The Impacts of msaABCR on sarA-Associated Phenotypes Are Different in Divergent Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: The staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus infections, including osteomyelitis, and the msaABCR operon has been implicated as an important factor in modulating expression of sarA Thus, we investigated the contribution of msaABCR to sarA-associated phenotypes in the S. aureus clinical isolates LAC and UAMS-1. Mutation of msaABCR resulted in reduced production of SarA and a reduced capacity to form a biofilm in both strains. Biofilm formation was enhanced in a LAC msa mutant by restoring the production of SarA, but this was not true in a UAMS-1 msa mutant. Similarly, extracellular protease production was increased in a LAC msa mutant but not a UAMS-1 msa mutant. This difference was reflected in the accumulation and distribution of secreted virulence factors and in the impact of extracellular proteases on biofilm formation in a LAC msa mutant. Most importantly, it was reflected in the relative impact of mutating msa as assessed in a murine osteomyelitis model, which had a significant impact in LAC but not in UAMS-1. In contrast, mutation of sarA had a greater impact on all of these in vitro and in vivo phenotypes than mutation of msaABCR, and it did so in both LAC and UAMS-1. These results suggest that, at least in osteomyelitis, it would be therapeutically preferable to target sarA rather than msaABCR to achieve the desired clinical result, particularly in the context of divergent clinical isolates of S. aureus.
Project description:We used a murine model of acute, posttraumatic osteomyelitis to evaluate the virulence of two divergent Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (the USA300 strain LAC and the USA200 strain UAMS-1) and their isogenic sarA mutants. The results confirmed that both strains caused comparable degrees of osteolysis and reactive new bone formation in the acute phase of osteomyelitis. Conditioned medium (CM) from stationary-phase cultures of both strains was cytotoxic to cells of established cell lines (MC3TC-E1 and RAW 264.7 cells), primary murine calvarial osteoblasts, and bone marrow-derived osteoclasts. Both the cytotoxicity of CM and the reactive changes in bone were significantly reduced in the isogenic sarA mutants. These results confirm that sarA is required for the production and/or accumulation of extracellular virulence factors that limit osteoblast and osteoclast viability and that thereby promote bone destruction and reactive bone formation during the acute phase of S. aureus osteomyelitis. Proteomic analysis confirmed the reduced accumulation of multiple extracellular proteins in the LAC and UAMS-1 sarA mutants. Included among these were the alpha class of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), which were previously implicated as important determinants of osteoblast cytotoxicity and bone destruction and repair processes in osteomyelitis. Mutation of the corresponding operon reduced the cytotoxicity of CM from both UAMS-1 and LAC cultures for osteoblasts and osteoclasts. It also significantly reduced both reactive bone formation and cortical bone destruction by CM from LAC cultures. However, this was not true for CM from cultures of a UAMS-1 psm? mutant, thereby suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors in such strains that remain to be identified.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The msaABCR operon regulates several staphylococcal phenotypes such as biofilm formation, capsule production, protease production, pigmentation, antibiotic resistance, and persister cells formation. The msaABCR operon is required for maintaining the cell wall integrity via affecting peptidoglycan cross-linking. The msaABCR operon also plays a role in oxidative stress defense mechanism, which is required to facilitate persistent and recurrent staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of chronic implant-associated osteomyelitis (OM). The CA-MRSA USA300 strains are predominant in the United States and cause severe infections, including bone and joint infections. RESULTS:The USA300 LAC strain caused significant bone damage, as evidenced by the presence of severe bone necrosis with multiple foci of sequestra and large numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts. Intraosseous survival and biofilm formation on the K-wires by USA300 LAC strains was pronounced. However, the msaABCR deletion mutant was attenuated. We observed minimal bone necrosis, with no evidence of intramedullary abscess and/or fibrosis, along reduced intraosseous bacterial population and significantly less biofilm formation on the K-wires by the msaABCR mutant. microCT analysis of infected bone showed significant bone loss and damage in the USA300 LAC and complemented strain, whereas the msaABCR mutant's effect was reduced. In addition, we observed increased osteoblasts response and new bone formation around the K-wires in the bone infected by the msaABCR mutant. Whole-cell proteomics analysis of msaABCR mutant cells showed significant downregulation of proteins, cell adhesion factors, and virulence factors that interact with osteoblasts and are associated with chronic OM caused by S. aureus. CONCLUSION:This study showed that deletion of msaABCR operon in USA300 LAC strain lead to defective biofilm in K-wire implants, decreased intraosseous survival, and reduced cortical bone destruction. Thus, msaABCR plays a role in implant-associated chronic osteomyelitis by regulating extracellular proteases, cell adhesions factors and virulence factors. However additional studies are required to further define the contribution of msaABCR-regulated molecules in osteomyelitis pathogenesis.
Project description:The relative impact of 23 mutations on biofilm formation was evaluated in the USA300, methicillin-resistant strain LAC. Mutation of sarA, atl, codY, rsbU, and sigB limited biofilm formation in comparison to the parent strain, but the limitation imposed by mutation of sarA was greater than that imposed by mutation of any of these other genes. The reduced biofilm formation of all mutants other than the atl mutant was correlated with increased levels of extracellular proteases. Mutation of fur- and mgrA-enhanced biofilm formation but in LAC had no impact on protease activity, nuclease activity, or accumulation of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). The increased capacity of these mutants to form a biofilm was reversed by mutation of sarA, and this was correlated with increased protease production. Mutation of sarA, mgrA, and sigB had the same phenotypic effect in the methicillin-sensitive strain UAMS-1, but mutation of codY increased rather than decreased biofilm formation. As with the UAMS-1 mgrA mutant, this was correlated with increased production of PIA. Examination of four additional clinical isolates suggests that the differential impact of codY on biofilm formation may be a conserved characteristic of methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-sensitive strains.
Project description:We used a murine model of postsurgical osteomyelitis (OM) to evaluate the relative virulence of the Staphylococcus aureus strain LAC and five isogenic variants that differ in the functional status of saeRS and sarA relative to each other. LAC and a variant in which saeRS activity is increased (saeC) were comparably virulent to each other, while ?saeRS, ?sarA, ?saeRS/?sarA, and saeC/?sarA mutants were all attenuated to a comparable degree. Phenotypic comparisons including a mass-based proteomics approach that allowed us to assess the number and abundance of full-length proteins suggested that mutation of saeRS attenuates virulence in our OM model owing primarily to the decreased production of S. aureus virulence factors, while mutation of sarA does so owing to protease-mediated degradation of these same virulence factors. This was confirmed by demonstrating that eliminating protease production restored virulence to a greater extent in a LAC sarA mutant than in the isogenic saeRS mutant. Irrespective of the mechanism involved, mutation of saeRS or sarA was shown to result in reduced accumulation of virulence factors of potential importance. Thus, using our proteomics approach we correlated the abundance of specific proteins with virulence in these six strains and identified 14 proteins that were present in a significantly increased amount (log2 ? 5.0) in both virulent strains by comparison to all four attenuated strains. We examined biofilm formation and virulence in our OM model using a LAC mutant unable to produce one of these 14 proteins, specifically staphylocoagulase. The results confirmed that mutation of coa limits biofilm formation and, to a lesser extent, virulence in our OM model, although in both cases the limitation was reduced by comparison to the isogenic sarA mutant.
Project description:We demonstrate that mutation of xerC, which reportedly encodes a homologue of an Escherichia coli recombinase, limits biofilm formation in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain LAC and the methicillin-sensitive strain UAMS-1. This was not due to the decreased production of the polysaccharide intracellular adhesin (PIA) in either strain because the amount of PIA was increased in a UAMS-1xerC mutant and undetectable in both LAC and its isogenic xerC mutant. Mutation of xerC also resulted in the increased production of extracellular proteases and nucleases in both LAC and UAMS-1, and limiting the production of either class of enzymes increased biofilm formation in the isogenic xerC mutants. More importantly, the limited capacity to form a biofilm was correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility in both strains in the context of an established biofilm in vivo. Mutation of xerC also attenuated virulence in a murine bacteremia model, as assessed on the basis of the bacterial loads in internal organs and overall lethality. It also resulted in the decreased accumulation of alpha toxin and the increased accumulation of protein A. These findings suggest that xerC may impact the functional status of agr. This was confirmed by demonstrating the reduced accumulation of RNAIII and AgrA in LAC and UAMS-1xerC mutants. However, this cannot account for the biofilm-deficient phenotype of xerC mutants because mutation of agr did not limit biofilm formation in either strain. These results demonstrate that xerC contributes to biofilm-associated infections and acute bacteremia and that this is likely due to agr-independent and -dependent pathways, respectively.
Project description:Persister cells comprise a phenotypic variant that shows extreme antibiotic tolerance resulting in treatment failures of bacterial infections. While this phenomenon has posed a great threat in public health, mechanisms underlying their formation in Staphylococcus aureus remain largely unknown. Increasing evidences of the presence of persister cells in recalcitrant infections underscores the great urgency to unravel the mechanism by which these cells develop. Previously, we characterized msaABCR operon that plays roles in regulation of virulence, biofilm development and antibiotic resistance. We also characterized the function of MsaB protein and showed that MsaB is a putative transcription factor that binds target DNA in response to nutrients availability.In this study, we compared the number of persister cell in wild type, msaABCR deletion mutant and the complemented strain in two backgrounds USA300 LAC and Mu50. Herein, we report that msaABCR deletion mutant forms significantly less number of persister cells relative to wild type after challenge with various antibiotics in planktonic and biofilm growth conditions. Complementation of the msaABCR operon restored wild type phenotype. Combined antibiotic therapy along with msaABCR deletion significantly improves the killing kinetics of stationary phase and biofilm S. aureus cells. Transcriptomics analysis showed that msaABCR regulates several metabolic genes, transcription factors, transporters and enzymes that may play role in persister cells formation, which we seek to define in the future.This study presented a new regulator, msaABCR operon, that is involved in the persister cells formation, which is a poorly understood in S. aureus. Indeed, we showed that msaABCR deletion significantly reduces the persister cells formation in all growth phases tested. Although, we have not yet defined the mechanism, we have shown that msaABCR regulates several metabolic, transporters, and extracellular proteases genes that have been previously linked with persister cells formation in other bacterial systems. Taken together, this study showed that inactivation of the msaABCR operon enhances the effectiveness of antibiotics for the treatment of S. aureus infections, especially in context of persister cells.
Project description:Mutation of staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) results in increased production of extracellular proteases in Staphylococcus aureus, which has been correlated with decreased biofilm formation and decreased accumulation of extracellular toxins. We used murine models of implant-associated biofilm infection and S.?aureus bacteraemia (SAB) to compare virulence of USA300 strain LAC, its isogenic sarA mutant, and derivatives of each of these strains with mutations in all 10 of the genes encoding recognized extracellular proteases. The sarA mutant was attenuated in both models, and this was reversed by eliminating production of extracellular proteases. To examine the mechanistic basis, we identified proteins impacted by sarA in a protease-dependent manner. We identified 253 proteins where accumulation was reduced in the sarA mutant compared with the parent strain, and was restored in the sarA/protease mutant. Additionally, in SAB, the LAC protease mutant exhibited a hypervirulent phenotype by comparison with the isogenic parent strain, demonstrating that sarA also positively regulates production of virulence factors, some of which are subject to protease-mediated degradation. We propose a model in which attenuation of sarA mutants is defined by their inability to produce critical factors and simultaneously repress production of extracellular proteases that would otherwise limit accumulation of virulence factors.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic forms of infection, the latter often associated with formation of a biofilm. It has previously been demonstrated that mutation of atl, codY, rot, sarA, and sigB limits biofilm formation in the USA300 strain LAC while mutation of agr, fur, and mgrA has the opposite effect. Here we used a murine sepsis model to assess the impact of these same loci in acute infection. Mutation of agr, atl, and fur had no impact on virulence, while mutation of mgrA and rot increased virulence. In contrast, mutation of codY, sarA, and sigB significantly attenuated virulence. Mutation of sigB resulted in reduced accumulation of AgrA and SarA, while mutation of sarA resulted in reduced accumulation of AgrA, but this cannot account for the reduced virulence of sarA or sigB mutants because the isogenic agr mutant was not attenuated. Indeed, as assessed by accumulation of alpha toxin and protein A, all of the mutants we examined exhibited unique phenotypes by comparison to an agr mutant and to each other. Attenuation of the sarA, sigB and codY mutants was correlated with increased production of extracellular proteases and global changes in extracellular protein profiles. These results suggest that the inability to repress the production of extracellular proteases plays a key role in attenuating the virulence of S. aureus in acute as well as chronic, biofilm-associated infections, thus opening up the possibility that strategies aimed at the de-repression of protease production could be used to broad therapeutic advantage. They also suggest that the impact of codY, sarA, and sigB on protease production occurs via an agr-independent mechanism.
Project description:The staphylococcal accessory regulator A ( sarA) impacts the extracellular accumulation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors at the level of intracellular production and extracellular protease-mediated degradation. We previously used a proteomics approach that measures protein abundance of all proteoforms to demonstrate that mutation of sarA results in increased levels of extracellular proteases and assesses the impact of this on the accumulation of S. aureus exoproteins. Our previous approach was limited as it did not take into account that large, stable proteolytic products from a given protein could result in false negatives when quantified by total proteoforms. Here, our goal was to use an expanded proteomics approach utilizing a dual quantitative method for measuring abundance at both the total proteoform and full-length exoprotein levels to alleviate these false negatives and thereby provide for characterization of protease-dependent and -independent effects of sarA mutation on the S. aureus exoproteome. Proteins present in conditioned medium from overnight, stationary phase cultures of the USA300 strain LAC, an isogenic sarA mutant, and a sarA mutant unable to produce any of the known extracellular proteases ( sarA/protease) were resolved using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Quantitative proteomic comparisons of sarA versus sarA/protease mutants identified proteins that were cleaved in a protease-dependent manner owing to mutation of sarA, and comparisons of sarA/protease mutant versus the LAC parent strain identified proteins in which abundance was altered in a sarA mutant in a protease-independent manner. Furthermore, the proteins uniquely identified by the full-length data analysis approach eliminated false negatives observed in the total proteoform analysis. This expanded approach provided for a more comprehensive analysis of the impact of mutating sarA on the S. aureus exoproteome.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the global, growth phase-dependent transcriptional profiles of two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. One isolate is a prototypic laboratory strain named RN6390, and has been used frequently as a model organism for study of staphylococcal physiology and virulence. However, recent studies indicate that RN6390 is not, in general, genotypically or phenotypically representative of clinical isolates of Staphyloccos aureus. Therefore, there is no current comprehensive picture of gene expression patterns in a virulent, clinical isolate of Staphyloccous aureus. For these reasons, we compare the transcriptional profile of RN6390 to that of a virulent clinical isolate, UAMS-1. Also included in this study is profiling of two UAMS-1 regulatory mutants, UAMS-155, and UAMS-929. These strains possess mutations in the accessory gene regulator (agr) and staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) genes, respectively. These two genes are well described global regulatory molecules that are reported to play important roles in controlling virulence factor production and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, most study of these two molecules has been limited to laboratory strains such as RN6390. For these reasons, this study also includes transcriptional profiling of UAMS agr and sarA mutants. Keywords: Comparative, growth phase-dependent transcriptional profiling of bacterial strains and isogenic regulatory mutants Overall design: For the experiments comparing UAMS-1 to RN6390, two replicate hybridizations were performed using two independently isolated RNA samples were performed for each growth phase and each strain. Likewise, for both the agr and sarA profiling experiments, two replicate hybridizations were performed using two independently-isolated RNA samples were performed for each growth phase and each mutant.