IL-1-conferred gene expression pattern in ER?+ BCa and AR+ PCa cells is intrinsic to ER?- BCa and AR- PCa cells and promotes cell survival.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Breast (BCa) and prostate (PCa) cancers are hormone receptor (HR)-driven cancers. Thus, BCa and PCa patients are given therapies that reduce hormone levels or directly block HR activity; but most patients eventually develop treatment resistance. We have previously reported that interleukin-1 (IL-1) inflammatory cytokine downregulates ER? and AR mRNA in HR-positive (HR+) BCa and PCa cell lines, yet the cells can remain viable. Additionally, we identified pro-survival proteins and processes upregulated by IL-1 in HR+ BCa and PCa cells, that are basally high in HR- BCa and PCa cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that IL-1 confers a conserved gene expression pattern in HR+ BCa and PCa cells that mimics conserved basal gene expression patterns in HR- BCa and PCa cells to promote HR-independent survival and tumorigenicity. METHODS:We performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for HR+ BCa and PCa cell lines exposed to IL-1 and for untreated HR- BCa and PCa cell lines. We confirmed expression patterns of select genes by RT-qPCR and used siRNA and/or drug inhibition to silence select genes in the BCa and PCa cell lines. Finally, we performed Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and used the gene ontology web-based tool, GOrilla, to identify signaling pathways encoded by our RNA-seq data set. RESULTS:We identified 350 genes in common between BCa and PCa cells that are induced or repressed by IL-1 in HR+ cells that are, respectively, basally high or low in HR- cells. Among these genes, we identified Sequestome-1 (SQSTM1/p62) and SRY (Sex-Determining Region Y)-Box 9 (SOX9) to be essential for survival of HR- BCa and PCa cell lines. Analysis of publicly available data indicates that p62 and SOX9 expression are elevated in HR-independent BCa and PCa sublines generated in vitro, suggesting that p62 and SOX9 have a role in acquired hormone receptor independence and treatment resistance. We also assessed HR- cell line viability in response to the p62-targeting drug, verteporfin, and found that verteporfin is cytotoxic for HR- cell lines. CONCLUSIONS:Our 350 gene set can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers conserved among acquired (e.g. due to inflammation) or intrinsic HR-independent BCa and PCa.
Project description:Gene expression profiling has identified breast cancer (BCa) subtypes, including an aggressive basal-like (BL) subtype. The molecular signals underlying the behavior observed in BL-BCa group are largely unknown, although recent results indicate a prevalent increase in Wnt/?-catenin activity. Our immunohistochemistry study confirmed that SOX9, one of the BL-BCa signature genes, was expressed by most BL-BCa, and its expression correlated with indicators of poor prognosis. Importantly, BCa gene expression profiling strongly associated SOX9 with the expression of Wnt/?-catenin pathway components, LRP6 and TCF4. In cancer cell lines, SOX9 silencing reduced cell proliferation and invasion, LRP6 and TCF4 transcription, and decreased Wnt/?-catenin activation. SOX9 expression was also increased by Wnt, indicating that SOX9 is at the center of a positive feedback loop that enhances Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Consistently, SOX9 overexpression in BCa cell lines and transgenic SOX9 expression in breast epithelium caused increased LRP6 and TCF4 expression and Wnt/?-catenin activation. These results identify SOX9-mediated Wnt/?-catenin activation as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant Wnt/?-catenin activity in BCa, especially in the BL-BCa subgroup.
Project description:Chronic inflammation is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa), although the mechanisms governing inflammation-mediated PCa progression are not fully understood. PCa progresses to an androgen independent phenotype that is incurable. We previously showed that androgen independent, androgen receptor negative (AR(-) ) PCa cell lines have high p62/SQSTM1 levels required for cell survival. We also showed that factors in the HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium can upregulate p62 in AR(+) PCa cell lines, leading us to investigate AR expression under those growth conditions. In this paper, mRNA, protein, and subcellular analyses reveal that HS-5 BMSC conditioned medium represses AR mRNA, protein, and nuclear accumulation in the C4-2 PCa cell line. Using published gene expression data, we identify the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?, as a candidate BMSC paracrine factor to regulate AR expression and find that IL-1? is sufficient to both repress AR and upregulate p62 in multiple PCa cell lines. Immunostaining demonstrates that, while the C4-2 population shows a primarily homogeneous response to factors in HS-5 BMSC conditioned medium, IL-1? elicits a strikingly heterogeneous response; suggesting that there are other regulatory factors in the conditioned medium. Finally, while we observe concomitant AR loss and p62 upregulation in IL-1?-treated C4-2 cells, silencing of AR or p62 suggests that IL-1? regulates their protein accumulation through independent pathways. Taken together, these in vitro results suggest that IL-1? can drive PCa progression in an inflammatory microenvironment through AR repression and p62 induction to promote the development and survival of androgen independent PCa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance. Furthermore, IL-1 and AR protein levels negatively correlate in PCa tumor cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that IL-1 reprograms AR positive (AR+ ) PCa cells into AR negative (AR- ) PCa cells that co-opt IL-1 signaling to ensure AR-independent survival and tumor progression in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. METHODS:LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells were treated with IL-1? or HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium and analyzed by RNA sequencing and RT-QPCR. To verify genes identified by RNA sequencing, LNCaP, MDA-PCa-2b, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines were treated with the IL-1 family members, IL-1? or IL-1?, or exposed to HS-5 BMSC in the presence or absence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA). Treated cells were analyzed by western blot and/or RT-QPCR. RESULTS:Comparative analysis of sequencing data from the AR+ LNCaP PCa cell line versus the AR- PC3 PCa cell line reveals an IL-1-conferred gene suite in LNCaP cells that is constitutive in PC3 cells. Bioinformatics analysis of the IL-1 regulated gene suite revealed that inflammatory and immune response pathways are primarily elicited; likely facilitating PCa cell survival and tumorigenicity in an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS:Our data supports that IL-1 reprograms AR+ PCa cells to mimic AR- PCa gene expression patterns that favor AR-targeted treatment resistance and cell survival.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) paracrine factor(s) can induce apoptosis in bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. However, the PCa cells that escape BMSC-induced apoptosis can upregulate cytoprotective autophagy.C4-2, C4-2B, MDA PCa 2a, MDA PCa 2b, VCaP, PC3, or DU145 PCa cell lines were grown in BMSC conditioned medium and analyzed for mRNA and/or protein accumulation of p62 (also known as sequestome-1/SQSTM1), Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), or lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), Western blot, or immunofluorescence. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine if p62 is necessary PCa cell survival.BMSC paracrine signaling upregulated p62 mRNA and protein in a subset of the PCa cell lines. The PCa cell lines that were insensitive to BMSC-induced apoptosis and autophagy induction had elevated basal p62 mRNA and protein. In the BMSC-insensitive PCa cell lines, siRNA knockdown of p62 was cytotoxic and immunostaining showed peri-nuclear clustering of autolysosomes. However, in the BMSC-sensitive PCa cell lines, p62 siRNA knockdown was not appreciably cytotoxic and did not affect autolysosome subcellular localization.A pattern emerges wherein the BMSC-sensitive PCa cell lines are known to be osteoblastic and express the androgen receptor, while the BMSC-insensitive PCa cell lines are characteristically osteolytic and do not express the androgen receptor. Furthermore, BMSC-insensitive PCa may have evolved a dependency on p62 for cell survival that could be exploited to target and kill these apoptosis-resistant PCa cells in the bone.
Project description:Effective diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer (BCa) is currently challenged by detection methods that are of poor sensitivity, particularly for low-grade tumors, resulting in unnecessary invasive procedures and economic burden. We performed HR-MAS NMR-based global metabolomic profiling and applied unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering performed on NMR data set of bladder-derived tissues and identified metabolic signatures that differentiate BCa from benign disease. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model (leave-one-out cross-validation) was used as a diagnostic model to distinguish benign and BCa tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curve generated either from PC1 loadings of PCA or from predicted Y-values resulted in an area under curve of 0.97. Relative quantification of more than 15 tissue metabolites derived from HR-MAS NMR showed significant differences (P < 0.001) between benign and BCa samples. Noticeably, striking metabolic signatures were observed even for early stage BCa tissues (Ta-T1), demonstrating the sensitivity in detecting BCa. With the goal of cross-validating metabolic signatures derived from HR-MAS NMR, we utilized the same tissue samples to analyze 8 metabolites through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-targeted analysis, which undoubtedly complements HR-MAS NMR-derived metabolomic information. Cross-validation through GC-MS clearly demonstrates the utility of a straightforward, nondestructive, and rapid HR-MAS NMR technique for clinical diagnosis of BCa with even greater sensitivity. In addition to its utility as a diagnostic tool, these studies will lead to a better understanding of aberrant metabolic pathways in cancer as well as the design and implementation of personalized cancer therapy through metabolic modulation.
Project description:With our recent success in developing a recombinant human arginase drug against broad-spectrum cancer cell lines, we have explored the potential of a recombinant Bacillus caldovelox arginase mutant (BCA-M) for human cervical cancer treatment. Our studies demonstrated that BCA-M significantly inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro regardless of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) expression. Drug susceptibilities correlate well with the expressions of major urea cycle genes and completeness of L-arginine regeneration pathways. With the expressions of ASS and ASL genes conferring resistance to L-arginine deiminase (ADI) which is undergoing Phase III clinical trial, BCA-M offers the advantage of a broader spectrum of susceptible cancer cells. Mechanistic studies showed that BCA-M inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S and/or G2/M phases. Our results also displayed that autophagy served as a protective mechanism, while the growth inhibitory effects of BCA-M could be enhanced synergistically by its combination to the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), on human cervical cancer cells.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression are associated with chronic inflammation. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 can influence progression, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis of PCa. To identify novel pathways that are triggered by IL-6, we performed a gene expression profiling of two PCa cell lines, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b, under treatment with 5 ng/ml IL-6. Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)9 was identified as one of the most prevalent IL-6 regulated genes in both cell lines. IRF9 is a mediator of type I interferon signaling and acts together with signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and 2 to activate transcription of interferon responsive genes. The IL-6 regulation of IRF9 was confirmed at mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively, in both cell lines and could be blocked by the anti-IL-6 antibody Siltuximab. Three PCa cell lines with an autocrine IL-6 loop, PC3, DU145, and LNCaP-IL-6+, showed a high expression of IRF9. A tissue microarray with 36 malignant and adjacent 36 benign areas from prostate cancer specimens showed that IRF9 protein expression is moderately elevated in malignant areas and positively correlates with the tissue expression of IL-6. Downregulation and overexpression of IRF9 provided evidence for an interferon-independent role of IRF9 on cellular proliferation of different PCa cell lines. Furthermore, expression of IRF9 was essential to mediate the antiproliferative effects of IFN-α2. We concluded that IL-6 is an inducer of IRF9 expression in prostate cancer and a sensitizer for the antiproliferative effects of IFNα2. LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b cells were seeded in 12 wells each. The cells were starved for 24 h and half were treated with 5 ng/ml IL-6 for 18 h. Two biological replicates were performed, each in three replicates, resulting in 12 samples per cell line.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and maintains the balance of CO2/HCO3- in the intracellular environment, specifically for carboxylation/decarboxylation reactions. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, two putative genes, namely the bca (cg2954) and gca (cg0155) genes, coding for ?-type and ?-type carbonic anhydrase, respectively, have been identified. We here analyze the transcriptional organization of these genes. The transcriptional start site (TSS) of the bca gene was shown to be the first nucleotide "A" of its putative translational start codon (ATG) and thus, bca codes for a leaderless transcript. The TSS of the gca gene was identified as an "A" residue located at position -20 relative to the first nucleotide of the annotated translational start codon of the cg0154 gene, which is located immediately upstream of gca. Comparative expression analysis revealed carbon source-dependent regulation of the bca gene, with 1.5- to 2-fold lower promoter activity in cells grown on acetate as compared to glucose as sole carbon source. Based on higher expression of bca in a mutant deficient of the regulator of acetate metabolism RamA as compared to the wild-type of C. glutamicum and based on the binding of His-tagged RamA protein to the bca promoter region, we here present evidence that RamA negatively regulates expression of bca in C. glutamicum. Functional characterization of a gca deletion mutant of C. glutamicum revealed the same growth characteristics of C. glutamicum ?gca as that of wild-type C. glutamicum and no effect on expression of the bca gene.
Project description:Macroautophagy is a catabolic process that can mediate cell death or survival. Apo2 ligand (Apo2L)/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment (TR) is known to induce autophagy. Here we investigated whether SQSTM1/p62 (p62) overexpression, as a marker of autophagic flux, was related to aggressiveness of human prostate cancer (PCa) and whether autophagy regulated the treatment response in sensitive but not resistant PCa cell lines.Immunostaining and immunoblotting analyses of the autophagic markers p62 [in PCa tissue microarrays (TMAs) and PCa cell lines] and LC3 (in PCa cell lines), transmission electron microscopy, and GFP-mCherry-LC3 were used to study autophagy induction and flux. The effect of autophagy inhibition using pharmacologic (3-methyladenine and chloroquine) and genetic [(short hairpin (sh)-mediated knock-down of ATG7 and LAMP2) and small interfering (si)RNA-mediated BECN1 knock-down] approaches on TR-induced cell death was assessed by clonogenic survival, sub-G1 DNA content, and annexinV/PI staining by flow cytometry. Caspase-8 activation was determined by immunoblotting.We found that increased cytoplasmic expression of p62 was associated with high-grade PCa, indicating that autophagy signaling might be important for survival in high-grade tumors. TR-resistant cells exhibited high autophagic flux, with more efficient clearance of p62-aggregates in four TR-resistant PCa cell lines: C4-2, LNCaP, DU145, and CWRv22.1. In contrast, autophagic flux was low in TR-sensitive PC3 cells, leading to accumulation of p62-aggregates. Pharmacologic (chloroquine or 3-methyladenine) and genetic (shATG7 or shLAMP2) inhibition of autophagy led to cell death in TR-resistant C4-2 cells. shATG7-expressing PC3 cells, were less sensitive to TR-induced cell death whereas those shLAMP2-expressing were as sensitive as shControl-expressing PC3 cells. Inhibition of autophagic flux using chloroquine prevented clearance of p62 aggregates, leading to caspase-8 activation and cell death in C4-2 cells. In PC3 cells, inhibition of autophagy induction prevented p62 accumulation and hence caspase-8 activation.We show that p62 overexpression correlates with advanced stage human PCa. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of autophagy in PCa cell lines indicate that autophagic flux can determine the cellular response to TR by regulating caspase-8 activation. Thus, combining various autophagic inhibitors may have a differential impact on TR-induced cell death.