Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2 Differentially Contribute to Peripheral Activation and CNS Entry of Autoaggressive Th1 and Th17 Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are activated in the periphery and differentiate in T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 effector cells, which cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach the central nervous system (CNS), where they induce neuroinflammation. Here, we explored the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2 in the activation of naïve myelin-specific T cells and in the subsequent migration of differentiated encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells across the BBB in vitro and in vivo. While on antigen-presenting cells ICAM-1, but not ICAM-2 was required for the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells, endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 mediated both Th1 and Th17 cell migration across the BBB. ICAM-1/-2-deficient mice developed ameliorated typical and atypical EAE transferred by encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Our study underscores important yet cell-specific contributions for ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in EAE pathogenesis.
Project description:Inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) are being explored as therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that the GSK inhibitor lithium is beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In this study we report that lithium suppresses EAE induced by encephalitogenic interferon-? (IFN-?)-producing T helper (Th1) cells but not by interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells. The therapeutic activity of lithium required functional IFN-?-signaling, but not the receptor for type I IFN (IFNAR). Inhibitor/s of GSK3 attenuated IFN-? dependent activation of the transcription factor STAT1 in naïve T cells as well as in encephalitogenic T cells and Th1 cells. The inhibition of STAT1 activation was associated with reduced IFN-? production and decreased expansion of encephalitogenic Th1 cells. Furthermore, lithium treatment induced Il27 expression within the spinal cords of mice with EAE. In contrast, such treatment of Ifngr(-/-) mice did not induce Il27 and was associated with lack of therapeutic response. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for the efficacy of GSK3 targeting in EAE, through the IFN-?-STAT1 axis that is independent IFNAR-STAT1 axis. Overall our findings set the framework for the use of GSK3 inhibitors as therapeutic agents in autoimmune neuroinflammation.
Project description:Leukocyte trafficking is a key event during autoimmune and inflammatory responses. The subarachnoid space (SAS) and cerebrospinal fluid are major routes for the migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the central nervous system (CNS) during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis, and are sites of T cell activation before the invasion of CNS parenchyma. In particular, autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell trafficking and reactivation in the CNS are required for the pathogenesis of EAE. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling T cell dynamics during EAE are unclear. We used two-photon laser microscopy to show that autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells display distinct motility behavior within the SAS in the spinal cords of mice immunized with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide MOG35-55. Th1 cells showed a strong directional bias at the disease peak, moving in a straight line and covering long distances, whereas Th17 cells exhibited more constrained motility. The dynamics of both Th1 and Th17 cells were strongly affected by blocking the integrin LFA-1, which interfered with the deformability and biomechanics of Th1 but not Th17 cells. The intrathecal injection of a blocking anti-LFA-1 antibody at the onset of disease significantly inhibited EAE progression and also strongly reduced neuro-inflammation in the immunized mice. Our results show that LFA-1 plays a pivotal role in T cell motility during EAE and suggest that interfering with the molecular mechanisms controlling T cell motility can help to reduce the pathogenic potential of autoreactive lymphocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:T helper (Th) 17 cells are a highly plastic subset of T cells, which in the context of neuroinflammation, are able to acquire pathogenic features originally attributed to Th1 cells (resulting in so called ex-Th17 cells). Thus, a strict separation between the two T cell subsets in the context of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is difficult. High variability in culture and EAE induction protocols contributed to previous conflicting results concerning the differential contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in EAE. Here, we systematically evaluate the role of different T cell differentiation and transfer protocols for EAE disease development and investigate the functional dynamics of encephalitogenic T cells directly within the inflamed central nervous system (CNS) tissue. METHODS:We compiled the currently used EAE induction protocols reported in literature and investigated the influence of the different Th1 and Th17 differentiation protocols as well as EAE induction protocols on the EAE disease course. Moreover, we assessed the cytokine profile and functional dynamics of both encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in the inflamed CNS using flow cytometry and intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Lastly, we used astrocyte culture and adoptive transfer EAE to evaluate the impact of Th1 and Th17 cells on astrocyte adhesion molecule expression in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:We show that EAE courses are highly dependent on in vitro differentiation and transfer protocols. Moreover, using genetically encoded reporter mice (B6.IL17A-EGFP.acRFP x 2d2/2d2.RFP), we show that the motility of interferon (IFN)?-producing ex-Th17 cells more closely resembles Th1 cells than Th17 cells in transfer EAE. Mechanistically, IFN?-producing Th1 cells selectively induce the expression of cellular adhesion molecules I-CAM1 while Th1 as well as ex-Th17 induce V-CAM1 on astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS:The behavior of ex-Th17 cells in EAE lesions in vivo resembles Th1 rather than Th17 cells, underlining that their change in cytokine production is associated with functional phenotype alterations of these cells.
Project description:CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells reactive against myelin antigens mediate the mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is currently debated whether encephalitogenic Th cells are heterogeneous or arise from a single lineage. In the current study, we challenge the dogma that stimulation with the monokine IL-23 is universally required for the acquisition of pathogenic properties by myelin-reactive T cells. We show that IL-12-modulated Th1 cells readily produce IFN-? and GM-CSF in the CNS of mice and induce a severe form of EAE via an IL-23-independent pathway. Th1-mediated EAE is characterized by monocyte-rich CNS infiltrates, elicits a strong proinflammatory cytokine response in the CNS, and is partially CCR2 dependent. Conversely, IL-23-modulated, stable Th17 cells induce EAE with a relatively mild course via an IL-12-independent pathway. These data provide definitive evidence that autoimmune disease can be driven by distinct CD4(+) T-helper-cell subsets and polarizing factors.
Project description:Anemoside A3 (AA3) is a natural triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the root of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel. We previously showed that AA3 exhibits cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective properties. In the present study, we demonstrated that AA3 modulates inflammatory responses by regulating prostaglandin E receptor 4 signaling. Because prostaglandin E receptor 4 is involved in the pathophysiology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), we assessed the beneficial effect of AA3 in EAE mice. AA3 treatment significantly reduced clinical severity and inflammatory infiltrates in the spinal cord of EAE mice. In vitro studies revealed that AA3 inhibited the T cell response toward the encephalitogenic epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). AA3 significantly downregulated the expressions of certain Th1 and Th17 cytokines in activated T cells re-stimulated by MOG. Moreover, AA3 inhibited the activation of STAT4 and STAT3, which are the transcription factors pivotal for Th1 and Th17 lineage differentiation, respectively, in activated T cells. Pharmacological analysis further suggested that AA3 reduced Th17 cell differentiation and expansion. In conclusion, AA3 exerts an immunomodulatory effect in EAE, demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent for MS in humans.
Project description:The ELR(+) CXC chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 are up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) during multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, their functional significance and the pathways regulating their expression are largely unknown. We show that transfer of encephalitogenic CD4(+) Th17 cells is sufficient to induce CXCL1 and CXCL2 transcription in the spinal cords of naive, syngeneic recipients. Blockade or genetic silencing of CXCR2, a major receptor for these chemokines in mice, abrogates blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, CNS infiltration by leukocytes, and the development of clinical deficits during the presentation as well as relapses of EAE. Depletion of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had a similar therapeutic effect. Furthermore, injection of CXCR2(+) PMN into CXCR2(-/-) mice was sufficient to restore susceptibility to EAE. Our findings reveal that a Th17-ELR(+) CXC chemokine pathway is critical for granulocyte mobilization, BBB compromise, and the clinical manifestation of autoimmune demyelination in myelin peptide-sensitized mice, and suggest new therapeutic targets for diseases such as MS.
Project description:The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to inhibit macrophage proinflammatory actions, promote a positive Th2/Th1 balance, and stimulate regulatory T-cell production. The fact that this peptide is highly efficacious in animal models of inflammatory diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that the endogenous peptide might normally provide protection against such pathologies. We thus studied the response of VIP-deficient (i.e., VIP KO) mice to myelin oligodendrocyte protein-induced EAE. Surprisingly, VIP KO mice were almost completely resistant to EAE, with delayed onset and mild or absent clinical profile. Despite this, flow cytometric analyses and antigen-rechallenge experiments indicated that myelin oligodendrocyte protein-treated VIP KO mice exhibited robust Th1/Th17 cell inductions and antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine responses. Moreover, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from immunized VIP KO mice to WT recipients resulted in full-blown EAE, supporting their encephalitogenic potential. In contrast, transfer of encephalitogenic WT cells to VIP KO hosts did not produce EAE, suggesting that loss of VIP specifically affected the effector phase of the disease. Histological analyses indicated that CD4 T cells entered the meningeal and perivascular areas of VIP-deficient mice, but that parenchymal infiltration was strongly impaired. Finally, VIP pretreatment of VIP KO mice before immunization was able to restore their sensitivity to EAE. These results indicate that VIP plays an unanticipated permissive and/or proinflammatory role in the propagation of the inflammatory response in the CNS, a finding with potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Orexins (hypocretins, Hcrt) A and B are GPCR-binding hypothalamic neuropeptides known to regulate sleep/wake states and feeding behavior. A few studies have shown that orexin A exhibits anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, suggesting that it might provide therapeutic effects in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells trigger an inflammatory response in the CNS destroying the myelin sheath. Here, we investigated the effects of peripheral orexin A administration to mice undergoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used model of MS. METHODS:Mice were subcutaneously immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)35-55 in CFA. Mice were treated intraperitoneally for five consecutive days with either PBS or 300 ?g of orexin A starting at a moderate EAE score. Molecular, cellular, and histological analysis were performed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS:Orexin A strongly ameliorated ongoing EAE, limiting the infiltration of pathogenic CD4+ T lymphocytes, and diminishing chemokine (MCP-1/CCL2 and IP-10/CXCL10) and cytokine (IFN-? (Th1), IL-17 (Th17), TNF-?, IL-10, and TGF-?) expressions in the CNS. Moreover, orexin A treatment was neuroprotective, decreasing demyelination, astrogliosis, and microglial activation. Despite its strong local therapeutic effects, orexin A did not impair peripheral draining lymph node cell proliferation and Th1/Th17 cytokine production in response to MOG35-55 in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Peripherally-administered orexin A ameliorated EAE by reducing CNS neuroinflammation. These results suggest that orexins may represent new therapeutic candidates that should be further investigated for MS treatment.
Project description:Studies evaluating T-cell recognition of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have focused mostly on its 117 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain, especially peptide (p) 35-55. We characterized T-cell responses to the entire 218 aa MOG sequence, including its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.T-cell recognition in mice was examined using overlapping peptides and intact full-length mouse MOG. EAE was evaluated by peptide immunization and by adoptive transfer of MOG epitope-specific T cells. Frequency of epitope-specific T cells was examined by ELISPOT.Three T-cell determinants of MOG were discovered in its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, p119-132, p181-195, and p186-200. Transmembrane MOG p119-132 induced clinical EAE, CNS inflammation, and demyelination as potently as p35-55 in C57BL/6 mice and other H-2(b) strains. p119-128 contained its minimal encephalitogenic epitope. p119-132 did not cause disease in EAE-susceptible non-H-2(b) strains, including Biozzi, NOD, and PL/J. MOG p119-132-specific T cells produced Th1 and Th17 cytokines and transferred EAE to wild-type recipient mice. After immunization with full-length MOG, a significantly higher frequency of MOG-reactive T cells responded to p119-132 than to p35-55, demonstrating that p119-132 is an immunodominant encephalitogenic epitope. MOG p181-195 did not cause EAE, and MOG p181-195-specific T cells could not transfer EAE into wild-type or highly susceptible T- and B-cell-deficient mice.Transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of MOG contain immunodominant T-cell epitopes in EAE. A CNS autoantigen can also contain nonpathogenic stimulatory T-cell epitopes. Recognition that a myelin antigen contains multiple encephalitogenic and nonencephalitogenic determinants may have implications for therapeutic development in MS.
Project description:Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI), a serine protease inhibitor derived from soybeans, has anti-inflammatory properties and is able to suppress the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity in animal models. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is characterized by breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS, resulting in pathology. In this study, we observed that BBI-treated mice showed delayed onset of EAE and reduced disease severity compared to control mice. BBI-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells in the CNS including significantly reduced numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells. In the periphery, BBI treatment suppressed the development of encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 responses early on [day 7 post-immunization (p.i.)], while after disease onset (day 14 p.i.) BBI-treated mice had stronger Th responses, as determined by antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that BBI treatment temporarily suppressed the development of encephalitogenic responses, but these responses eventually attained normal magnitude. Given that BBI-treated mice exhibited stronger encephalitogenic responses in the periphery during clinically manifesting EAE, delayed disease onset, and reduced numbers of CNS-infiltrating cells, it appears likely that BBI impedes the exit of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells from lymphoid organs, thereby delaying their migration into the CNS.