Secoiridoids Metabolism Response to Wounding in Common Centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn) Leaves.
ABSTRACT: Centaurium erythraea Rafn produces and accumulates various biologically active specialized metabolites, including secoiridoid glucosides (SGs), which help plants to cope with unfavorable environmental conditions. Specialized metabolism is commonly modulated in a way to increase the level of protective metabolites, such as SGs. Here, we report the molecular background of the wounding-induced changes in SGs metabolism for the first time. The mechanical wounding of leaves leads to a coordinated up-regulation of SGs biosynthetic genes and corresponding JA-related transcription factors (TFs) after 24 h, which results in the increase of metabolic flux through the biosynthetic pathway and, finally, leads to the elevated accumulation of SGs 96 h upon injury. The most pronounced increase in relative expression was detected for secologanin synthase (CeSLS), highlighting this enzyme as an important point for the regulation of biosynthetic flux through the SG pathway. A similar expression pattern was observed for CeBIS1, imposing itself as the TF that is prominently involved in wound-induced regulation of SGs biosynthesis genes. The high degree of positive correlations between and among the biosynthetic genes and targeted TFs expressions indicate the transcriptional regulation of SGs biosynthesis in response to wounding with a significant role of CeBIS1, which is a known component of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway.
Project description:Plant responses to insects and wounding involve substantial transcriptional reprogramming that integrates hormonal, metabolic, and physiological events. The ability to respond differentially to various stresses, including wounding, generally involves hormone signaling and trans-acting regulatory factors. Evidence of the importance of transcription factors (TFs) in responses to insects is also accumulating. However, the relationships among hormone signaling, TF activity, and ability to respond specifically to different insects are uncertain. We examined transcriptional and hormonal changes in Arabidopsis thaliana after herbivory by larvae of two lepidopteran species, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Pieris rapae L. over a 24-h time course. Transcriptional responses to the two insects differed and were frequently weaker or absent in response to the specialist P. rapae. Using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR, we found 141 TFs, including many AP2/ERFs (Ethylene Response Factors) and selected defense-related genes, to be differentially regulated in response to the two insect species or wounding. Jasmonic Acid (JA), JA-isoleucine (JA-IL), and ethylene production by Arabidopsis plants increased after attack by both insect species. However, the amounts and timing of ethylene production differed between the two herbivory treatments. Our results support the hypothesis that the different responses to these two insects involve modifications of JA-signaling events and activation of different subsets of ERF TFs, resulting in different degrees of divergence from responses to wounding alone.
Project description:The AP2/ERF family of plant transcription factors (TFs) regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we report the isolation of six AP2/ERF TF family genes from Chrysanthemum nankingense. On the basis of sequence similarity, one of these belonged to the Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) subfamily and the other five to the Dehydration Responsive Element Binding protein (DREB) subfamily. A transient expression experiment showed that all six AP2/ERF proteins localized to the nucleus. A yeast-one hybrid assay demonstrated that CnDREB1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 all function as transactivators, while CnERF1, CnDREB3-1 and 3-2 have no transcriptional activation ability. The transcription response of the six TFs in response to wounding, salinity and low temperature stress and treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) showed that CnERF1 was up-regulated by wounding and low temperature stress but suppressed by salinity stress. The transcription of CnDREB1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 was down-regulated by ABA and JA to varying degrees. CnDREB3-1 and 3-2 was moderately increased or decreased by wounding and SA treatment, suppressed by salinity stress and JA treatment, and enhanced by low temperature stress and ABA treatment.
Project description:When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.
Project description:The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ-TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive JA signaling in a jaz quintuple mutant (jazQ) was largely eliminated by mutations that block JA synthesis or perception. Comparison of jazQ and a jazQ myc2 myc3 myc4 octuple mutant validated known functions of MYC2/3/4 in root growth, chlorophyll degradation, and susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We found that MYC TFs also control both the enhanced resistance of jazQ leaves to insect herbivory and restricted leaf growth of jazQ. Epistatic transcriptional profiles mirrored these phenotypes and further showed that triterpenoid biosynthetic and glucosinolate catabolic genes are up-regulated in jazQ independently of MYC TFs. Our study highlights the utility of genetic epistasis to unravel the complexities of JAZ-TF interactions and demonstrates that MYC TFs exert master control over a JAZ-repressible transcriptional hierarchy that governs growth-defense balance.
Project description:The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has been recognized as an important promoter of leaf senescence in plants. However, upstream transcription factors (TFs) that control JA biosynthesis during JA-promoted leaf senescence remain unknown. In this study, we report the possible involvement of a TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) TF BrTCP7 in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-promoted leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage. Exogenous MeJA treatment reduced maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and total chlorophyll content, accompanied by the increased expression of senescence marker and chlorophyll catabolic genes, and accelerated leaf senescence. To further understand the transcriptional regulation of MeJA-promoted leaf senescence, a class I member of TCP TFs BrTCP7 was examined. BrTCP7 is a nuclear protein and possesses trans-activation ability through subcellular localization and transcriptional activity assays. A higher level of BrTCP7 transcript was detected in senescing leaves, and its expression was up-regulated by MeJA. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient expression assay showed that BrTCP7 binds to the promoter regions of a JA biosynthetic gene BrOPR3 encoding OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) and a chlorophyll catabolic gene BrRCCR encoding red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR), activating their transcriptions. Taken together, these findings reveal that BrTCP7 is associated with MeJA-promoted leaf senescence at least partly by activating JA biosynthesis and chlorophyll catabolism, thus expanding our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanism of JA-mediated leaf senescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nothapodytes nimmoniana, a plant of pivotal medicinal significance is a source of potent anticancer monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) camptothecin (CPT). This compound owes its potency due to topoisomerase-I inhibitory activity. However, biosynthetic and regulatory aspects of CPT biosynthesis so far remain elusive. Production of CPT is also constrained due to unavailability of suitable in vitro experimental system. Contextually, there are two routes for the biosynthesis of MIAs: the mevalonate (MVA) pathway operating in cytosol and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids. Determination of relative precursor flux through either of these pathways may provide a new vista for manipulating the enhanced CPT production. RESULTS:In present study, specific enzyme inhibitors of MVA (lovastatin) and MEP pathways (fosmidomycin) were used to perturb the metabolic flux in N. nimmoniana. Interaction of both these pathways was investigated at transcriptional level by using qRT-PCR and at metabolite level by evaluating secologanin, tryptamine and CPT contents. In fosmidomycin treated plants, highly significant reduction was observed in both secologanin and CPT accumulation in the range 40-57% and 64-71.5% respectively, while 4.61-7.69% increase was observed in tryptamine content as compared to control. Lovastatin treatment showed reduction in CPT (7-11%) and secologanin (7.5%) accumulation while tryptamine registered slight increase (3.84%) in comparison to control. These inhibitor mediated changes were reflected at transcriptional level via altering expression levels of deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG). Further, mRNA expression of four more genes downstream to DXR and HMG of MEP and MVA pathways respectively were also investigated. Expression analysis also included secologanin synthase (SLS) and strictosidine synthase (STR) of seco-iridoid pathway. Present investigation also entailed development of an efficient in vitro multiplication system as a precursor to pathway flux studies. Further, a robust Agrobacterium-mediated transformed hairy root protocol was also developed for its amenability for up-scaling as a future prospect. CONCLUSIONS:Metabolic and transcriptional changes reveal differential efficacy of cytosolic and plastidial inhibitors in context to pathway flux perturbations on seco-iridoid end-product camptothecin. MEP pathway plausibly is the major precursor contributor towards CPT production. These empirical findings allude towards developing suitable biotechnological interventions for enhanced CPT production.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors (TFs) modulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we characterized a WRKY IIc TF, NtWRKY50, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The results showed that NtWRKY50 is a nuclear-localized protein and that its gene transcript is induced in tobacco when inoculated with the pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 enhanced bacterial resistance, which correlated with enhanced SA and JA/ET signaling genes. However, silencing of the NtWRKY50 gene had no obvious effects on plant disease resistance, implying functional redundancy of NtWRKY50 with other TFs. In addition, it was found that NtWRKY50 can be induced by various biotic or abiotic stresses, such as Potato virus Y, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, hydrogen peroxide, heat, cold, and wounding as well as the hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). Importantly, additional analysis suggests that NtWRKY50 overexpression markedly promotes SA levels but prevents pathogen-induced JA production. These data indicate that NtWRKY50 overexpression leads to altered SA and JA content, increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced plant resistance to R. solanacearum. These probably due to increased activity of endogenous NtWRKY50 gene or could be gain-of-function phenotypes by altering the profile of genes affected by NtWRKY50.
Project description:Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale. Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days. HPLC analysis showed that strictosidine synthase (STR) activity also increased in the treated plants. A total of 78 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods; 29 differential metabolites were identified according to the multivariate statistical analysis. Among them, carapanaubine, a kind of TIA, exhibited dramatically increased levels. In addition, a possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from related metabolism to the TIA biosynthetic pathway was enhanced. These results provide a comprehensive view of the metabolic changes related to alkaloid biosynthesis, especially TIA biosynthesis, in response to tryptophan, secologanin and MeJA treatment.
Project description:upa20 induces cell enlargement and hypertrophy development. In our research, overexpression of SlUPA-like, orthologous to upa20, severely affected the growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues. Wilted leaves curled upwardly and sterile flowers were found in transgenic lines. Through anatomical analysis, palisade and spongy tissues showed fluffy and hypertrophic development in transgenic plants. Gene expression analysis showed that GA responsive, biosynthetic and signal transduction genes (e.g. GAST1, SlGA20OXs, SlGA3OXs, SlGID1s, and SlPREs) were significantly upregulated, indicating that GA response is stimulated by overproduction of SlUPA-like. Furthermore, SlUPA-like was strongly induced by exogenous JA and wounding. Decreased expression of PI-I and induced expression of SlJAZs (including SlJAZ2, SlJAZ10 and SlJAZ11) were observed in transgenic plants, suggesting that JA response is repressed. In addition, SlUPA-like overexpressed plant exhibited more opened stoma and higher water loss than the control when treated with dehydration stress, which was related to decreased ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction and response. Particularly, abnormal developments of transgenic plants promote the plant susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Therefore, it is deduced from these results that SlUPA-like plays vital role in regulation of plant development and stress tolerance through GA, JA and ABA pathways.
Project description:Stevia is a natural source of commercially important steviol glycosides (SGs), which share biosynthesis route with gibberellic acids (GAs) through plastidal MEP and cytosolic MVA pathways. Ontogeny-dependent deviation in SGs biosynthesis is one of the key factor for global cultivation of Stevia, has not been studied at transcriptional level. To dissect underlying molecular mechanism, we followed a global transcriptome sequencing approach and generated more than 100 million reads. Annotation of 41,262 de novo assembled transcripts identified all the genes required for SGs and GAs biosynthesis. Differential gene expression and quantitative analysis of important pathway genes (DXS, HMGR, KA13H) and gene regulators (WRKY, MYB, NAC TFs) indicated developmental phase dependent utilization of metabolic flux between SGs and GAs synthesis. Further, identification of 124 CYPs and 45 UGTs enrich the genomic resources, and their PPI network analysis with SGs/GAs biosynthesis proteins identifies putative candidates involved in metabolic changes, as supported by their developmental phase-dependent expression. These putative targets can expedite molecular breeding and genetic engineering efforts to enhance SGs content, biomass and yield. Futuristically, the generated dataset will be a useful resource for development of functional molecular markers for diversity characterization, genome mapping and evolutionary studies in Stevia.