The impact of adjusting for baseline in pharmacogenomic genome-wide association studies of quantitative change.
ABSTRACT: In pharmacogenomic studies of quantitative change, any association between genetic variants and the pretreatment (baseline) measurement can bias the estimate of effect between those variants and drug response. A putative solution is to adjust for baseline. We conducted a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response to statin therapy in 34,874 participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort as a case study to investigate the impact of baseline adjustment on results generated from pharmacogenomic studies of quantitative change. Across phenotypes of statin-induced LDL-C change, baseline adjustment identified variants from six loci meeting genome-wide significance (SORT/CELSR2/PSRC1, LPA, SLCO1B1, APOE, APOB, and SMARCA4/LDLR). In contrast, baseline-unadjusted analyses yielded variants from three loci meeting the criteria for genome-wide significance (LPA, APOE, and SLCO1B1). A genome-wide heterogeneity test of baseline versus statin on-treatment LDL-C levels was performed as the definitive test for the true effect of genetic variants on statin-induced LDL-C change. These findings were generally consistent with the models not adjusting for baseline signifying that genome-wide significant hits generated only from baseline-adjusted analyses (SORT/CELSR2/PSRC1, APOB, SMARCA4/LDLR) were likely biased. We then comprehensively reviewed published GWASs of drug-induced quantitative change and discovered that more than half (59%) inappropriately adjusted for baseline. Altogether, we demonstrate that (1) baseline adjustment introduces bias in pharmacogenomic studies of quantitative change and (2) this erroneous methodology is highly prevalent. We conclude that it is critical to avoid this common statistical approach in future pharmacogenomic studies of quantitative change.
Project description:Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Statins reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and the risk of vascular events, but it remains uncertain whether there is clinically relevant genetic variation in their efficacy. This study of 18 705 individuals aims to identify genetic variants related to the lipid response to simvastatin and assess their impact on vascular risk response.<h4>Methods and results</h4>A genome-wide study of the LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) response to 40 mg simvastatin daily was performed in 3895 participants in the Heart Protection Study, and the nine strongest associations were tested in 14 810 additional participants. Selected candidate genes were also tested in up to 18 705 individuals. There was 90% power to detect differences of 2.5% in LDL-C response (e.g. 42.5 vs. 40% reduction) in the genome-wide study and of 1% in the candidate gene study. None of the associations from the genome-wide study was replicated, and nor were significant associations found for 26 of 36 candidates tested. Novel lipid response associations with variants in LPA, CELSR2/PSRC1/SORT1, and ABCC2 were found, as well as confirmatory evidence for published associations in LPA, APOE, and SLCO1B1. The largest and most significant effects were with LPA and APOE, but were only 2-3% per allele. Reductions in the risk of major vascular events during 5 years of statin therapy among 18 705 high-risk patients did not differ significantly across genotypes associated with the lipid response.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Common genetic variants do not appear to alter the lipid response to statin therapy by more than a few per cent, and there were similar large reductions in vascular risk with simvastatin irrespective of genotypes associated with the lipid response to simvastatin. Consequently, their value for informing clinical decisions related to maximizing statin efficacy appears to be limited.
Project description:Statin adherence is often limited by side effects. The SLCO1B1*5 variant is a risk factor for statin side effects and exhibits statin-specific effects: highest with simvastatin/atorvastatin and lowest with pravastatin/rosuvastatin. The effects of SLCO1B1*5 genotype guided statin therapy (GGST) are unknown. Primary care patients (n = 58) who were nonadherent to statins and their providers received SLCO1B1*5 genotyping and guided recommendations via the electronic medical record (EMR). The primary outcome was the change in Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire, which measured patients' perceived needs for statins and concerns about adverse effects, measured before and after SLCO1B1*5 results. Concurrent controls (n = 59) were identified through the EMR to compare secondary outcomes: new statin prescriptions, statin utilization, and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). GGST patients had trends (p = 0.2) towards improved statin necessity and concerns. The largest changes were the "need for statin to prevent sickness" (p < 0.001) and "concern for statin to disrupt life" (p = 0.006). GGST patients had more statin prescriptions (p < 0.001), higher statin use (p < 0.001), and greater decrease in LDL-c (p = 0.059) during follow-up. EMR delivery of SLCO1B1*5 results and recommendations is feasible in the primary care setting. This novel intervention may improve patients' perceptions of statins and physician behaviors that promote higher statin adherence and lower LDL-c.
Project description:<b>Importance: </b>Nonadherence to statin guidelines is common. The solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) genotype is associated with simvastatin myopathy risk and is proposed for clinical implementation. The unintended harms of using pharmacogenetic information to guide pharmacotherapy remain a concern for some stakeholders.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>To determine the impact of delivering SLCO1B1 pharmacogenetic results to physicians on the effectiveness of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention (measured by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] levels) and concordance with prescribing guidelines for statin safety and effectiveness.<br><br><b>Design, setting, and participants: </b>This randomized clinical trial was performed from December 2015 to July 2019 at 8 primary care practices in the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System. Participants included statin-naive patients with elevated ASCVD risk. Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to September 2020.<br><br><b>Interventions: </b>SLCO1B1 genotyping and results reporting to primary care physicians at baseline (intervention group) vs after 1 year (control group).<br><br><b>Main outcomes and measures: </b>The primary outcome was the 1-year change in LDL-C level. The secondary outcomes were 1-year concordance with American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association and Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for statin therapy and statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS).<br><br><b>Results: </b>Among 408 patients (mean [SD] age, 64.1 [7.8] years; 25 women [6.1%]), 193 were randomized to the intervention group and 215 were randomized to the control group. Overall, 120 participants (29%) had a SLCO1B1 genotype indicating increased simvastatin myopathy risk. Physicians offered statin therapy to 65 participants (33.7%) in the intervention group and 69 participants (32.1%) in the control group. Compared with patients whose physicians did not know their SLCO1B1 results at baseline, patients whose physicians received the results had noninferior reductions in LDL-C at 12 months (mean [SE] change in LDL-C, -1.1 [1.2] mg/dL in the intervention group and -2.2 [1.3] mg/dL in the control group; difference, -1.1 mg/dL; 90% CI, -4.1 to 1.8 mg/dL; P?<?.001 for noninferiority margin of 10 mg/dL). The proportion of patients with American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association guideline-concordant statin prescriptions in the intervention?group was noninferior to that in the control group (12 patients [6.2%] vs 14 patients [6.5%]; difference, -0.003; 90% CI, -0.038 to 0.032; P?<?.001 for noninferiority margin of 15%). All patients in both groups were concordant with CPIC guidelines for safe statin prescribing. Physicians documented 2 and 3 cases of SAMS in the intervention and control groups, respectively, none of which was associated with a CPIC guideline-discordant prescription. Among patients with a decreased or poor SLCO1B1 transporter function genotype, simvastatin was prescribed to 1 patient in the control group but none in the intervention group.<br><br><b>Conclusions and relevance: </b>Clinical testing and reporting of SLCO1B1 results for statin myopathy risk did not result in poorer ASCVD prevention in a routine primary care setting and may have been associated with physicians avoiding simvastatin prescriptions for patients at genetic risk for SAMS. Such an absence of harm should reassure stakeholders contemplating the clinical use of available pharmacogenetic results.<br><br><b>Trial registration: </b>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02871934.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are comorbidities of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which ranges from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rs599839 A>G variant, in the CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 gene cluster, has been associated CVD, but its impact on metabolic traits and on the severity liver damage in NAFLD has not been investigated yet.<h4>Methods</h4>We evaluated the effect of the rs599839 variant in 1426 NAFLD patients (Overall cohort) of whom 131 had HCC (NAFLD-HCC), in 500,000 individuals from the UK Biobank Cohort (UKBBC), and in 366 HCC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Hepatic PSRC1, SORT1 and CELSR2 expressions were evaluated by RNAseq (<i>n</i> = 125).<h4>Results</h4>The rs599839 variant was associated with reduced circulating LDL, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaques and hypertension (<i>p</i> < 0.05) in NAFLD patients and with protection against dyslipidemia in UKBBC. The minor G allele was associated with higher risk of HCC, independently of fibrosis severity (odds ratio (OR): 5.62; 95% c.i. 1.77-17.84, <i>p</i> = 0.003), poor prognosis and advanced tumor stage (<i>p</i> < 0.05) in the overall cohort. Hepatic PSRC1, SORT1 and CELSR2 expressions were increased in NAFLD patients carrying the rs599839 variant (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). SORT1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with circulating lipids and with those of genes involved in lipoprotein turnover (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). Conversely, PSRC1 expression was positively related to that of genes implicated in cell proliferation (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). In TCGA, PSRC1 over-expression promoted more aggressive HCC development (<i>p</i> < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In sum, the rs599839 A>G variant is associated with protection against dyslipidemia and CVD in NAFLD patients, but as one it might promote HCC development by modulating SORT1 and PSRC1 expressions which impact on lipid metabolism and cell proliferation, respectively.
Project description:SLCO1B1 variants are associated with intermediate outcomes that may increase risk of death/myocardial infarction (MI) in statin-treated patients.In high-risk Caucasians undergoing cardiac catheterization, we tested the association between rs4149056/625T>C and rs2306283/492A>G with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) over 3 years (n = 1402) and death/MI over 6 years (n = 2994), accounting for statin use or type during follow-up.Carriers of the rs4149056 C allele had 6.2 ± 1.7 mg/dl higher LDL-c per C allele (p < 0.001) but were not at higher risk for death/MI (p = 0.9). We found no associations between rs2306283 and LDL-c or death/MI (p > 0.6).Functional SLCO1B1 variants are not associated with death/MI in patients commonly treated with statins, despite higher LDL-c in carriers of the rs4149056 C allele.
Project description:The use of statins as the preferred lipid-lowering therapy has clearly demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, reducing also the risk of coronary events and cardiovascular disease mortality. In this study, we assessed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLCO1B1 gene and their effect on atorvastatin response. We included 129 Chilean hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing 10 mg/day of atorvastatin therapy during 4 weeks. Lipid profile was determined before and after drug administration. Genotyping of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (c.521T>C) SNP was performed with allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, whilst polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for genotyping the SLCO1B1 rs2306283 (c.388A>G) variant. After statin therapy, concentrations of TC, LDL-C and TG had a decrease from baseline (p < 0.05). Also, HDL-C levels increased (p < 0.05). Minor allele frequencies for the rs2306283 and rs4149056 variants were 0.547 and 0.136, respectively. LDL-C response to atorvastatin was not associated with the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 nor the rs2306283 polymorphisms (p > 0.05). However, the latter SNP was associated with HDL-C variability after atorvastatin medication (p = 0.02). This study indicates that LDL-C reduction following atorvastatin therapy is not influenced by the SNPs evaluated. In addition, the polymorphism rs2306283 at the SLCO1B1 gene determines greater HDL-C concentrations in response to atorvastatin medication in Chilean hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The association between the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 variant and statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) is well validated, but the clinical utility of its implementation in patient care is unknown.<h4>Design</h4>The Integrating Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Care (I-PICC) Study is a pseudo-cluster randomized controlled trial of SLCO1B1 genotyping among statin-naïve primary care and women's health patients across the Veteran Affairs Boston Healthcare System. Eligible patients of enrolled primary care providers are aged 40-75 and have elevated risk of cardiovascular disease by American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. Patients give consent by telephone in advance of an upcoming appointment, but they are enrolled only if and when their provider co-signs an order for SLCO1B1 testing, performed on a blood sample already collected in clinical care. Enrolled patients are randomly allocated to have their providers receive results through the electronic health record at baseline (PGx + arm) versus after 12 months (PGx- arm). The primary outcome is the change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after one year. Secondary outcomes are concordance with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for simvastatin prescribing, concordance with ACC/AHA guidelines for statin use, and incidence of SAMS. With 408 patients, the study has >80% power to exclude a between-group LDL-C difference of 10 mg/dL (non-inferiority design) and to detect between-group differences of 15% in CPIC guideline concordance (superiority design).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The outcomes of the I-PICC Study will inform the clinical utility of preemptive SLCO1B1 testing in the routine practice of medicine, including its proposed benefits and unforeseen risks.
Project description:Blood concentrations of lipoproteins and lipids are heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Using genome-wide association data from three studies (n = 8,816 that included 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative specific to the current paper as well as 1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables reported in a companion paper in this issue) and targeted replication association analyses in up to 18,554 independent participants, we show that common SNPs at 18 loci are reproducibly associated with concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and/or triglycerides. Six of these loci are new (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each new locus). Of the six newly identified chromosomal regions, two were associated with LDL cholesterol (1p13 near CELSR2, PSRC1 and SORT1 and 19p13 near CILP2 and PBX4), one with HDL cholesterol (1q42 in GALNT2) and five with triglycerides (7q11 near TBL2 and MLXIPL, 8q24 near TRIB1, 1q42 in GALNT2, 19p13 near CILP2 and PBX4 and 1p31 near ANGPTL3). At 1p13, the LDL-associated SNP was also strongly correlated with CELSR2, PSRC1, and SORT1 transcript levels in human liver, and a proxy for this SNP was recently shown to affect risk for coronary artery disease. Understanding the molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of the newly identified loci may inform therapy and clinical care.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic variants associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), and variations in plasma lipoproteins and blood pressure (BP). Loci corresponding to CDKN2A/CDKN2B/ANRIL, MTHFD1L, CELSR2, PSRC1 and SORT1 genes have been associated with CHD, and TMEM57, DOCK7, CELSR2, APOB, ABCG5, HMGCR, TRIB1, FADS2/S3, LDLR, NCAN and TOMM40-APOE with total cholesterol. Similarly, CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1, PCSK9, APOB, HMGCR, NCAN-CILP2-PBX4, LDLR, TOMM40-APOE, and APOC1-APOE are associated with variations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Altogether, forty, forty three and twenty loci have been associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and BP phenotypes, respectively. Some of these identified loci are common for all the traits, some do not map to functional genes, and some are located in genes that encode for proteins not previously known to be involved in the biological pathway of the trait. GWAS have been successful at identifying new and unexpected genetic loci common to diseases and traits, thus rapidly providing key novel insights into disease biology. Since genotype information is fixed, with minimum biological variability, it is useful in early life risk prediction. However, these variants explain only a small proportion of the observed variance of these traits. Therefore, the utility of genetic determinants in assessing risk at later stages of life has limited immediate clinical impact. The future application of genetic screening will be in identifying risk groups early in life to direct targeted preventive measures.