Fabrication and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating large CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and Cas9 protein system is a revolutionary tool for gene therapy. Despite promising reports of the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo gene editing, a principal problem in implementing this new process is delivery of high molecular weight DNA into cells. RESULTS:Using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a nanoparticle carrier was designed to deliver a model CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid into primary bone marrow derived macrophages. The engineered PLGA-based carriers were approximately 160 nm and fluorescently labeled by encapsulation of the fluorophore 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene). An amine-end capped PLGA encapsulated 1.6 wt% DNA, with an encapsulation efficiency of 80%. Release studies revealed that most of the DNA was released within the first 24 h and corresponded to ~?2-3 plasmid copies released per nanoparticle. In vitro experiments conducted with murine bone marrow derived macrophages demonstrated that after 24 h of treatment with the PLGA-encapsulated CRISPR plasmids, the majority of cells were positive for TIPS pentacene and the protein Cas9 was detectable within the cells. CONCLUSIONS:In this work, plasmids for the CRISPR-Cas9 system were encapsulated in nanoparticles comprised of PLGA and were shown to induce expression of bacterial Cas9 in murine bone marrow derived macrophages in vitro. These results suggest that this nanoparticle-based plasmid delivery method can be effective for future in vivo applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
Project description:Nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms have the potential to transform disease treatment paradigms and therapeutic strategies, especially in the context of pulmonary medicine. Once administered, nanoparticles disperse throughout the lung and many are phagocytosed by macrophages. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding cellular up-take dynamics of nanoparticles due largely to macrophage heterogeneity. To address this issue, we sought to better define nanoparticle up-take using polarized M1 and M2 macrophages and novel TIPS-pentacene loaded PEO-PDLLA nanoparticles. Our data reveal that primary macrophages polarized to either M1 or M2 phenotypes have similar levels of nanoparticle phagocytosis. Similarly, M1 and M2 polarized macrophages isolated from the lungs of mice following either acute (Th1) or allergic (Th2) airway inflammation also demonstrated equivalent levels of nanoparticle up-take. Together, these studies provide critical benchmark information pertaining to cellular up-take dynamics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the context of clinically relevant inflammatory microenvironments.
Project description:The type II bacterial clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein) system (CRISPR-Cas9) is a powerful toolbox for gene-editing, however, the nonviral delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 to cells or tissues remains a key challenge. This paper reports a strategy to deliver Cas9 protein and single guide RNA (sgRNA) plasmid by a nanocarrier with a core of gold nanoclusters (GNs) and a shell of lipids. By modifying the GNs with HIV-1-transactivator of transcription peptide, the cargo (Cas9/sgRNA) can be delivered into cell nuclei. This strategy is utilized to treat melanoma by designing sgRNA targeting Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) of the tumor. The nanoparticle (polyethylene glycol-lipid/GNs/Cas9 protein/sgPlk1 plasmid, LGCP) leads to >70% down-regulation of Plk1 protein expression of A375 cells in vitro. Moreover, the LGCP suppresses melanoma progress by 75% on mice. Thus, this strategy can deliver protein-nucleic acid hybrid agents for gene therapy.
Project description:Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin.We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C).In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching experiments. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct antinitrosant activity of curcumin, enhanced by PLGA encapsulation, which was increased by light exposure.These results suggest that the antioxidant and antinitrosant activities of encapsulated curcumin are light sensitive and that nanoparticle modifications over time and with temperature may facilitate curcumin contact with reactive oxygen species. These results highlight the importance of understanding effects of nanoparticle maturation on an encapsulated drug's activity.
Project description:The homology-independent targeted integration (HITI) strategy enables effective CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockin of therapeutic genes in nondividing cells in vivo, promising general therapeutic solutions for treating genetic diseases like X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Herein, supramolecular nanoparticle (SMNP) vectors are used for codelivery of two DNA plasmids-CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system and a therapeutic gene, Retinoschisin 1 (RS1)-enabling clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) knockin of the RS1 gene with HITI. Through small-scale combinatorial screenings, two SMNP vectors, with Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA)-plasmid in one and Donor-RS1 and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-plasmid in the other, with optimal delivery performances are identified. These SMNP vectors are then employed for CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of RS1/GFP genes into the mouse Rosa26 safe-harbor site in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo study involves intravitreally injecting the two SMNP vectors into the mouse eyes, followed by repeated ocular imaging by fundus camera and optical coherence tomography, and pathological and molecular analyses of the harvested retina tissues. Mice ocular organs retain their anatomical integrity, a single-copy 3.0-kb RS1/GFP gene is precisely integrated into the Rosa26 site in the retinas, and the integrated RS1/GFP gene is expressed in the retinas, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of RS1/GFP gene.
Project description:Therapeutic gene editing is becoming more feasible with the emergence of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. However, the successful implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-based therapeutics requires a safe and efficient in vivo delivery of the CRISPR components, which remains challenging. This study presents successful preparation, optimization, and characterization of alginate nanoparticles (ALG NPs), loaded with two CRISPR plasmids, using electrospray technique. The aim of this delivery system is to edit a target gene in another plasmid (green fluorescent protein (GFP)). The effect of formulation and process variables were evaluated. CRISPR ALG NPs showed mean size and zeta potential of 228 nm and -4.42 mV, respectively. Over 99.0% encapsulation efficiency was achieved while preserving payload integrity. The presence of CRISPR plasmids in the ALG NPs was confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The tests revealed that the nanoparticles were cytocompatible and successfully introduced the Cas9 transgene in HepG2 cells. Nanoparticles-transfected HepG2 was able to edit its target plasmid by introducing double-strand break (DSB) in GFP gene, indicating the bioactivity of CRISPR plasmids encapsulated in alginate nanoparticles. This suggests that this method is suitable for biomedical application in vitro or ex vivo. Future investigation of theses nanoparticles might result in nanocarrier suitable for in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is a well-studied target for the treatment of multiple inflammatory diseases, but how to promote the current therapeutics remains a large challenge. CRISPR/Cas9, as a gene editing tool, allows for direct ablation of NLRP3 at the genomic level. In this study, we screen an optimized cationic lipid-assisted nanoparticle (CLAN) to deliver Cas9 mRNA (mCas9) and guide RNA (gRNA) into macrophages. By using CLAN encapsulating mCas9 and gRNA-targeting NLRP3 (gNLRP3) (CLANmCas9/gNLRP3), we disrupt NLRP3 of macrophages, inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to diverse stimuli. After intravenous injection, CLANmCas9/gNLRP3 mitigates acute inflammation of LPS-induced septic shock and monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced peritonitis. In addition, CLANmCas9/gNLRP3 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and reduces adipose inflammation of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, our study provides a promising strategy for treating NLRP3-dependent inflammatory diseases and provides a carrier for delivering CRISPR/Cas9 into macrophages.
Project description:Leveraging the endogenous homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway, the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system can be applied to knock in a therapeutic gene at a designated site in the genome, offering a general therapeutic solution for treating genetic diseases such as hemoglobinopathies. Here, a combined supramolecular nanoparticle (SMNP)/supramolecular nanosubstrate-mediated delivery (SNSMD) strategy is used to facilitate CRISPR-Cas9 knockin of the hemoglobin beta (HBB) gene into the adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) safe-harbor site of an engineered K562 3.21 cell line harboring the sickle cell disease mutation. Through stepwise treatments of the two SMNP vectors encapsulating a Cas9•single-guide RNA (sgRNA) complex and an HBB/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding plasmid, CRISPR-Cas9 knockin was successfully achieved via HDR. Last, the HBB/GFP-knockin K562 3.21 cells were introduced into mice via intraperitoneal injection to show their in vivo proliferative potential. This proof-of-concept demonstration paves the way for general gene therapeutic solutions for treating hemoglobinopathies.
Project description:Blending organic semiconductors with insulating polymers has been known to be an effective way to overcome the disadvantages of single-component organic semiconductors for high-performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We show that when a solution processable organic semiconductor (6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene, TIPS-pentacene) is blended with an insulating polymer (PS), morphological and structural characteristics of the blend films could be significantly influenced by the processing conditions like the spin coating time. Although vertical phase-separated structures (TIPS-pentacene-top/PS-bottom) were formed on the substrate regardless of the spin coating time, the spin time governed the growth mode of the TIPS-pentacene molecules that phase-separated and crystallized on the insulating polymer. Excess residual solvent in samples spun for a short duration induces a convective flow in the drying droplet, thereby leading to one-dimensional (1D) growth mode of TIPS-pentacene crystals. In contrast, after an appropriate spin-coating time, an optimum amount of the residual solvent in the film led to two-dimensional (2D) growth mode of TIPS-pentacene crystals. The 2D spherulites of TIPS-pentacene are extremely advantageous for improving the field-effect mobility of FETs compared to needle-like 1D structures, because of the high surface coverage of crystals with a unique continuous film structure. In addition, the porous structure observed in the 2D crystalline film allows gas molecules to easily penetrate into the channel region, thereby improving the gas sensing properties.
Project description:A main challenge to broaden the biomedical application of CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) associated protein 9) genome editing technique is the delivery of Cas9 nuclease and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into the specific cell and organ. An effective and very fast CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in vitro and in vivo enabled by bioreducible lipid/Cas9 messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle is reported. BAMEA-O16B, a lipid nanoparticle integrated with disulfide bonds, can efficiently deliver Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA into cells while releasing RNA in response to the reductive intracellular environment for genome editing as fast as 24 h post mRNA delivery. It is demonstrated that the simultaneous delivery of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA using BAMEA-O16B knocks out green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression of human embryonic kidney cells with efficiency up to 90%. Moreover, the intravenous injection of BAMEA-O16B/Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA nanoparticle effectively accumulates in hepatocytes, and knocks down proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 level in mouse serum down to 20% of nontreatment. The leading lipid nanoparticle, BAMEA-O16B, represents one of the most efficient CRISPR/Cas9 delivery nanocarriers reported so far, and it can broaden the therapeutic promise of mRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 technique further.