Cancer incidence among First Nations adults in Canada: follow-up of the 1991 Census Mortality Cohort (1992-2009).
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Estimate site-specific cancer incidence rates for a wide range of cancers in First Nations adults in Canada, and compare these with rates in non-Aboriginal adults. METHODS:Responses from persons aged 25 and older to the 1991 Long Form Census were linked to national mortality and cancer databases. First Nations- and non-Aboriginal-specific incidence rates were age-standardized to the world standard population. The sex- and site-specific relative risks (RR) of cancer in First Nations compared to those in non-Aboriginal adults were estimated with Poisson regression. Results were stratified by residence on-reserve (all cancers combined) and region of Canada (four most common cancer sites). RESULTS:Compared to non-Aboriginal adults, First Nations had higher incidence of colon and rectum, kidney, cervix, and liver cancers and lower incidence of prostate, breast, bladder, uterus, ovary, and brain cancers, as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and melanoma. First Nations women additionally had higher incidence of stomach, gallbladder, and laryngeal cancers and lower incidence of thyroid cancers compared to non-Aboriginal women. The higher relative incidence of stomach and gallbladder cancers was observed only among First Nations adults who reported living on-reserve. Incidence of lung cancer was similar for First Nations and non-Aboriginal adults nationally, though variation by region of Canada was observed. CONCLUSION:First Nations people in Canada have disproportionately high rates of certain cancers, providing evidence to support public health policy and programming. More research is needed to identify factors contributing to the significantly lower incidence observed for various cancer types. Novel methods for studying disparities in cancer incidence among First Nations people are required to support ongoing cancer control planning and advocacy.
Project description:Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death.Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all p<0.001). Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and First Nations infants (all p<0.001).Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal disparities in adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality are persistent or worsening over the recent decade in Quebec, strongly suggesting the needs for interventions to improve perinatal and infant health in Aboriginal populations, and for monitoring the trends in other regions in Canada.
Project description:Population-based health information on urban Aboriginal populations in Canada is limited due to challenges with the identification of Aboriginal persons in existing health data sets. The main objective of the Our Health Counts (OHC) project was to work in partnership with Aboriginal stakeholders to generate a culturally relevant, representative baseline health data set for three urban Aboriginal communities in Ontario, Canada.Respondent-driven sampling (RDS).Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.The OHC study, in partnership with the De dwa da dehs ney >s Aboriginal Health Access Centre (DAHC), recruited 554 First Nations adults living in Hamilton using RDS.Among First Nations adults living in Hamilton, 78% earned less than $20?000 per year and 70% lived in the lowest income quartile neighbourhoods. Mobility and crowded living conditions were also highly prevalent. Common chronic diseases included arthritis, hypertension, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rates of emergency room access were elevated.RDS is an effective sampling method in urban Aboriginal contexts as it builds on existing social networks and successfully identified a population-based cohort. The findings illustrate striking disparities in health determinants and health outcomes between urban First Nations individuals and the general population which have important implications for health services delivery, programming and policy development.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study explores the relationship between health access barriers and diabetes in an urban First Nations population in Canada. DESIGN:Data from a self-identified urban First Nations population were collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). As no clear approach for regression modelling of RDS data is available, two logistic regression modelling approaches, including survey-based logistic and generalised linear mixed models, were used to explore the relationship between diabetes and health barriers of interest, including access to healthcare, food, housing and socioeconomic factors. SETTING:Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:This cross-sectional study used data collected from the Our Health Counts study, in partnership with the De dwa da dehs nye>s Aboriginal Health Centre, which recruited 554 First Nations adults living in Hamilton using RDS. RESULTS:After adjusting for covariates, multivariable regression techniques showed a statistically significant relationship between a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and a lack of culturally appropriate care among urban First Nations peoples (OR: 12.70, 95% CI 2.52 to 57.91). There was also a trend towards a relationship between diabetes and not having a doctor available in the area, feeling that healthcare provided was inadequate and a lack of available healthcare services in the area. CONCLUSIONS:Urban First Nations peoples who felt the health service they received was not culturally appropriate were more likely to have diabetes, compared with those who did not feel the service they received was culturally inappropriate. Establishing more healthcare services that integrate First Nations cultures and traditions could improve access to care and the course of treatment for urban First Nations peoples living with diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Substantial cancer-related disparities exist between First Nations and non-Indigenous Canadians. The objectives of this study were to compare cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and mortality outcomes between Status First Nations people living on reserve and off reserve in Manitoba. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of population-level administrative health databases in Manitoba. Cancers diagnosed between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2011, were linked with the Indian Registry System and 5 provincial databases. We compared differences in baseline characteristics, cancer incidence, site and stage at diagnosis between Status First Nations patients living on and off reserve. Linear regression models examined trends in annual cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazard regression models examined mortality. RESULTS:There were 1524 newly diagnosed cancers among Status First Nations people in Manitoba between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2011. First Nations people living on reserve were significantly older than those living off reserve (p < 0.001) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores at diagnosis (p = 0.01). A lower proportion of on-reserve patients than off-reserve patients were diagnosed with stage I cancers (21.7% v. 26.9%, p = 0.02). There were no differences in annual cancer incidence between groups. The adjusted incidence of cancer over the combined study years was higher in the off-reserve group than in the on-reserve group (287.9 v. 247.9 per 100 000, p = 0.02). No significant differences in mortality were found. INTERPRETATION:The lower proportion of on-reserve patients diagnosed with cancer at stage I is concerning, as it suggests less access to screening services or delays in diagnosis. Further research is needed to understand patterns in diagnosis and differences in cancer site and overall cancer incidence between First Nations people living on and off reserve.
Project description:Because many Aboriginal Canadians had severe cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza, they were given priority access to vaccine. However, it was not known if the single recommended dose would adequately protect people at high risk, prompting our study to assess responses to the vaccine among Aboriginal Canadians.We enrolled First Nations and Métis adults aged 20-59 years in our prospective cohort study. Participants were given one 0.5-mL dose of ASO3-adjuvanted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine (Arepanrix, GlaxoSmithKline Canada). Blood samples were taken at baseline and 21-28 days after vaccination. Paired sera were tested for hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies at a reference laboratory. To assess vaccine safety, we monitored the injection site symptoms of each participant for seven days. We also monitored patients for general symptoms within 7 days of vaccination and any use of the health care system for 21-28 days after vaccination.We enrolled 138 participants in the study (95 First Nations, 43 Métis), 137 of whom provided all safety data and 136 of whom provided both blood samples. First Nations and Métis participants had similar characteristics, including high rates of chronic health conditions (74.4%-76.8%). Pre-existing antibody to the virus was detected in 34.3% of the participants, all of whom boosted strongly with vaccination (seroprotection rate [titre ? 40] 100%, geometric mean titre 531-667). Participants with no pre-existing antibody also responded well. Fifty-eight of 59 (98.3%) First Nations participants showed seroprotection and a geometric mean titre of 353.6; all 30 Métis participants with no pre-existing antibody showed seroprotection and a geometric mean titre of 376.2. Pain at the injection site and general symptoms frequently occurred but were short-lived and generally not severe, although three participants (2.2%) sought medical attention for general symptoms.First Nations and Métis adults responded robustly to ASO3-adjuvanted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine. Virtually all participants showed protective titres, including those with chronic health conditions.
Project description:Cree births in Quebec are characterized by the highest reported prevalence of macrosomia (~35%) in the world. It is unclear whether Cree births are at greater elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal births in Quebec, and if macrosomia may be related.This was a population-based retrospective birth cohort study using the linked birth-infant death database for singleton births to mothers from Cree (n = 5,340), other First Nations (n = 10,810) and non-Aboriginal (n = 229,960) communities in Quebec, 1996-2010. Community type was ascertained by residential postal code and municipality name. The primary outcomes were perinatal and infant mortality.Macrosomia (birth weight for gestational age >90th percentile) was substantially more frequent in Cree (38.0%) and other First Nations (21.9%) vs non-Aboriginal (9.4%) communities. Comparing Cree and other First Nations vs non-Aboriginal communities, perinatal mortality rates were 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.17, 1.98) and 1.34 (1.10, 1.64) times higher, and infant mortality rates 2.27 (1.71, 3.02) and 1.49 (1.16, 1.91) times higher, respectively. The risk elevations in perinatal and infant death in Cree communities attenuated after adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, education, marital status, parity), but became greater after further adjustment for birth weight (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age).Cree communities had greater risk elevations in perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal communities in Quebec. High prevalence of macrosomia did not explain the elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality in Cree communities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To determine if research has adequately examined the health needs of the aboriginal population of Canada. DESIGN: Review. STUDY SELECTION: Medline search of journal articles published during 1992-2001. The search terms used were "Canada" and various synonyms and categories for Canadian aboriginal people. Each paper was categorised according to the aboriginal group, age-sex group, comparison group, geographic location, and type of research topic (health determinant, health status, or health care). RESULTS: Of 352 citations found, 254 were selected after elimination of those without abstracts, not containing data on Canada, or not focusing on health issues. The proportion of papers does not reflect the demographic composition of aboriginal people in Canada, with severe under-representation of Métis, urban aboriginal people, and First Nations people not living on reserves and over-representation of the Inuit. Children and women received less attention proportional to their share of the population. A few prolific research groups have generated a disproportionate amount of publications from a few communities and regions. 174 papers dealt with health determinants (for example, genetics, diet, and contaminants), 173 with health status, and 75 with health care. Injuries, which account for a third of all deaths, were studied in only 8 papers. None of the health care papers examined rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Researchers have not adequately examined several important health needs of the aboriginal population.
Project description:Indigenous women in Canada face a range of health and social issues including domestic violence. Indigenous women (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are six times more likely to be killed than non-Aboriginal women (Homicide in Canada, 2014; Miladinovic and Mulligan, 2015). Aboriginal women are 2.5 times more likely to be victims of violence than non-Aboriginal women (Robertson, 2010). These and other statistics highlight a significant difference in the level of violence experienced by Indigenous women to that experienced by women in the mainstream population in Canada. The historical impacts of colonization and forced assimilation are viewed as the main social determinant of health for aboriginal people in Canada, as they led to intergenerational trauma, with communities struggling today against discrimination, stigma, poverty and social exclusion. Most disturbing and damaging are the outcomes of domestic violence, mental health and addiction issues (Prussing, 2014). First Nation's women who want to leave a violent situation have limited access to helping services, as most are located in large cities and towns, far from remote reserves where many of the women live. Services were originally designed by and for the mainstream population. First Nation's women who manage to access these programs often find staff with limited cultural competence and program supports that have little cultural safety or relevance for them. Indigenous culture is defined in various levels of legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular region, with cultural or historical distinctiveness from the mainstream and other populations (Indigenous Peoples at the UN, 2014). In Canada, indigenous cultural beliefs are closely tied to belief in a creator, ancestors and the natural world, influencing their spirituality and their political perspectives (Waldram et al., 2006). Cultural safety, a concept that emerged in the 1980's in New Zealand, is viewed as an environment that is spiritually, socially, emotionally and physically safe for people; where cultural identity is recognized and valued through shared respect, meaning, knowledge and the experience of learning together. This paper will explore current evidence-based literature to determine if there is empirical evidence to support program policies and practices that reflect culturally safe, competent and relevant domestic violence services to address the cultural needs of Indigenous women in Canada.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, frequently presenting at an advanced stage. While rare in the United States overall, gallbladder cancer has an elevated incidence in geographically distinct locations of the globe including Chile, North India, Korea, Japan and the state of New Mexico in the United States. People with Native American ancestry have a much elevated incidence of gallbladder cancer compared to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations of New Mexico. Gallbladder cancer is also one of the few bi-gendered cancers with an elevated female incidence compared to men. Similar to other gastrointestinal cancers, gallbladder cancer etiology is likely multi-factorial involving a combination of genomic, immunological, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay of these unique epidemiological factors is crucial in improving the prevention, early detection, and treatment of this lethal disease. Previous studies have failed to identify a distinct genomic mutational profile in gallbladder cancers, however, work to identify promising clinically actionable targets is this form of cancer is ongoing. Examples include, interest in the HER2/Neu signaling pathway and the recognition that chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in gallbladder cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of gallbladder cancer epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and treatment with a specific focus on the rural and Native American populations of New Mexico. We conclude this review by discussing future research directions with the goal of improving clinical outcomes for patients of this lethal malignancy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We aimed to compare the incidence, subtypes and aetiology of stroke, and in-hospital death due to stroke, between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Central Australia, a remote region of Australia where a high proportion Aboriginal people reside (40% of the population). We hypothesised that the rates of stroke, particularly in younger adults, would be greater in the Aboriginal population, compared with the non-Aboriginal population; we aimed to elucidate causes for any identified disparities. DESIGN:A retrospective population-based study of patients hospitalised with stroke within a defined region from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2014. SETTING:Alice Springs Hospital, the only neuroimaging-capable acute hospital in Central Australia, serving a network of 50 healthcare facilities covering 672?000 km2. PARTICIPANTS:161 residents (63.4% Aboriginal) of the catchment area admitted to hospital with stroke. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Rates of first-ever stroke, overall (all events) stroke and in-hospital death. RESULTS:Of 121 residents with first-ever stroke, 61% identified as Aboriginal. Median onset-age (54 years) was 17 years younger in Aboriginal patients (p<0.001), and age-standardised stroke incidence was threefold that of non-Aboriginal patients (153 vs 51 per 100 000, incidence rate ratio 3.0, 95%?CI 2 to 4). The rate ratios for the overall rate of stroke (first-ever and recurrent) were similar. In Aboriginal patients aged <55 years, the incidence of ischaemic stroke was 14-fold greater (95%?CI 4 to 45), and intracerebral haemorrhage 19-fold greater (95%?CI 3 to 142) than in non-Aboriginal patients. Crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (70.3% vs 34.0%, p<0.001) and hypercholesterolaemia (68.9% vs 51.1%, p=0.049) was greater, and age-standardised in-hospital deaths were fivefold greater (35 vs 7 per 100 000, 95%?CI 2 to 11) in Aboriginal patients than in non-Aboriginal patients. CONCLUSIONS:Stroke incidence (both subtypes) and in-hospital deaths for remote Aboriginal Australians are dramatically greater than in non-Aboriginal people, especially in patients aged <55 years.