Paradoxical psoriasis induced by TNF-? blockade shows immunological features typical of the early phase of psoriasis development.
ABSTRACT: Immunomodulation with anti-TNF-? is highly effective in the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). However, this may be responsible for unexpected paradoxical psoriasiform reactions. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the induction of these events are not clear, even though the involvement of innate immune responses driven by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) has been described. In addition, the genetic predisposition to psoriasis of patients could be determinant. In this study, we investigated the immunological and genetic profiles of three HS patients without psoriasis who developed paradoxical psoriasiform reactions following anti-TNF-? therapy with adalimumab. We found that paradoxical psoriasiform skin reactions show immunological features common to the early phases of psoriasis development, characterized by cellular players of innate immunity, such as pDC, neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and monocytes. In addition, IFN-? and IFN-?2a, two type I IFNs typical of early psoriasis, were highly expressed in paradoxical skin reactions. Concomitantly, other innate immunity molecules, such as the catheledicin LL37 and lymphotoxin (LT)-? and LT-? were overproduced. Interestingly, these innate immunity molecules were abundantly expressed by keratinocytes, in addition to the inflammatory infiltrate. In contrast to classical psoriasis, psoriasiform lesions of HS patients showed a reduced number of IFN-? and TNF-?-releasing T lymphocytes. On the contrary, IL-22 immunoreactivity was significantly augmented together with the IL-36? staining in leukocytes infiltrating the dermis. Finally, we found that all HS patients with paradoxical reactions carried allelic variants in genes predisposing to psoriasis. Among them, SNPs in ERAP1, NFKBIZ, and TNFAIP genes and in the HLA-C genomic region were found.
Project description:Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are highly effective in the treatment of psoriasis, 2-5% of treated patients develop psoriasis-like skin lesions called paradoxical psoriasis. The pathogenesis of this side effect and its distinction from classical psoriasis remain unknown. Here we show that skin lesions from patients with paradoxical psoriasis are characterized by a selective overexpression of type I interferons, dermal accumulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and reduced T-cell numbers, when compared to classical psoriasis. Anti-TNF treatment prolongs type I interferon production by pDCs through inhibition of their maturation. The resulting type I interferon overexpression is responsible for the skin phenotype of paradoxical psoriasis, which, unlike classical psoriasis, is independent of T cells. These findings indicate that paradoxical psoriasis represents an ongoing overactive innate inflammatory process, driven by pDC-derived type I interferon that does not lead to T-cell autoimmunity.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte activation is known to play a critical role in psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), an innate immune system sensor, is reported to affect keratinocyte function. We therefore hypothesized that IFI16 promotes psoriasis by modulating keratinocyte activation. In the present study, we cinfirmed that IFI16 was overexpressed in epidermal keratinocytes of psoriasis patients. In addition, psoriasis-related cytokines, including IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-22, induced IFI16 up-regulation in keratinocytes via activation of STAT3 signaling. We also observed that IFI16 activated the TBK1-NF-?B signaling, leading to the production of CXCL10 and CCL20. Importantly, knocking down p204, which is reported as the mouse orthologous of human IFI16, inhibited epidermal hyperplasia in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. These findings indicate that IFI16 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:There is competing evidence that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), the most potent source of IFN-I, may initiate psoriasis. We targeted pDC function using the slc15a4<sup>feeble</sup> loss-of-function mouse whose pDC are unresponsive to TLR agonists. slc15a4<sup>feeble</sup> treated with the topical TLR7-agonist imiquimod (IMQ) demonstrated decreased epidermal thickening 24?hours post-treatment which was more pronounced by day 5 as compared to wildtype mice. These findings were specific to the acute IMQ model and not the protracted IL23 model that drives inflammation downstream of TLR activation. Systemically, slc15a4 was required for IMQ-induced weight loss and cutaneous accumulation of CD4+ and Siglec H+, but not CD11b+ cells. Consistent with this phenotype and the function of slc15a4, induction of IFN-I was virtually absent systemically and via cutaneous gene expression. Induction of other inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) was modestly blunted in slc15a4<sup>feeble</sup> except for inflammasome-associated genes consistent with slc15a4 being required for TLR7-mediated (but not inflammasome-mediated) inflammation downstream of IMQ. Surprisingly, only IFN-I gene expression was suppressed within IMQ-treated skin. Other genes including conserved psoriasiform trademark gene expression were augmented in slc15a4<sup>feeble</sup> versus littermate controls. Taken together, we have identified a role for slc15a4 but not canonical psoriasiform genes in the imiquimod model of psoriasiform dermatitis.
Project description:Glycerol is used in many skin care products because it improves skin function. Anecdotal reports by patients on the National Psoriasis Foundation website also suggest that glycerol may be helpful for the treatment of psoriasis, although to date no experimental data confirm this idea. Glycerol entry into epidermal keratinocytes is facilitated by aquaglyceroporins like aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and its conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, a lipid messenger that promotes keratinocyte differentiation, requires the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipase-D2 (PLD2). To evaluate whether glycerol inhibits inflammation and psoriasiform lesion development in the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis, glycerol's effect on psoriasiform skin lesions was determined in IMQ-treated wild-type and PLD2 knockout mice, with glycerol provided either in drinking water or applied topically. Psoriasis area and severity index, ear thickness and ear biopsy weight, epidermal thickness, and inflammatory markers were quantified. Topical and oral glycerol ameliorated psoriasiform lesion development in wild-type mice. Topical glycerol appeared to act as an emollient to induce beneficial effects, since even in PLD2 knockout mice topical glycerol application improved skin lesions. In contrast, the beneficial effects of oral glycerol required PLD2, with no improvement in psoriasiform lesions observed in PLD2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that the ability of oral glycerol to improve psoriasiform lesions requires its PLD2-mediated conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, consistent with our previous report that phosphatidylglycerol itself improves psoriasiform lesions in this model. Our data also support anecdotal evidence that glycerol can ameliorate psoriasis symptoms and therefore might be a useful therapy alone or in conjunction with other treatments.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanism regulating the proliferation of keratinocytes, little is known about the epigenetic factors that control this process. EZH2 and EZH2 mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) was previously shown ectopically expressed in carcinoma and mediated proliferation, thereby we sought to clarify the role of EZH2-H3K27me3 in the proliferation of psoriatic keratinocyte. Interestingly, we found that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were both overexpressed in the epidermis of psoriatic lesional skin compared to normal skin. In vitro, the expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 was stimulated in human keratinocytes treated with mixture of psoriasis-related cytokines pool (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17A, and IL-22). Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferative activity. Results from mRNA microarray analysis suggested that Kallikrein-8 (KLK8) might be the target gene of EZH2 in psoriatic keratinocytes. Overexpression or knockdown KLK8 could partially reverse the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes caused by knockdown or overexpression of EZH2. In vivo, the inhibitor of EZH2, GSK126 could ameliorate the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform lesion. These results suggest that EZH2 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a complex, chronic relapsing and inflammatory skin disorder with a prevalence of approximately 2% in the general population worldwide. Psoriasis can be triggered by infections, physical injury and certain drugs. The most common type of psoriasis is psoriasis vulgaris, which primarily features dry, well-demarcated, raised red lesions with adherent silvery scales on the skin and joints. Over the past few decades, scientific research has helped us reveal that innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to the chronic inflammatory pathological process of psoriasis. In particular, dysfunctional helper T cells (Th1, Th17, Th22, and Treg cells) are indispensable factors in psoriasis development. When stimulated by certain triggers, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can release pro-inflammatory factors (IL-23, IFN-α and IL-12), which further activate naive T cells and polarize them into distinct helper T cell subsets that produce numerous cytokines, such as TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-22, which act on keratinocytes to amplify psoriatic inflammation. In this review, we describe the function of helper T cells in psoriasis and summarize currently targeted anti-psoriatic therapies.
Project description:Paradoxical psoriasis (PP) may occur during treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) drugs in various chronic immune-mediated diseases, mainly inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and psoriasis. In this study, clinical and genetic characteristics of PP arising in IBD and psoriatic patients were investigated to identify disease-specific markers of the paradoxical effect. A total of 161 IBD and psoriatic patients treated with anti-TNF-? drugs were included in the study. Of these patients, 39 developed PP. All patients were characterized for the main clinical-pathologic characteristics and genotyped for six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected for their possible role in PP susceptibility. In IBD patients, the onset of PP was associated with female sex, presence of comorbidities, and use of adalimumab. IBD patients with PP had a higher frequency of the TNF-? rs1799964 rare allele (p = 0.006) compared with cases without the paradoxical effect, and a lower frequency of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw06 rs10484554 rare allele (p = 0.03) compared with psoriatic patients with PP. Overall, these findings point to specific clinical and genetic characteristics of IBD patients with PP and provide data showing that genetic variability may be related to the paradoxical effect of anti-TNF-? drugs with possible implications into clinical practice.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and massive inflammatory leukocytes infiltration, affecting 0.14%-1.99% of the world's population. Our aim was to identify novel potential therapeutic strategies for psoriasis. <b>Methods</b>: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify gene modules that were closely related to psoriasis based on the GSE30999 dataset, which contained expression data from 85 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Then, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), one of the most related hub genes, was selected for <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> functional assays. In our experiments, imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells were used to study the potential roles and mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in psoriasis. <b>Results</b>: WGCNA analysis revealed the turquoise module was most correlated with psoriasis, and ANGPTL4 is one of the most related hub genes that significantly upregulated in psoriasis lesions compared with non-lesional skin. Consistent with the bioinformatic analysis, the expression of ANGPTL4 was significantly upregulated in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. Exogenous recombinant ANGPLT4 protein treatment could promote the proliferation and induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HaCaTs, whereas silencing of ANGPTL4 effectively inhibited these effects. Then we demonstrated that recombinant ANGPTL4 protein exacerbated psoriasiform inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation <i>in vivo</i>. Mechanismly, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways were involved in ANGPTL4-mediated regulation of proliferation and inflammation. <b>Conclusion</b>: We found ANGPTL4 was significantly increased in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. ANGPTL4 could promote keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory response <i>via</i> ERK1/2 and STAT3 dependent signaling pathways in psoriasis.
Project description:Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatments are effective in controlling disease activity in many immune-mediated diseases such as psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Although side effects such as infection and skin reactions are predictable in anti-TNF treatment; susceptibility to psoriasis is considered as a paradoxical side effect.We report a case of forty-year-old male patient with 7 years of AS was taking anti-TNF therapy. He admitted our clinic with widespread guttate sized round, crusty rashes at feet, legs and elbows. In pathological examination of lesions; focal parakeratosis, mild acanthosis, capillary proliferation in the papillary dermis and focal extravasated erythrocytes were observed. He was diagnosed as anti-TNF induced guttate psoriasis. Although there is no definite treatment option, topical treatments, interrupting drug treatment or adding a disease-modifying agent for psoriasis are recommended. In this case report, we aimed to share our clinical approach to the paradoxical psoriasis manifestation which developed after two different anti-TNF treatments in a patient with AS.
Project description:Zdhhc family genes are composed of 24 members that regulate palmitoylation, a post-translational modification process for proteins. Mutations in genes that alter palmitoylation or de-palmitoylation could result in neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders. In this study, we found that Zdhhc2 was robustly induced in psoriatic skin and loss of Zdhhc2 in mice by CRISPR/Cas9 dramatically inhibited pathology of the ear skin following imiquimod treatment. As psoriasis is an inflammatory disorder, we analyzed tissue infiltrating immune cells and cytokine production. Strikingly we found that a master psoriatic cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?) in the lesioned skin of wildtype (WT) mice was 23-fold higher than that in Zdhhc2 deficient counterparts. In addition, we found that CD45<sup>+</sup> white blood cells (WBC) infiltrating in the skin of Zdhhc2 deficient mice were also significantly reduced. Amelioration in psoriasis and dramatically reduced inflammation of Zdhhc2 deficient mice led us to analyze the cellular components that were affected by loss of Zdhhc2. We found that imiquimod induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) accumulation in psoriatic skin, spleen, and draining lymph nodes (DLN) were drastically decreased in Zdhhc2 deficient mice, and the expression of pDC activation marker CD80 also exhibited significantly inhibited in psoriatic skin. In further experiments, we confirmed the cell intrinsic effect of Zdhhc2 on pDCs as we found that loss of zDHHC2 in human CAL-1 pDC dampened both interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) phosphorylation and IFN-? production. Therefore, we identified novel function of Zdhhc2 in controlling inflammatory response in psoriasis in mice and we also confirmed that crucial role of Zdhhc2 in pDCs by regulating IRF7 activity and production of the critical cytokine. Our results finding the dependence of IFN-? production on Zdhhc2 in inflamed murine skin and in human pDCs provide rationale for targeting this new molecule in treatment of inflammation.