Dose-dependent effect of cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 on myelin repair following a demyelinating insult.
ABSTRACT: Dysfunctions in the endocannabinoid system have been associated with experimental animal models and multiple sclerosis patients. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to confer neuroprotection against demyelination. The present study aims to assess the effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN-55,212-2 in cuprizone fed animals on myelin repair capacity. Animals exposed to cuprizone were simultaneously treated withWIN-55,212-2, behaviorally tested and finally the corpus callosum was exhaustively studied by Western blotting, qRT-PCR and a myelin staining procedure. We report that the long-term administration of WIN-55,212-2 reduced the global amount of CB1 protein. Histological analysis revealed clear demyelination after being fed cuprizone for three weeks. However, cuprizone-fed mice subjected to 0.5?mg/Kg of WIN-55,212-2 displayed no differences when compared to controls during demyelination, although there was a robust increase in the myelinated axons during the remyelination phase. These animals displayed better performance on contextual fear conditioning which was in turn non-attributable to an antinociceptive effect. In contrast, a 1?mg/Kg dosage caused a remarkable demyelination accompanied by limited potential for myelin repair. Upon drug administration while mice ongoing demyeliniation, the expression of Aif1 (microglia) and Gfap (astrocytes) followed a dose-dependent manner whereas the expression of both markers was apparently attenuated during remyelination. Treatment with vehicle or 0.5?mg/Kg of the drug during demyelination increased the expression of Pdgfra (oligodendrocyte precursor cells) but this did not occur when 1?mg/Kg was administered. In conclusion, the drug at 0.5?mg/Kg did not alter myelin architecture while 1?mg/Kg had a deleterious effect in this model.
Project description:Different types of insults to the CNS lead to axon demyelination. Remyelination occurs when the CNS attempts to recover from myelin loss and requires the activation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. With the rationale that CB1 receptor is expressed in oligodendrocytes and marijuana consumption alters CNS myelination, we study the effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 in (1) an in vitro model of oligodendrocyte differentiation and (2) the cuprizone model for demyelination.The synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 at 1 ?M increased the myelin basic protein mRNA and protein expression in vitro. During cuprizone-induced acute demyelination, the administration of 0.5 mg/kg WIN55212.2 confers more myelinated axons, increased the expression of retinoid X receptor alpha, and declined nogo receptor expression. Controversially, 1 mg/kg of the drug increased the number of demyelinated axons and reduced the expression of nerve growth factor inducible, calreticulin and myelin-related genes coupling specifically with a decrease in 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase expression.The cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. Moreover, 0.5 mg/kg of the drug confers neuroprotection during cuprizone-induced demyelination, while 1 mg/kg aggravates the demyelination process.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Spontaneous remyelination during early disease stages is thought to preserve and partially restore function. However, this process ceases in later stages despite the presence of pre-oligodendrocytes. Cuprizone-induced demyelination is a useful model with which to study the remyelination process. Previous studies have demonstrated heterogeneities in demyelination in individual animals. Here we investigated regional differences in demyelination and remyelination within the corpus callosum. C57BL/6 mice were fed 0.2% cuprizone for 5 weeks to induce demyelination. Remyelination was examined 2-5 weeks after cuprizone withdrawal. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy were used to quantify regional differences in demyelination, gliosis, and remyelination. We found that, while demyelination was limited in the rostral region of corpus callosum, nearly complete demyelination occurred in the caudal callosum, beginning at approximately -0.5mm from bregma. Astrogliosis and microgliosis were correlated with demyelination and differed between the rostral and caudal callosal structures. Remyelination upon cessation of cuprizone ensued at different rates with splenium remyelinating faster than dorsal hippocampal commissure. Our data show anatomical differences of cuprizone-induced demyelination and remyelination in the corpus callosum and the importance of examining specific callosal regions in myelin repair studies using this model.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that white matter disorders based on myelin sheath impairment may underlie the neuropathological changes in schizophrenia. But it is unknown whether enhancing remyelination is a beneficial approach to schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, we used clemastine, an FDA-approved drug with high potency in promoting oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination, on a cuprizone-induced mouse model of demyelination. The mice exposed to cuprizone (0.2% in chow) for 6 weeks displayed schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, including decreased exploration of the center in the open field test and increased entries into the arms of the Y-maze, as well as evident demyelination in the cortex and corpus callosum. Clemastine treatment was initiated upon cuprizone withdrawal at 10 mg/kg per day for 3 weeks. As expected, myelin repair was greatly enhanced in the demyelinated regions with increased mature oligodendrocytes (APC-positive) and myelin basic protein. More importantly, the clemastine treatment rescued the schizophrenia-like behavioral changes in the open field test and the Y-maze compared to vehicle, suggesting a beneficial effect via promoting myelin repair. Our findings indicate that enhancing remyelination may be a potential therapy for schizophrenia.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease in which remyelination largely fails. Transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) and TNF receptor 2 are important for remyelination in experimental MS models, but it is unknown whether soluble TNF (solTNF), a major proinflammatory factor, is involved in regeneration processes. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of solTNF to demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model. Treatment with XPro1595, a selective inhibitor of solTNF that crosses the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), in cuprizone-fed mice did not prevent toxin-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, but it permitted profound early remyelination due to improved phagocytosis of myelin debris by CNS macrophages and prevented disease-associated decline in motor performance. The beneficial effects of XPro1595 were absent in TNF-deficient mice and replicated in tmTNF-knockin mice, showing that tmTNF is sufficient for the maintenance of myelin and neuroprotection. These findings demonstrate that solTNF inhibits remyelination and repair in a cuprizone demyelination model and suggest that local production of solTNF in the CNS might be one reason why remyelination fails in MS. These findings also suggest that disinhibition of remyelination by selective inhibitors of solTNF that cross the BBB might represent a promising approach for treatment in progressive MS.
Project description:The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the corpus callosum have previously been shown to have a critical impact on oligodendrocyte (OLG) lineage cells during cuprizone-elicited demyelination. In particular, BDNF+/- mice exhibit greater losses in myelin protein levels compared to wild-type mice after cuprizone. To investigate whether OLGs may directly mediate these effects of BDNF during a lesion in vivo, we used the cuprizone model of demyelination with inducible conditional male knockout mice to specifically delete the high-affinity tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor from proteolipid protein?+?OLGs during cuprizone-elicited demyelination and subsequent remyelination. The loss of TrkB during cuprizone-elicited demyelination results in an increased sensitivity to demyelination as demonstrated by greater deficits in myelin protein levels, greater decreases in numbers of mature OLGs, increased numbers of demyelinated axons, and decreased myelin thickness. When mice are removed from cuprizone, they exhibit a delayed recovery in myelin proteins and myelin. Our data indicate that following a demyelinating lesion, TrkB in OLGs positively regulates myelin protein expression, myelin itself, and remyelination.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Residual CXCR2 expression on CNS cells in Cxcr2 (+/-) ?Cxcr2 (-/-) chimeric animals slowed remyelination after both experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and cuprizone-induced demyelination.<h4>Methods</h4>We generated Cxcr2 (fl/-) :PLPCre-ER(T) mice enabling an inducible, conditional deletion of Cxcr2 on oligodendrocyte lineage cells of the CNS. Cxcr2 (fl/-) :PLPCre-ER(T) mice were evaluated in 2 demyelination/remyelination models: cuprizone-feeding and in vitro lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) treatment of cerebellar slice cultures.<h4>Results</h4>Cxcr2 (fl/-) :PLPCre-ER(T)(+) (termed Cxcr2-cKO) mice showed better myelin repair 4 days after LPC-induced demyelination of cerebellar slice cultures. Cxcr2-cKOs also displayed enhanced hippocampal remyelination after a 2-week recovery from 6-week cuprizone feeding.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Using 2 independent demyelination/remyelination models, our data document enhanced myelin repair in Cxcr2-cKO mice, consistent with the data obtained from radiation chimerism studies of germline CXCR2. Further experiments are appropriate to explore how CXCR2 function in the oligodendrocyte lineage accelerates myelin repair.
Project description:A pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin loss in brain white matter accompanied by compromised remyelination. Demyelinated lesions are deeply associated with oligodendrocyte apoptosis and a robust inflammatory response. Although various studies point towards a noxious role of inflammation in MS, others emphasize a positive role for the innate immune cells in disease progression. A cytokine well-known to stimulate cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mCSF), was administered to mice during a 5 week-long cuprizone diet. Treated mice exhibited reduced myelin loss during the demyelination phase, together with an increased number of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in lesion sites. Tamoxifen-induced conditional deletion of the mCSF receptor in microglia from cuprizone-fed mice caused aberrant myelin debris accumulation in the corpus callosum and reduced microglial phagocytic response. mCSF therefore plays a key role in stimulating myelin clearance by the brain innate immune cells, which is a prerequisite for proper remyelination and myelin repair processes.
Project description:Vitamin D is emerging as a probably important environmental risk factor in multiple sclerosis, affecting both susceptibility and disease progression. It is not known to what extent this effect is due to a modulation of peripheral lymphocyte function, or to intrathecal effects of vitamin D. We investigated the effect of dietary vitamin D3 content on de/remyelination in the cuprizone model, which is a well established toxic model of demyelination, with no associated lymphocyte infiltration. The mice received diets either deficient of (<50 IU/kg), or supplemented with low (500 IU/kg), high (6200 IU/kg) or very high (12500 IU/kg) amounts of vit D3. Cuprizone (0.2%) was added to the diet for six weeks, starting two weeks after onset of the experimental diets. Mouse brain tissue was histopathologically evaluated for myelin and oligodendrocyte loss, microglia/macrophage activation, and lymphocyte infiltration after six weeks of cuprizone exposure, and two weeks after discontinuation of cuprizone exposure. High and very high doses of vitamin D3 significantly reduced the extent of white matter demyelination (p?=?0.004) and attenuated microglia activation (p?=?0.001). No differences in the density of oligodendrocytes were observed between the diet groups. Two weeks after discontinuation of cuprizone exposure, remyelination was only detectable in the white matter of mice receiving diets deficient of or with low vitamin D3 content. In conclusion, high dietary doses of vitamin D3 reduce the extent of demyelination, and attenuate microglia activation and macrophage infiltration in a toxic model of demyelination, independent of lymphocyte infiltration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease characterized by both inflammatory demyelination and impaired remyelination. Studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling contributes to both the inflammatory component and the defective remyelination in MS. While most MS therapeutics target adaptive immunity, we recently reported that reducing TLR2 signaling in innate immune cells by inducing TLR2 tolerance attenuates adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Given that previous reports suggest TLR2 signaling also inhibits myelin repair, the objective of this study was to assess how reducing TLR2 signaling through TLR2 tolerance induction affects CNS myelin repair. METHODS:Chow containing 0.2% cuprizone was fed to male and female wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice or TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) mice for 5 weeks to induce demyelination. During a 2-week remyelination period following discontinuation of cuprizone, WT mice received either low dose TLR2 ligands to induce systemic TLR2 tolerance or vehicle control (VC). Remyelination was evaluated via electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis of microglia and oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum. Statistical tests included 2-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U analyses. RESULTS:Inducing TLR2 tolerance in WT mice during remyelination significantly enhanced myelin recovery, restoring unmyelinated axon frequency and myelin thickness to baseline levels compared to VC-treated mice. Mechanistically, enhanced remyelination in TLR2 tolerized mice was associated with a shift in corpus callosum microglia from a pro-inflammatory iNOS+ phenotype to a non-inflammatory/pro-repair Arg1+ phenotype. This result was confirmed in vitro by inducing TLR2 tolerance in WT microglia cultures. TLR2-/- mice, without TLR2 tolerance induction, also significantly enhanced myelin recovery compared to WT mice, adding confirmation that reduced TLR2 signaling is associated with enhanced remyelination. DISCUSSION:Our results suggest that reducing TLR2 signaling in vivo by inducing TLR2 tolerance significantly enhances myelin repair. Furthermore, the enhanced remyelination resulting from TLR2 tolerance induction is associated with a shift in corpus callosum microglia from a pro-inflammatory iNOS+ phenotype to a non-inflammatory/pro-repair Arg1+ phenotype. While deletion of TLR2 would be an impractical approach in vivo, reducing innate immune signaling through TLR2 tolerance induction may represent a novel, two-pronged approach for treating both inflammatory and myelin repair components of MS.
Project description:An imbalance between remyelinating and demyelinating rates underlies degenerative processes in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. An optimal therapeutic strategy would be to stimulate remyelination while limiting demyelination. Although accumulation of myelin debris impairs remyelination, the mechanisms regulating the clearance of such debris by mononuclear phagocytic cells are poorly understood. We demonstrate that after cuprizone intoxication, CCR2-dependent infiltration of mouse bone marrow-derived cells is abundant in demyelinating areas, but that these cells do not impact demyelination. However, in CX3CR1-deficient mice, the clearance of myelin debris by microglia was blocked greatly, affecting the integrity of the axon and myelin sheaths and thus preventing proper remyelination. These results highlight the crucial role played by CX3CR1 in myelin removal and show that there can be no efficient remyelination after a primary demyelinating insult if myelin clearance by microglia is impaired.