Improved simultaneous co-fermentation of glucose and xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient lignocellulosic biorefinery.
ABSTRACT: Background:Lignocellulosic biorefinery offers economical and sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a promising industrial host for biorefinery, has been intensively developed to expand its product profile. However, the sequential and slow conversion of xylose into target products remains one of the main challenges for realizing efficient industrial lignocellulosic biorefinery. Results:In this study, we developed a powerful mixed-sugar co-fermenting strain of S. cerevisiae, XUSEA, with improved xylose conversion capacity during simultaneous glucose/xylose co-fermentation. To reinforce xylose catabolism, the overexpression target in the pentose phosphate pathway was selected using a DNA assembler method and overexpressed increasing xylose consumption and ethanol production by twofold. The performance of the newly engineered strain with improved xylose catabolism was further boosted by elevating fermentation temperature and thus significantly reduced the co-fermentation time by half. Through combined efforts of reinforcing the pathway of xylose catabolism and elevating the fermentation temperature, XUSEA achieved simultaneous co-fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, composed of 39.6 g L-1 glucose and 23.1 g L-1 xylose, within 24 h producing 30.1 g L-1 ethanol with a yield of 0.48 g g-1. Conclusions:Owing to its superior co-fermentation performance and ability for further engineering, XUSEA has potential as a platform in a lignocellulosic biorefinery toward realizing a more economical and sustainable process for large-scale bioethanol production.
Project description:Background:Engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have significantly improved the prospects of biorefinery by improving the bioconversion yields in lignocellulosic bioethanol production and expanding the product profiles to include advanced biofuels and chemicals. However, the lignocellulosic biorefinery concept has not been fully applied using engineered strains in which either xylose utilization or advanced biofuel/chemical production pathways have been upgraded separately. Specifically, high-performance xylose-fermenting strains have rarely been employed as advanced biofuel and chemical production platforms and require further engineering to expand their product profiles. Results:In this study, we refactored a high-performance xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae that could potentially serve as a platform strain for advanced biofuels and biochemical production. Through combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9-mediated rational and evolutionary engineering, we obtained a newly refactored isomerase-based xylose-fermenting strain, XUSE, that demonstrated efficient conversion of xylose into ethanol with a high yield of 0.43 g/g. In addition, XUSE exhibited the simultaneous fermentation of glucose and xylose with negligible glucose inhibition, indicating the potential of this isomerase-based xylose-utilizing strain for lignocellulosic biorefinery. The genomic and transcriptomic analysis of XUSE revealed beneficial mutations and changes in gene expression that are responsible for the enhanced xylose fermentation performance of XUSE. Conclusions:In this study, we developed a high-performance xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain, XUSE, with high ethanol yield and negligible glucose inhibition. Understanding the genomic and transcriptomic characteristics of XUSE revealed isomerase-based engineering strategies for improved xylose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. With high xylose fermentation performance and room for further engineering, XUSE could serve as a promising platform strain for lignocellulosic biorefinery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Xylose transport is one of the bottlenecks in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Xylose consumption by the wild-type strains of xylose-utilizing yeasts occurs once glucose is depleted resulting in a long fermentation process and overall slow and incomplete conversion of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Therefore, the engineering of endogenous transporters for the facilitation of glucose-xylose co-consumption is an important prerequisite for efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, several engineering approaches formerly used for the low-affinity glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were successfully applied for earlier identified transporter Hxt1 in Ogataea polymorpha to improve xylose consumption (engineering involved asparagine substitution to alanine at position 358 and replacement of N-terminal lysine residues predicted to be the target of ubiquitination for arginine residues). Moreover, the modified versions of S. cerevisiae Hxt7 and Gal2 transporters also led to improved xylose fermentation when expressed in O. polymorpha.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The O. polymorpha strains with modified Hxt1 were characterized by simultaneous utilization of both glucose and xylose, in contrast to the wild-type and parental strain with elevated ethanol production from xylose. When the engineered Hxt1 transporter was introduced into constructed earlier advanced ethanol producer form xylose, the resulting strain showed further increase in ethanol accumulation during xylose fermentation. The overexpression of heterologous S. cerevisiae Gal2 had a less profound positive effects on sugars uptake rate, while overexpression of Hxt7 revealed the least impact on sugars consumption.
Project description:The development of robust microorganisms that can efficiently ferment both glucose and xylose represents one of the major challenges in achieving a cost-effective lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Candida intermedia is a non-conventional, xylose-utilizing yeast species with a high-capacity xylose transport system. The natural ability of C. intermedia to produce ethanol from xylose makes it attractive as a non-GMO alternative for lignocellulosic biomass conversion in biorefineries. We have evaluated the fermentation capacity and the tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and the end product, ethanol, of the C. intermedia strain CBS 141442 isolated from steam-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate. In a mixed sugar fermentation medium, C. intermedia CBS 141442 co-fermented glucose and xylose, although with a preference for glucose over xylose. The strain was clearly more sensitive to inhibitors and ethanol when consuming xylose than glucose. C. intermedia CBS 141442 was also subjected to evolutionary engineering with the aim of increasing its tolerance to inhibitors and ethanol, and thus improving its fermentation capacity under harsh conditions. The resulting evolved population was able to ferment a 50% (v/v) steam-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate (which was completely inhibitory to the parental strain), improving the sugar consumption and the final ethanol concentration. The evolved population also exhibited a better tolerance to ethanol when growing in a xylose medium supplemented with 35.5 g/L ethanol. These results highlight the potential of C. intermedia CBS 141442 to become a robust yeast for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol.
Project description:Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular ?-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g).
Project description:The use of inedible lignocellulosic biomasses for biomanufacturing provides important environmental and economic benefits for society. Efficient co-utilization of lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, is critical for the viability of lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, the phenomenon of glucose repression prevents co-utilization of both glucose and xylose in cellulosic hydrolysates. To circumvent glucose repression, co-utilization of cellobiose and xylose by Bacillus coagulans NL01 was investigated. During co-fermentation of cellobiose and xylose, B. coagulans NL01 simultaneously consumed the sugar mixtures and exhibited an improved lactic acid yield compared with co-fermentation of glucose and xylose. Moreover, the cellobiose metabolism of B. coagulans NL01 was investigated for the first time. Based on comparative genomic analysis, two gene clusters that encode two different operons of the cellobiose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (assigned as CELO1 and CELO2) were identified. For CELO1, five genes were arranged as celA (encoding EIIAcel), celB (encoding EIIBcel), celC (encoding EIICcel), pbgl (encoding 6-phospho-?-glucosidase), and celR (encoding a transcriptional regulator), and these genes were found to be ubiquitous in different B. coagulans strains. Based on gene knockout results, CELO1 was confirmed to be responsible for the transport and assimilation of cellobiose. For CELO2, the five genes were arranged as celR, celB, celA, celX (encoding DUF871 domain-containing protein), and celC, and these genes were only found in some B. coagulans strains. However, through a comparison of cellobiose fermentation by NL01 and DSM1 that only possess CELO1, it was observed that CELO2 might also play an important role in the utilization of cellobiose in vivo despite the fact that no pbgl gene was found. When CELO1 or CELO2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant strain exhibited distinct cellobiose uptake and consumption. This study demonstrated the cellobiose-assimilating pathway of B. coagulans and provided a new co-utilization strategy of cellobiose and xylose to overcome the obstacles that result from glucose repression in a biorefinery system.
Project description:Anaerobic fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolysates as co-substrates is an economically attractive method to enhance 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production by increasing the conversion yield from glycerol. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain the mixed sugars that are primarily glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Therefore, these three individual sugars were used, separately, as co-substrates with glycerol, in 1,3-PD production by a Clostridium diolis strain DSM 15410, resulting in an 18%-28% increase in the 1,3-PD yield. Co-fermentation of the mixed sugars and glycerol obtained a higher intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio and increased the 1,3-PD yield by 22% relative to fermentation of glycerol alone. Thereafter, two kinds of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, corn stover hydrolysate and corncob molasses, were individually co-fermented with glycerol. The maximum 1,3-PD yield from glycerol reached 0.85 mol/mol. Fed-batch co-fermentation was also performed, improving the 1,3-PD yield (from 0.62 mol/mol to 0.82 mol/mol). These results demonstrate that the co-fermentation strategy is an efficient and economical way to produce 1,3-PD from glycerol.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE) model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. RESULTS: We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation) as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS) in the biomass slurries. CONCLUSIONS: We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of the TE model predictions. This analysis highlights the primary measurements that merit further development to reduce the uncertainty associated with their use in TE models. While we develop and apply this mathematical framework to a specific biorefinery scenario here, this analysis can be readily adapted to other types of biorefining processes and provides a general framework for propagating uncertainty due to analytical measurements through a TE model.
Project description:Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts.
Project description:Efficient conversion of cellulosic sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge. The present study reports a new approach for simultaneous fermentation of cellobiose and xylose by using the co-culture consisting of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae specialist strains. The co-culture system can provide competitive advantage of modularity compared to the single culture system and can be tuned to deal with fluctuations in feedstock composition to achieve robust and cost-effective biofuel production. This study characterized fermentation kinetics of the recombinant cellobiose-consuming S. cerevisiae strain EJ2, xylose-consuming S. cerevisiae strain SR8, and their co-culture. The motivation for kinetic modeling was to provide guidance and prediction of using the co-culture system for simultaneous fermentation of mixed sugars with adjustable biomass of each specialist strain under different substrate concentrations. The kinetic model for the co-culture system was developed based on the pure culture models and incorporated the effects of product inhibition, initial substrate concentration and inoculum size. The model simulations were validated by results from independent fermentation experiments under different substrate conditions, and good agreement was found between model predictions and experimental data from batch fermentation of cellobiose, xylose and their mixtures. Additionally, with the guidance of model prediction, simultaneous co-fermentation of 60 g/L cellobiose and 20 g/L xylose was achieved with the initial cell densities of 0.45 g dry cell weight /L for EJ2 and 0.9 g dry cell weight /L SR8. The results demonstrated that the kinetic modeling could be used to guide the design and optimization of yeast co-culture conditions for achieving simultaneous fermentation of cellobiose and xylose with improved ethanol productivity, which is critically important for robust and efficient renewable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to ferment pentose sugars like d-xylose. Through the introduction of the respective metabolic pathway, S. cerevisiae is able to ferment xylose but first utilizes d-glucose before the d-xylose can be transported and metabolized. Low affinity d-xylose uptake occurs through the endogenous hexose (Hxt) transporters. For a more robust sugar fermentation, co-consumption of d-glucose and d-xylose is desired as d-xylose fermentation is in particular prone to inhibition by compounds present in pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks. RESULTS:Evolutionary engineering of a d-xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain lacking the major transporter HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes yielded a derivative that shows improved growth on xylose because of the expression of a normally cryptic HXT11 gene. Hxt11 also supported improved growth on d-xylose by the wild-type strain. Further selection for glucose-insensitive growth on d-xylose employing a quadruple hexokinase deletion yielded mutations at N366 of Hxt11 that reversed the transporter specificity for d-glucose into d-xylose while maintaining high d-xylose transport rates. The Hxt11 mutant enabled the efficient co-fermentation of xylose and glucose at industrially relevant sugar concentrations when expressed in a strain lacking the HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes. CONCLUSIONS:Hxt11 is a cryptic sugar transporter of S. cerevisiae that previously has not been associated with effective d-xylose transport. Mutagenesis of Hxt11 yielded transporters that show a better affinity for d-xylose as compared to d-glucose while maintaining high transport rates. d-glucose and d-xylose co-consumption is due to a redistribution of the sugar transport flux while maintaining the total sugar conversion rate into ethanol. This method provides a single transporter solution for effective fermentation on lignocellulosic feedstocks.