Neural Activities in Multiple Rat Brain Regions in Lithium-Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Model.
ABSTRACT: To clarify the different regional brain electroencephalogram (EEG) activities and biochemical responses in seizure and epilepsy models, we assessed the EEG and c-Fos immunolabeling characteristics in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model. The regional brain activities were evaluated by EEG and c-Fos immunolabeling. ZnT3 immunostaining was performed to observe hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) within 7 days after the induction of SE in the lithium-pilocarpine model. The EEG recordings showed distinctive features of activation in different brain areas. With the aggravation of the behavioral manifestations of the seizures, the frequency and amplitude of the discharges on EEG gradually increased. SE was eventually induced and sustained. The labeling of c-Fos was enhanced in the cortex and hippocampal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG); however, compared to the PTZ-induced seizure model, c-Fos staining could only be observed in the striatum and thalamus in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. In each brain region, prominent c-Fos labeling was observed 2 h and 4 h after the induction of SE or seizures and diminished at 24 h. During the lithium-pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy phase after SE induction, MFS was observed 7 days after SE and was accompanied by the dynamic evolution of epileptic EEG activities. These findings validated the lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE model as an epilepsy model with a specific spatial-temporal profile of neural activation. The EEG characteristics and c-Fos expression patterns differ from those presented in a previous study using a PTZ-induced seizure model. Hippocampal mossy fiber spouting might be associated with spontaneous seizures during the chronic phase and can be detected at least within 1 week by ZnT3 staining after stimulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sodium channel is a primary target for treating central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, was evaluated in different animal models of epilepsy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed on freely moving rats made epileptic by administration of either pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine. BmK IT2 (0.05-0.5 microg in 2 microl) was microinjected into the CA1 area and its effects on PTZ-induced widespread, seizure-like behaviour and cortex epileptiform EEG, as well as on pilocarpine-induced seizure-like behaviour and c-Fos expression were studied. KEY RESULTS: Intrahippocampal application of BmK IT2 dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviour, and reduced the numbers and duration of the high amplitude and frequency discharges (HAFDs) of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. Similarly, in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model, BmK IT2 significantly prolonged the latency to onset of the SE, reduced the severity of SE and suppressed hippocampal c-Fos expression during SE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: BmK IT2 showed anticonvulsant activity as it inhibited the widespread seizures induced by PTZ and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. This activity might be due to the modulation of sodium channels in the hippocampus. Hence, BmK IT2 could be used as a novel tool to explore the molecular and pathological mechanisms of epilepsy with regard to the involvement of sodium channels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS:Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo). RESULTS:Two subgroups with different PTZ-induced seizure susceptibility in rats exposed to VPA were found: a high susceptibility (VPA+) (28/42, seizure severity 5) and a low susceptibility (VPA-) (14/42, seizure severity 2). The VPA+ subgroup exhibited an increased duration of the generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS; 45 ± 2.7 min), a higher number of rats showed several GTCS (14/28) and developed status epilepticus (SE) after PTZ injection (19/27) compared with control animals (36.6 ± 1.9 min; 10/39; 15/39, respectively). No differences in seizure severity, latency or duration of SE induced by Li-Pilo were detected between VPA and control animals. DISCUSSION:Prenatal VPA modifies the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures in developing rats, which may be linked to an alteration in the GABAergic transmission. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity between autism and epilepsy.
Project description:Ribosome biogenesis, including the RNA polymerase 1 (Pol1)-mediated transcription of rRNA, is regulated by the pro-epileptogenic mTOR pathway. Therefore, hippocampal Pol1 activity was examined in mouse models of epilepsy including kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) as well as a single seizure in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Elevated 47S pre-rRNA levels were present acutely after induction of SE suggesting activation of Pol1. Conversely, after a single seizure, 47S pre-rRNA was transiently downregulated with increased levels of unprocessed 18S rRNA precursors in the cornu Ammonis (CA) region. At least in the dentate gyrus (DG), the pilocarpine SE-mediated transient activation of Pol1 did not translate into long-term changes of pre-rRNA levels or total ribosome content. Unaltered hippocampal ribosome content was also found after a 20-day PTZ kindling paradigm with increasing pro-convulsive effects of low dose PTZ that was injected every other day. However, after selectively deleting the essential Pol1 co-activator, transcription initiation factor-1A (Tif1a/Rrn3) from excitatory neurons, PTZ kindling was impaired while DG total ribosome content was moderately reduced and no major neurodegeneration was observed throughout the hippocampus. Therefore, Pol1 activity of excitatory neurons is required for PTZ kindling. As seizures affect ribosome biogenesis without long-term effects on the total ribosome content, such a requirement may be associated with a need to produce specialized ribosomes that promote pro-epileptic plasticity.
Project description:Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious manifestations of epilepsy. Systemic inflammation and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are etiologic cofactors in the pathogenesis of pilocarpine SE while acute osmotic disruption of the BBB is sufficient to elicit seizures. Whether an inflammatory-vascular-BBB mechanism could apply to the lithium-pilocarpine model is unknown. LiCl facilitated seizures induced by low-dose pilocarpine by activation of circulating T-lymphocytes and mononuclear cells. Serum IL-1beta levels increased and BBB damage occurred concurrently to increased theta EEG activity. These events occurred prior to SE induced by cholinergic exposure. SE was elicited by lithium and pilocarpine irrespective of their sequence of administration supporting a common pathogenetic mechanism. Since IL-1beta is an etiologic trigger for BBB breakdown and its serum elevation occurs before onset of SE early after LiCl and pilocarpine injections, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous administration of IL-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1ra) may prevent pilocarpine-induced seizures. Animals pre-treated with IL-1ra exhibited significant reduction of SE onset and of BBB damage. Our data support the concept of targeting systemic inflammation and BBB for the prevention of status epilepticus.
Project description:A hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is hippocampal neuronal demise and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, unrestrained neuronal activity in TLE patients induces gene expression including immediate early genes (IEGs) such as Fos and Egr1.We employed the mouse pilocarpine model to analyze the transcription factor (TF) serum response factor (SRF) in epileptogenesis, seizure induced histopathology and IEG induction. SRF is a neuronal activity regulated TF stimulating IEG expression as well as nerve fiber growth and guidance. Adult conditional SRF deficient mice (Srf CaMKCreERT2 ) were more refractory to initial status epilepticus (SE) acquisition. Further, SRF deficient mice developed more spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis uncovered a requirement of SRF for SE and SRS induced IEG induction (e.g. Fos, Egr1, Arc, Npas4, Btg2, Atf3). SRF was required for epilepsy associated neurodegeneration, mossy fiber sprouting and inflammation. We uncovered MAP kinase signaling as SRF target during epilepsy. Upon SRF ablation, seizure evoked induction of dual specific phosphatases (Dusp5 and Dusp6) was reduced. Lower expression of these negative ERK kinase regulators correlated with altered P-ERK levels in epileptic Srf mutant animals.Overall, this study uncovered an SRF contribution to several processes of epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model.
Project description:It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization. Furthermore, we exposed the fish to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin prior to PTZ, and we measured its effect on seizure latency, number of seizure behaviors, and mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. We used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2a, cox2b, and c-fos, and visual inspection was used to monitor seizure latency and the number of seizure-like behaviors.We found a short-term upregulation of il1b, and we revealed that cox2b, but not cox2a, was induced after seizures. Indomethacin treatment prior to PTZ-induced seizures downregulated the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. Moreover, we observed that in larvae exposed to indomethacin, seizure latency increased and the number of seizure-like behaviors decreased.This is the first study showing that il1b and cox-2 transcripts are upregulated following PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrated the anticonvulsant effect of indomethacin based on (1) the inhibition of PTZ-induced c-fos transcription, (2) increase in seizure latency, and (3) decrease in the number of seizure-like behaviors. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin is clearly demonstrated by the downregulation of the mRNA expression of il1b and cox2b. Our results are supported by previous evidences suggesting that zebrafish is a suitable alternative for studying inflammation, seizures, and the effect of anti-inflammatory compounds on seizure suppression.
Project description:Dingxian pill has been used as an antiepilepsy agent in China from ancient to modern times, of which the concrete pharmacological characterization and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate them by animal behavior, electroencephalogram (EEG), Morris water maze, immunohistochemistry, transcriptomics, and real-time PCR. In our results, the treatment of Dingxian pill dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behavior and reduced the seizure grades, LFP power spectral density, and brain wave of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. In Morris water maze tests, the learning and memory ability of kindled epileptic rats could be attenuated more efficiently by Dingxian pill. For the immediate early gene c-fos, the expression was reduced after Dingxian pill treatment, and the difference was significant between the treatment and the model group. Through the transcriptome analysis of the gene expression in hippocampus, Egr3, Nrg, Arc, and Ptgs2, closely related to epilepsy, had been proved to be downregulated by application of Dingxian pill. All of the results not only highlight the antiepileptic effects of Dingxian pill and its molecular mechanism, but also provide a modern validity theory for the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Project description:Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor is a possible target for the treatment of SE, but its role in animal models and the precise area of brain involved remain controversial. The hippocampus is a candidate site due to its key role in the development of SE and the existence of a high density of 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, we investigated the effects of subcutaneous and intrahippocampal activation of 5-HT1A receptors in lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE, and tested whether the hippocampus is a true effector site. We developed SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats by giving lithium chloride (LiCl; 3 meq/kg, i.p.) 22-24 h prior to pilocarpine (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and found that 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg 1 h before pilocarpine injection increased the latency to the first epileptiform spikes, the electrographic SE, and the behavioral generalized seizures (GS), while reducing the total EEG seizure time (P <0.01). The duration of GS was shortened only by 1.0 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT s.c. (P <0.05). All these effects were inhibited by combined administration of WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) (P <0.05), an antagonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, but WAY-100635 alone and low doses of 8-OHDPAT (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not alter seizure activity. Furthermore, intrahippocampal 8-OH-DPAT only shortened the GS duration (P <0.05). These findings imply that the 5-HT1A receptor is a promising therapeutic target against the generation and propagation of SE, and hippocampal receptors are involved in reducing the seizure severity.
Project description:Epilepsy is a neuronal dysfunction syndrome characterized by transient and diffusely abnormal discharges of neurons in the brain. Previous studies have shown that mutations in the syntaxin 1b (stx1b) gene cause a familial, fever-associated epilepsy syndrome. It is unclear as to whether the stx1b gene also correlates with other stimulations such as flashing and/or mediates the effects of antiepileptic drugs. In this study, we found that the expression of stx1b was present mainly in the brain and was negatively correlated with seizures in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure zebrafish model. The transcription of stx1b was inhibited by PTZ but rescued by valproate, a broad-spectrum epilepsy treatment drug. In the PTZ-seizure zebrafish model, stx1b knockdown aggravated larvae hyperexcitatory swimming and prompted abnormal trajectory movements, particularly under lighting stimulation; at the same time, the expression levels of the neuronal activity marker gene c-fos increased significantly in the brain. In contrast, stx1b overexpression attenuated seizures and decreased c-fos expression levels following PTZ-induced seizures in larvae. Thus, we speculated that a deficiency of stx1b gene expression may be related with the onset occurrence of clinical seizures, particularly photosensitive seizures. In addition, we found that berberine (BBR) reduced larvae hyperexcitatory locomotion and abnormal movement trajectory in a concentration-dependent manner, slowed down excessive photosensitive seizure-like swimming, and assisted in the recovery of the expression levels of STX1B. Under the downregulation of STX1B, BBR's roles were limited: specifically, it only slightly regulated the levels of the two genes stx1b and c-fos and the hyperexcitatory motion of zebrafish in dark conditions and had no effect on the overexcited swimming behavior seen in conjunction with lighting stimulation. These findings further demonstrate that STX1B protein levels are negatively correlated with a seizure and can decrease the sensitivity of the photosensitive response in a PTZ-induced seizure zebrafish larvae; furthermore, STX1B may partially mediate the anticonvulsant effect of BBR. Additional investigation regarding the relationship between STX1B, BBR, and seizures could provide new cues for the development of novel anticonvulsant drugs.
Project description:Human WWOX gene resides in the chromosomal common fragile site FRA16D and encodes a tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase. Loss-of-function mutations in both alleles of WWOX gene lead to autosomal recessive abnormalities in pediatric patients from consanguineous families, including microcephaly, cerebellar ataxia with epilepsy, mental retardation, retinal degeneration, developmental delay and early death. Here, we report that targeted disruption of Wwox gene in mice causes neurodevelopmental disorders, encompassing abnormal neuronal differentiation and migration in the brain. Cerebral malformations, such as microcephaly and incomplete separation of the hemispheres by a partial interhemispheric fissure, neuronal disorganization and heterotopia, and defective cerebellar midline fusion are observed in Wwox-/- mice. Degenerative alterations including severe hypomyelination in the central nervous system, optic nerve atrophy, Purkinje cell loss and granular cell apoptosis in the cerebellum, and peripheral nerve demyelination due to Schwann cell apoptosis correspond to reduced amplitudes and a latency prolongation of transcranial motor evoked potentials, motor deficits and gait ataxia in Wwox-/- mice. Wwox gene ablation leads to the occurrence of spontaneous epilepsy and increased susceptibility to pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in preweaning mice. We determined that a significantly increased activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) occurs in Wwox-/- mouse cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Inhibition of GSK3? by lithium ion significantly abolishes the onset of PTZ-induced seizure in Wwox-/- mice. Together, our findings reveal that the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative deficits in Wwox knockout mice strikingly recapitulate the key features of human neuropathies, and that targeting GSK3? with lithium ion ameliorates epilepsy.