial cDNAs encoding genes that are involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (SlPAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (SlC4H), 4-coumaroyl CoA ligase (Sl4CL), chalcone synthase (SlCHS), and chalcone isomerase (SlCHI) were isolated from S. lateriflora. Organ expression analysis showed that these genes were expressed in all organs analyzed with the highest levels correlating with the richest accumulation of wogonin in the roots. Baicalin and baicalein differentially accumulated in S. lateriflora plants, with the highest concentration of baicalin and baicalein detected in the leaves and stems, respectively. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly enhanced the expression of SlCHS and SlCHI, and accumulation of baicalin (22.54 mg/g), baicalein (1.24 mg/g), and wogonin (5.39 mg/g) in S. lateriflora hairy roots. In addition, maximum production of baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin in hairy roots treated with MeJA was approximately 7.44-, 2.38-, and 2.12-fold, respectively. Light condition increased the expression level of SlCHS, the first committed step in flavonoid biosynthesis in hairy roots of S. lateriflora after 3 and 4 weeks of development compared to the dark condition. Dark-grown hairy roots contained a higher content of baicalin and baicalein than light-grown hairy roots, while light-grown hairy roots accumulated more wogonin than dark-grown hairy roots. These results may helpful for the metabolic engineering of flavonoids biosynthesis in S. lateriflora.
Project description:An MS-based metabolomic approach was used to profile the secondary metabolite of the ornamental plant Erythrina lysistemon via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and high resolution q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-MS). Cultures maintained the capacity to produce E. lysistemon flavonoid subclasses with pterocarpans amounting for the most abundant ones suggesting that it could provide a resource of such flavonoid subclass. In contrast, alkaloids, major constituents of Erythrina genus, were detected at trace levels in suspension cultures. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), phytohormone, was further supplied to culture with the aim of increasing secondary metabolites production and with metabolite profiles subjected to multivariate data analysis to evaluate its effect. Results revealed that triterpene i.e. oleanolic acid and fatty acid i.e. hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid were elicited in response to methyl jasmonate, whereas pterocarpans i.e., isoneorautenol showed a decline in response to elicitation suggesting for the induction of terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and concurrent with a down regulation of pterocarpans. In conclusion, a total of 53 secondary metabolites including 3 flavones, 12 isoflavones, 4 isoflavanones, 4 alkaloids, 11 pterocarpans, and 5 phenolic acids were identified.
Project description:Variability in product accumulation is one of the major obstacles limiting the widespread commercialization of plant cell culture technology to supply natural product pharmaceuticals. Despite extensive process engineering efforts, which have led to increased yields, plant cells exhibit variability in productivity that is poorly understood. Elicitation of Taxus cultures with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces paclitaxel accumulation, but to varying extents in different cultures. In the current study, cultures with different aggregation profiles were established to create predictable differences in paclitaxel accumulation upon MeJA elicitation. Expression of known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in MeJA-elicited cultures exhibiting both substantial (15-fold) and moderate (2-fold) differences in paclitaxel accumulation was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Each population exhibited the characteristic large increase in paclitaxel pathway gene expression following MeJA elicitation; however, differences in expression between populations were minor, and only observed for the cultures with the 15-fold variation in paclitaxel content. These data suggest that although upregulation of biosynthetic pathway gene expression contributes to observed increases in paclitaxel synthesis upon elicitation with MeJA, there are additional factors that need to be uncovered before paclitaxel productivity can be fully optimized.
Project description:As one type of the most important alkaloids in the world, terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) show a wide range of pharmaceutical activities that are beneficial for clinical treatments. Catharanthus roseus produces approximately 130 identified TIAs and is considered to be a model plant to study TIA biosynthesis. In order to increase the production of high medical value metabolites whose yields are extremely low in C. roseus, genetic engineering combined with transcriptional regulation has been applied in recent years. By using bioinformatics which is based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated C. roseus as well as phylogenetic analysis, the present work aims to screen candidate genes that may be involved in the regulation of TIA biosynthesis, resulting in a novel AP2/ERF transcription factor, CR1 (Catharanthus roseus 1). Subsequently, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CR1 was carried out to identify the involvement of CR1 in the accumulations of several TIAs and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was then applied to detect the expression levels of 7 genes in the related biosynthetic pathway in silenced plants. The results show that all the 7 genes were upregulated in CR1-silenced plants. Furthermore, metabolite analyses indicate that silencing CR1 could increase the accumulations of vindoline and serpentine in C. roseus. These results suggest a novel negative regulator which may be involved in the TIAs biosynthetic pathway.