Population Pharmacokinetics of Ipilimumab in Combination With Nivolumab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.
ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of melanoma as monotherapy and for the treatment of melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer in combination with nivolumab. Ipilimumab time-varying clearance (CL) was assessed by a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model developed using statistically significant covariates identified in a previous PPK analysis plus additional covariates. Data from 3,411 patients who received ipilimumab 0.3-10 mg/kg alone or in combination with nivolumab in 16 clinical trials were analyzed. Ipilimumab CL decreased over time; the change in CL was greater in patients treated with nivolumab combination than ipilimumab alone and in responders vs. nonresponders. Time-varying covariates including body weight, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, and performance status were evaluated on change in ipilimumab CL. In addition, ipilimumab CL was similar across different tumor types, nivolumab dosing regimens, and lines of therapy. These data suggest an association of ipilimumab CL with disease severity.
Project description:Nivolumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits programmed cell death-1 activation. To assess covariate effects on nivolumab clearance (CL), a population pharmacokinetics model was developed using data from 6,468 patients with colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, or small cell lung cancer who received nivolumab as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab or chemotherapy across 25 clinical studies. Nivolumab CL was similar across the tumor types examined; CL was higher for ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks (by 17%) and 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks (by 29%) vs. nivolumab monotherapy. Nivolumab CL over time was partially explained by time-varying covariates. A greater decrease in nivolumab time-varying CL was associated with increased albumin and body weight and a responder status. Our findings support the observed association between nivolumab CL and disease severity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In a phase 1 dose-escalation study, combined inhibition of T-cell checkpoint pathways by nivolumab and ipilimumab was associated with a high rate of objective response, including complete responses, among patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS:In this double-blind study involving 142 patients with metastatic melanoma who had not previously received treatment, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive ipilimumab (3 mg per kilogram of body weight) combined with either nivolumab (1 mg per kilogram) or placebo once every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram) or placebo every 2 weeks until the occurrence of disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The primary end point was the rate of investigator-assessed, confirmed objective response among patients with BRAF V600 wild-type tumors. RESULTS:Among patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, the rate of confirmed objective response was 61% (44 of 72 patients) in the group that received both ipilimumab and nivolumab (combination group) versus 11% (4 of 37 patients) in the group that received ipilimumab and placebo (ipilimumab-monotherapy group) (P<0.001), with complete responses reported in 16 patients (22%) in the combination group and no patients in the ipilimumab-monotherapy group. The median duration of response was not reached in either group. The median progression-free survival was not reached with the combination therapy and was 4.4 months with ipilimumab monotherapy (hazard ratio associated with combination therapy as compared with ipilimumab monotherapy for disease progression or death, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.68; P<0.001). Similar results for response rate and progression-free survival were observed in 33 patients with BRAF mutation-positive tumors. Drug-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 54% of the patients who received the combination therapy as compared with 24% of the patients who received ipilimumab monotherapy. Select adverse events with potential immunologic causes were consistent with those in a phase 1 study, and most of these events resolved with immune-modulating medication. CONCLUSIONS:The objective-response rate and the progression-free survival among patients with advanced melanoma who had not previously received treatment were significantly greater with nivolumab combined with ipilimumab than with ipilimumab monotherapy. Combination therapy had an acceptable safety profile. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01927419.).
Project description:Ipilimumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4. The objective of the present study was to characterize the clinical pharmacology profile of ipilimumab using a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) approach.The PPK model was developed using 2095 ipilimumab serum concentration values from 499 patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma from four phase II studies, with ipilimumab doses ranging from 0.3 to 10?mg?kg(-1) . The structural PK model was determined by developing a base PPK model. The effect of covariates on model parameters was assessed by a full covariate model, which incorporated all pre-specified covariate-parameter relationships into the base model. The final model was developed by backward elimination, followed by exclusion of covariates determined not to be of clinical relevance to ipilimumab, and was rigorously validated against both internal and external datasets.Ipilimumab PK was linear and time-invariant, with dose-proportional exposures over the available dose range, yielding a terminal half-life of approximately 15 days. Clearance of ipilimumab increased with increasing body weight and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, but was not affected by age, gender, concomitant budesonide, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status or prior systemic anticancer therapy. Furthermore, ipilimumab exposure was not affected by moderate renal impairment or mild hepatic impairment.Ipilimumab concentration-time data were well described by a linear, two compartment, zero order i.v. infusion model. The model confirms that a body weight-normalized dosing regimen is appropriate for ipilimumab therapy in patients with advanced melanoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS:We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma to nivolumab alone, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, or ipilimumab alone. Progression-free survival and overall survival were coprimary end points. Results regarding progression-free survival are presented here. RESULTS:The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) with ipilimumab (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.42; 99.5% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; P<0.001), and 6.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 9.5) with nivolumab (hazard ratio for the comparison with ipilimumab, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; P<0.001). In patients with tumors positive for the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1), the median progression-free survival was 14.0 months in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group, but in patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, progression-free survival was longer with the combination therapy than with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] vs. 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 16.3% of the patients in the nivolumab group, 55.0% of those in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group, and 27.3% of those in the ipilimumab group. CONCLUSIONS:Among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505.).
Project description:Ipilimumab, in combination with nivolumab, is one of the promising drugs that enhance the anti-tumor immune response of patients with advanced melanoma. Since the co-administration of nivolumab with ipilimumab in the neoadjuvant setting expands melanoma-reactive T cells at the primary site of melanoma and has a high rate of histological complete response, the pre-surgical administration of this combination could be the optimal therapy for unresectable advanced melanoma. In this report, a case of unresectable advanced melanoma treated successfully with administration of nivolumab with ipilimumab before primary tumor resection is presented. In addition, CD8+ T cells increased among the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that were surrounding melanoma cells and caspase 3+ cells. The present case suggests that pre-surgical administration of nivolumab with ipilimumab could be the optimal therapy for the treatment of unresectable advanced melanoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nivolumab combined with ipilimumab resulted in longer progression-free survival and a higher objective response rate than ipilimumab alone in a phase 3 trial involving patients with advanced melanoma. We now report 3-year overall survival outcomes in this trial. METHODS:We randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma to receive nivolumab at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight plus ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks; nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks plus placebo; or ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses plus placebo, until progression, the occurrence of unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal of consent. Randomization was stratified according to programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status, BRAF mutation status, and metastasis stage. The two primary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group versus the ipilimumab group. RESULTS:At a minimum follow-up of 36 months, the median overall survival had not been reached in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and was 37.6 months in the nivolumab group, as compared with 19.9 months in the ipilimumab group (hazard ratio for death with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs. ipilimumab, 0.55 [P<0.001]; hazard ratio for death with nivolumab vs. ipilimumab, 0.65 [P<0.001]). The overall survival rate at 3 years was 58% in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and 52% in the nivolumab group, as compared with 34% in the ipilimumab group. The safety profile was unchanged from the initial report. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 59% of the patients in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group, in 21% of those in the nivolumab group, and in 28% of those in the ipilimumab group. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with advanced melanoma, significantly longer overall survival occurred with combination therapy with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or with nivolumab alone than with ipilimumab alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and others; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505 .).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, two phase II trials showed intracranial activity of the immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with melanoma brain metastases. However, it is generally assumed that large molecules like monoclonal antibodies nivolumab and ipilimumab cannot penetrate and pass an intact blood brain barrier (BBB). In this systematic review we provide a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic consideration of the clinical activity of the immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and ipilimumab in melanoma brain metastases. METHODS:Pubmed was systematically searched for prospective phase II and III studies on nivolumab and ipilimumab in melanoma brain metastases and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of nivolumab and ipilimumab. Results were discussed and a perspective on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics for the intracranial activity of these agents was given. RESULTS:Two phase II studies with the combination nivolumab and ipilimumab and one phase II study with ipilimumab monotherapy in melanoma brain metastases were included in this review. One article reported drug levels of nivolumab in CSF. Intracranial responses were achieved in 16 of 35 patients (46%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 29-63) in a phase II study cohort treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab. In a second phase II study in 94 patients, the rate of intracranial clinical benefit was 57% (95% CI 47-68). The CSF/serum ratio of nivolumab was 0.88-1.9% in a cohort of metastatic melanoma patients treated with nivolumab 1-3?mg/kg. Nivolumab concentrations ranged from 35 to 150?ng/ml in CSF of these patients, which is in the range of the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.64?nM. CONCLUSIONS:Ipilimumab and nivolumab are active in melanoma brain metastases. Nivolumab penetrates into the CSF. Based on the described findings the general consensus that monoclonal antibodies do not penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cannot have a direct intracranial effect needs to be reconsidered.
Project description:Nivolumab, a human immunoglobulin G4-blocking antibody against the T-cell programmed death-1 checkpoint protein, has activity against metastatic melanoma. Its safety, clinical efficacy, and correlative biomarkers were assessed with or without a peptide vaccine in ipilimumab-refractory and -naive melanoma.In this phase I study, 90 patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma who were ipilimumab naive and had experienced progression after at least one prior therapy (cohorts 1 to 3, 34 patients) or experienced progression after prior ipilimumab (cohorts 4 to 6, 56 patients) received nivolumab at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 24 weeks, then every 12 weeks for up to 2 years, with or without a multipeptide vaccine.Nivolumab with vaccine was well tolerated and safe at all doses. The RECIST 1.1 response rate for both ipilimumab-refractory and -naive patients was 25%. Median duration of response was not reached at a median of 8.1 months of follow-up. High pretreatment NY-ESO-1 and MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells were associated with progression of disease. At week 12, increased peripheral-blood T regulatory cells and decreased antigen-specific T cells were associated with progression. PD-L1 tumor staining was associated with responses to nivolumab, but negative staining did not rule out a response. Patients who experienced progression after nivolumab could respond to ipilimumab.In patients with ipilimumab-refractory or -naive melanoma, nivolumab at 3 mg/kg with or without peptide vaccine was well tolerated and induced responses lasting up to 140 weeks. Responses to nivolumab in ipilimumab-refractory patients or to ipilimumab in nivolumab-refractory patients support combination or sequencing of nivolumab and ipilimumab.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that combining nivolumab with ipilimumab is a more effective treatment for melanoma patients, compared to using ipilimumab or nivolumab alone. However, treatment with these immunotherapeutic agents is frequently associated with increased risk of toxicity, and (auto-) immune-related adverse events. The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms of these events are not yet clear, and evidence from clinical trials and translational studies remains limited. Our retrospective analysis of ~7700 metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab and/or nivolumab from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) demonstrates that the identified immune-related reactions are specific to ipilimumab and/or nivolumab, and that when the two agents are administered together, their safety profile combines reactions from each drug alone. While more prospective studies are needed to characterize the safety of ipilimumab and nivolumab, the present work constitutes perhaps the first effort to examine the safety of these drugs and their combination based on computational evidence from real world post marketing data.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate the efficacy and safety of concurrent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and ipilimumab or nivolumab in patients with untreated melanoma brain metastases.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Eighty consecutive patients with 326 melanoma brain metastases receiving SRS in combination with ipilimumab or nivolumab were identified from an institutional database and retrospectively evaluated. Patients started systemic treatment with intravenous nivolumab or ipilimumab within one week of receiving SRS. Nivolumab was given at doses of 3?mg/kg every two weeks. Ipilimumab was administered up to four doses of 10?mg/kg, one every 3?weeks, then patients had a maintenance dose of 10?mg/kg every 12?weeks, until disease progression or inacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint of the study was intracranial progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were extracranial PFS, overall survival (OS), and neurological toxicity.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty patients were analyzed. Forty-five patients received SRS and ipilimumab, and 35 patients received SRS and nivolumab. With a median follow-up of 15?months, the 6-month and 12-month intracranial PFS rates were 69% (95%CI,54-87%) and 42% (95%CI,24-65%) for patients receiving SRS and nivolumab and 48% (95%CI,34-64%) and 17% (95%CI,5-31%) for those treated with SRS and ipilimumab (p?=?0.02), respectively. Extracranial PFS and OS were 37 and 78% in SRS and nivolumab group, respectively, and 17 and 68% in SRS and ipilimumab group, respectively, at 12?months. Sub-group analysis showed significantly better intracranial PFS for patients receiving multi-fraction SRS (3?×?9 Gy) compared to single-fraction SRS (70% versus 46% at 6?months, p =?0.01), especially in combination with nivolumab. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 11 (24%) patients treated with SRS and ipilimumab and 6 (17%) patients who received SRS and nivolumab. Radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN) occurred in 15% of patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Concurrent SRS and ipilimumab or nivolumab show meaningful intracranial activity in patients with either asymptomatic and symptomatic melanoma brain metastases, although a subset of patients may develop symptomatic RN. The combination of nivolumab with SRS is associated with better intracranial control.