Rapid Discrimination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by MALDI-TOF MS.
ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious pathogen in clinical settings and early detection is critical. Here, we investigated the MRSA discrimination potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using 320 clinical S. aureus isolates obtained in 2005-2014 and 181 isolates obtained in 2018. We conducted polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and MALDI-TOF MS to find specific markers for methicillin resistance. We identified 21 peaks with significant differences between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), as determined by mecA and SCCmec types. Each specific peak was sufficient to discriminate MRSA. We developed two methods for simple discrimination according to these peaks. First, a decision tree for MRSA based on six MRSA-specific peaks, three MSSA-specific peaks, and two SCCmec type IV peaks showed a sensitivity of 96.5%. Second, simple discrimination based on four MRSA-specific peaks and one MSSA peak had a maximum sensitivity of 88.3%. The decision tree applied to 181 S. aureus isolates from 2018 had a sensitivity of 87.6%. In conclusion, we used specific peaks to develop sensitive MRSA identification methods. This rapid and easy MALDI-TOF MS approach can improve patient management.
Project description:Nosocomial infections involving epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a serious problem in many countries. In order to analyze outbreaks, the infectious isolates have to be typed; however, most molecular methods are expensive or labor-intensive. Here, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of cell extracts for the molecular characterization of S. aureus strains. The peak patterns of 401 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including clinical and laboratory strains, were analyzed. Database searches indicated the peptides that were represented by the corresponding peaks in the spectra. The identities of the peptides were confirmed by the sequencing of mutants, the expression of antisense RNA fragments that resulted in the knockdown of the peptide of interest and the concomitant loss of the signal, or tandem MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). It was shown that the signals derive mainly from stress proteins and ribosomal proteins. Peak shifts that differentiate the main S. aureus clonal complexes CC5, CC22, CC8, CC45, CC30, and CC1 correlate to point mutations in the respective genes. Retrospective typing of an MRSA outbreak showed that it is possible to differentiate unrelated MSSA, MRSA, and borderline resistant S. aureus (BORSA) strains isolated from health care workers. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of the epidemic lineages of S. aureus during species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis.
Project description:Fast and reliable detection coupled with accurate data-processing and analysis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is essential in clinical settings. In this study, we use MALDI-TOF on intact cells combined with a refined analysis framework to demonstrate discrimination between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus. By combining supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods, we firstly show that the mass spectroscopy data contains strong signal for the clustering of MSSA and MRSA. Then we concentrate on applying supervised learning to extract and verify the important features. A new workflow is proposed that allows for extracting a fixed set of reference peaks so that any new data can be aligned to it and hence consistent feature matrices can be obtained. Also note that by doing so we are able to examine the robustness of the important features that have been found. We also show that appropriate size of the benchmark data, appropriate alignment of the testing data and use of an optimal set of features via feature selection results in prediction accuracy over 90%. In summary, as proof-of-principle, our integrated experimental and bioinformatics study suggests a novel intact cell MALDI-TOF to be of great promise for fast and reliable detection of MRSA strains.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could be used to detect superbugs, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Due to an increasingly clinical need to classify between MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) efficiently and effectively, we were motivated to develop a systematic pipeline based on a large-scale dataset of MS spectra. However, the shifting problem of peaks in MS spectra induced a low effectiveness in the classification between MRSA and MSSA isolates. Unlike previous works emphasizing on specific peaks, this study employs a binning method to cluster MS shifting ions into several representative peaks. A variety of bin sizes were evaluated to coalesce drifted or shifted MS peaks to a well-defined structured data. Then, various machine learning methods were performed to carry out the classification between MRSA and MSSA samples. Totally 4858 MS spectra of unique S. aureus isolates, including 2500 MRSA and 2358 MSSA instances, were collected by Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals, at Linkou and Kaohsiung branches, Taiwan. Based on the evaluation of Pearson correlation coefficients and the strategy of forward feature selection, a total of 200 peaks (with the bin size of 10 Da) were identified as the marker attributes for the construction of predictive models. These selected peaks, such as bins 2410-2419, 2450-2459 and 6590-6599 Da, have indicated remarkable differences between MRSA and MSSA, which were effective in the prediction of MRSA. The independent testing has revealed that the random forest model can provide a promising prediction with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) at 0.8450. When comparing to previous works conducted with hundreds of MS spectra, the proposed scheme demonstrates that incorporating machine learning method with a large-scale dataset of clinical MS spectra may be a feasible means for clinical physicians on the administration of correct antibiotics in shorter turn-around-time, which could reduce mortality, avoid drug resistance and shorten length of stay in hospital in the future.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based direct-on-target microdroplet growth assay (DOT-MGA) was recently described as a novel method of phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Here, we developed the application of MALDI-TOF MS-based DOT-MGA for Gram-positive bacteria including AST from agar cultures and directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) using the detection of methicillin resistance as example. Consecutively collected, a total of 14 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 14 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) clinical isolates were included. Furthermore, a collection of MRSA challenge strains comprising different SCCmec types, mec genes, and spa types was tested. Blood samples were spiked with MRSA and MSSA and positive BC broth processed by three different methods: serial dilution of BC broth, lysis/centrifugation, and differential centrifugation. Processed BC broth was directly used for rapid AST using DOT-MGA. Droplets of 6 ?l with and without cefoxitin at the EUCAST breakpoint concentration were spotted in triplicates onto the surface of a MALDI target. Targets were incubated in a humidity chamber, followed by medium removal and on-target protein extraction with formic acid before adding matrix with an internal standard as a quality control (QC). Spectra were acquired and evaluated using MALDI Biotyper software. First, tests were considered as valid, if the growth control achieved an identification score of ?1.7. For valid tests, same score criterion was used for resistant isolates when incubated with cefoxitin. An identification score <1.7 after incubation with cefoxitin defined susceptible isolates. On-target protein extraction using formic acid considerably improved detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus and DOT-MGA showed feasible results for AST from agar cultures after 4 h incubation time. Comparing the different processing methods of positive BC broth, lysis/centrifugation method with a final dilution step 10-1 of the 0.5 McFarland suspension resulted in best test performance after 4 h incubation time. Overall, 96.4% test validity, 100% sensitivity, and 100% specificity were achieved for detection of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates. All strains of the MRSA challenge collection were successfully tested as methicillin-resistant. This first study on Gram-positive organisms showed feasibility and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS-based DOT-MGA for rapid AST of S. aureus from agar cultures and directly from positive BCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance in staphylococci, is located on a mobile genetic element called Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal, interspecies transfer of this element could be an important factor in the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Previously, we reported the isolation of a closely related methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), MRSA and potential SCCmec donor Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from the same patient. Based on fingerprint techniques we hypothesized that the S. epidermidis had transferred SCCmec to the MSSA to become MRSA. The aim of this study was to show that these isolates form an isogenic pair and that interspecies horizontal SCCmec transfer occurred. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing of both isolates was performed and for the MSSA gaps were closed by conventional sequencing. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis was also sequenced by conventional methods. The results show no difference in nucleotide sequence between the two isolates except for the presence of SCCmec in the MRSA. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis and the MRSA are identical except for a single nucleotide in the ccrB gene, which results in a valine to alanine substitution. The main difference with the closely related EMRSA-16 is the presence of SaPI2 encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin and exfoliative toxin A in the MSSA-MRSA pair. No transfer of SCCmec from the S. epidermidis to the MSSA could be demonstrated in vitro. CONCLUSION: The MSSA and MRSA form an isogenic pair except for SCCmec. This strongly supports our hypothesis that the MRSA was derived from the MSSA by interspecies horizontal transfer of SCCmec from S. epidermidis O7.1.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) can arise from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following partial or complete excision of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). This study investigated whether multiresistant MSSA isolates from Irish hospitals, where MRSA has been endemic for decades, harbor SCCmec DNA. Twenty-five multiresistant MSSA isolates recovered between 2002 and 2006 were tested for SCCmec DNA by PCR and were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing and spa typing. All isolates lacked mecA. Three isolates (12%) harbored SCCmec DNA; two of these (genotype ST8/t190) harbored a 26-kb SCCmec IID (II.3.1.2) remnant that lacked part of mecI and all of mecR1, mecA, and IS431; the third isolate (ST8/t3209) harbored the SCCmec region from dcs to orfX. All three isolates were detected as MRSA using the BD GeneOhm and Cepheid's Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assays. Six isolates (ST8/t190, n = 4; ST5/t088, n = 2), including both isolates with the SCCmec IID remnant, harbored ccrAB4 with 100% identity to ccrAB4 from the Staphylococcus epidermidis composite island SCC-CI. This ccrAB4 gene was also identified in 23 MRSA isolates representative of ST8/t190-MRSA with variant SCCmec II subtypes IIA to IIE, which predominated previously in Irish hospitals. ccrAB4 was located 5,549 bp upstream of the left SCCmec junction in both the MRSA and MSSA isolates with SCCmec elements and remnants and 5,549 bp upstream of orfX in the four MSSA isolates with ccrAB4 only on an SCC-CI homologous region. This is the first description of a large SCCmec remnant with ccr and partial mec genes in MSSA and of the S. epidermidis SCC-CI and ccrAB4 genes in S. aureus.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus colonies can spread on soft agar plates. We compared colony spreading of clinically isolated methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). All MSSA strains showed colony spreading, but most MRSA strains (73%) carrying SCCmec type-II showed little colony spreading. Deletion of the entire SCCmec type-II region from these MRSA strains restored colony spreading. Introduction of a novel gene, fudoh, carried by SCCmec type-II into Newman strain suppressed colony spreading. MRSA strains with high spreading ability (27%) had no fudoh or a point-mutated fudoh that did not suppress colony spreading. The fudoh-transformed Newman strain had decreased exotoxin production and attenuated virulence in mice. Most community-acquired MRSA strains carried SCCmec type-IV, which does not include fudoh, and showed high colony spreading ability. These findings suggest that fudoh in the SCCmec type-II region suppresses colony spreading and exotoxin production, and is involved in S. aureus pathogenesis.
Project description:Clonal complex 59 (CC59) Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan includes both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As the most prominent community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in Taiwan, CC59 has two major clones characterized as PVL-negative SCCmec IV (carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IV but Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative) and PVL-positive SCCmec V (5C2&5). We investigated the drug resistance, phylogeny and the distribution and sequence variation of SCCmec, staphylococcal bacteriophage ?SA3, genomic island ?Sa? and MES (an enterococcal mobile genetic element conferring multidrug resistance) in 195 CC59 S. aureus. Sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that all of the CC59/SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA strains had acquired MESPM1 or its segregants, and obtained a ?SA3-related fragment in ?Sa?. In contrast, MES6272-2 and MES4578, which showed gentamicin resistance that was not encoded by MESPM1, were dominant in SCCmec IVg MRSA. Translocation of a whole ?SA3 into ?Sa? instead of only a ?SA3-related fragment was common in SCCmec IVg MRSA. However, the non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA (SCCmec IVa is the major) still carried MES and ?Sa? structures similar to those in SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA. A minimum spanning tree constructed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis revealed that SCCmec IVg MRSA and SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA grouped respectively in two major clades. The CC59 MSSA was equally distributed among the two clades, while the non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA mostly clustered with SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA. Our findings strongly suggest that CC59 MSSA acquired divergent mobile genetic elements and evolved to SCCmec IVg MRSA and SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA/non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA independently. The evolutionary history of CC59 S. aureus explains how mobile genetic elements increase the antimicrobial resistance and virulence and contribute to the success of CA-MRSA in Taiwan.
Project description:This study determined the performance of BD Max StaphSR and the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with an unrecognized staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) right-extremity junction (MREJ) region among 907 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 900 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The rate of mecA/mecC dropout mutants was also evaluated. Only three MRSA isolates (99.7% sensitivity; 904/907) were classified as MSSA by the BD Max StaphSR assay, due to negative results for MREJ. Eight MSSA isolates (99.1% sensitivity; 892/900) were assigned as MRSA. However, six of these MSSA isolates had the mecA gene confirmed by PCR and sequencing (99.8% sensitivity; 898/900). Overall, 7.1% (64/900) of MSSA isolates showed results compatible with a mecA dropout genotype.
Project description:Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCCmec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCCmec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak.