Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Substance P As Predictors of Venous Pelvic Pain.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to study the contents of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the blood plasma of patients with pelvic varicose veins. Thirty women with pelvic varicosities and a reflux blood flow were investigated using duplex ultrasonography. Group 1 included 18 patients with clinical signs of the pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), including venous pelvic pain (VPP). Group 2 consisted of 12 patients with pelvic varicosities with no clinical signs of PCS. Group 1. The score of VPP intensity ranged from 4 to 8; the mean score being 4.84 ± 0.43. The CGRP level in the studied group ranged from 0.39 to 1.01 ng/mL; the SP level ranged from 0.005 to 1.33 ng/mL. Group 2. The CGRP values were 0.15-0.32 ng/mL, and the SP range was 0.003-0.3 ng/mL. In this group, the levels of the studied peptides were 3-5 times lower than those for the patients with VPP. Group 3. The mean CGRP values were 0.06 ± 0.003 ng/mL, and the mean SP values were 0.03 ± 0.001 ng/mL. These values were considered as the reference parameters; a statistical analysis was performed for them. The correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between the CGRP and VPP levels (r = 0.82) and a medium correlation between the SP level and pelvic pain in Group 1. The CGRP and SP levels in blood plasma highly correlate with the presence of pelvic venous pain.
Project description:Gastrointestinal symptoms are the first signs of fluoride (F) toxicity. In the present study, the jejunum of rats chronically exposed to F was evaluated by proteomics, as well as by morphological analysis. Wistar rats received water containing 0, 10 or 50 mgF/L during 30 days. HuC/D, neuronal Nitric Oxide (nNOS), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), and Substance P (SP) were detected in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum by immunofluorescence. The density of nNOS-IR neurons was significantly decreased (compared to both control and 10?mgF/L groups), while the VIP-IR varicosities were significantly increased (compared to control) in the group treated with the highest F concentration. Significant morphological changes were seen observed in the density of HUC/D-IR neurons and in the area of SP-IR varicosities for F-treated groups compared to control. Changes in the abundance of various proteins correlated with relevant biological processes, such as protein synthesis, glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism were revealed by proteomics.
Project description:Clinical data provide evidence of high level of co-morbidity among genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders characterized by chronic pelvic pain. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that colonic inflammation can impact the function of the urinary bladder via activation of TRPV1 signaling pathways followed by alterations in gene and protein expression of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons and in the bladder. Inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 12.5mg/kg), and desensitization of TRPV1 receptors was evoked by intracolonic resiniferatoxin (RTX, 10(-)(7)M). mRNA and protein concentrations of CGRP and SP were measured at 3, 5 and 30 days. RTX instillation in the colon caused 3-fold up-regulation of SP mRNA in the urinary bladder at day 5 (n=7, p ? 0.05) followed by 35-fold increase at day 30 (n=5, p ? 0.05). Likewise, TNBS colitis triggered 15.8-fold up-regulation of SP mRNA 1 month after TNBS (n=5, p ? 0.05). Desensitization of colonic TRPV1 receptors prior to TNBS abolished SP increase in the urinary bladder. RTX led to 4.3-fold increase of CGRP mRNA at day 5 (n=7, p ? 0.05 to control) in the bladder followed by 28-fold increase at day 30 post-RTX (n=4, p ? 0.05). Colitis did not alter CGRP concentration during acute phase; however, at day 30 mRNA level was increased by 17.8 ± 6.9-fold (n=5, p ? 0.05) in parallel with 4-fold increase in CGRP protein (n=5, p ? 0.01) in the detrusor. Protein concentration of CGRP in the spinal cord was diminished by 45-65% (p ? 0.05) during colitis. RTX pretreatment did not affect CGRP concentration in the urinary bladder; however, it caused a reduction in CGRP release from lumbosacral DRG neurons during acute phase (3 and 5 days post-TNBS). Our results clearly demonstrate that colonic inflammation triggers the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides SP and CGRP in the urinary bladder via activation of TRPV1 signaling mechanisms enunciating the neurogenic nature of pelvic organ cross-sensitization.
Project description:Ingested fluoride (F) is absorbed mainly in the small intestine, which is controlled by the Enteric Nervous System (ENS). Although important intestinal symptomatology has been described after excessive F exposure, there have been no studies reporting the effects of F on the ENS. In this study, the effects of chronic F exposure were evaluated on the duodenums of rats through proteomic and morphological analyses. Concentrations of 0, 10, or 50?ppm of F were applied to the drinking water for 30 days. Immunofluorescence techniques were performed in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum to detect HuC/D, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP). The 50?ppm F group presented a significant decrease in the density of nNOS-IR neurons. Significant morphological alterations were also observed in HUC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons; VIP-IR, CGRP-IR, and SP-IR varicosities for both groups (10 and 50?ppm F). Proteomic analysis of the duodenum demonstrated alterations in the expression of several proteins, especially those related to important biological processes, such as protein polymerization, which helps to explain the downregulation of many proteins upon exposure to 50?ppm of F.
Project description:KM-023 is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection.This study determined KM-023 tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics in healthy subjects.A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted in 80 healthy South Korean male volunteers. The subjects were allocated to single- or multiple-dose (once daily for 7 days) groups that received 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg drug or placebo in a 4:1 ratio. Safety and pharmacokinetic assessments were performed during the study. Plasma and urine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The average maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC?) values of KM-023 for the 75-600 mg doses in the single-dose study ranged from 440.2 ng/mL to 1,245.4 ng/mL and 11,142.4 ng · h/mL to 33,705.6 ng · h/mL, respectively. Values of the mean Cmax at a steady state and AUC within the dosing interval ranged from 385.1 ng/mL to 1,096.7 ng/mL and 3,698.9 ng · h/mL to 10,232.6 ng · h/mL, respectively, following 75-600 mg doses in the multiple-dose study. Dose proportionality was not observed for KM-023. KM-023 showed a 0.6-fold accumulation after multiple doses in the 600 mg dose group. The mean half-life values ranged between 20.7 and 31.2 hours. KM-023 was generally well tolerated without serious adverse events.KM-023 demonstrated dose- and time-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetic characteristics after single or multiple doses over a dose range (75-600 mg) in healthy subjects. KM-023 showed favorable tolerability in this study. This Phase I clinical trial information can be used to design further clinical studies appropriately to evaluate KM-023 in patients with HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Patients with pelvic congestion syndrome present with otherwise unexplained chronic pelvic pain that has been present for greater than 6 months, and anatomic findings that include pelvic venous insufficiency and pelvic varicosities. It remains an underdiagnosed explanation for pelvic pain in young, premenopausal, usually multiparous females. Symptoms include noncyclical, positional lower back, pelvic and upper thigh pain, dyspareunia, and prolonged postcoital discomfort. Symptoms worsen throughout the day and are exacerbated by activity or prolonged standing. Examination may reveal ovarian tenderness and unusual varicosities-vulvoperineal, posterior thigh, and gluteal. Diagnosis is suspected by clinical history and imaging that demonstrates pelvic varicosities. Venography is usually necessary to confirm ovarian vein reflux, although transvaginal ultrasound may be useful in documenting this finding. Endovascular therapy has been validated by several large patient series with long-term follow-up using standardized pain assessment surveys. Embolization has been shown to be significantly more effective than surgical therapy in improving symptoms in patients who fail hormonal therapy. Although there has been variation in approaches between investigators, the goal is elimination of ovarian vein reflux with or without direct sclerosis of enlarged pelvic varicosities. Symptom reduction is seen in 70 to 90% of the treated females despite technical variation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric protein secreted by the female ovaries and has two fundamental roles in follicle genesis. It delays the entrance of the primordial follicle into the pool of follicles in growth and diminishes the sensitivity of the ovarian follicle towards follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The purpose of this work was to study the AMH (nv 2.0-6.8 ng/mL) as a marker during assisted reproductive technology (ART), in order to identify cases of infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This syndrome affects 10% of women with infertility problems, and a new biological marker could be useful to general practitioners of internal medicine to help generate the suspicion of PCOS so that they can refer the patient to the gynecologist for confirmation. METHODS: This study enrolled 236 patients aged 26-46 years undergoing assisted reproductive technology at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy. On the third day of the ovarian cycle, the patients were given doses of AMH, FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH, in cases of AMH < 2.0-6.8 ng/mL). A control pelvic ultrasound was also carried out. RESULTS: We identified 57 patients who were starting in vitro fertilization or embryo transfer with AMH values within the normal range (3.64 ± 1.51 ng/mL), 77 with values below normal (1.38 ± 0.32 ng/mL), and 96 cases with undetectable values of AMH. Six patients had very high AMH levels (10.0 ± 2.28 ng/mL) and, of these, five were found to have PCOS on pelvic ultrasound examination (P < 0.05). We also found inverse correlations between AMH levels and age (r = -0.52) and between AMH and FSH levels (r = -0.32). CONCLUSION: In clinical practice it is common to encounter patients who turn to medicine in search of a cure for female infertility. In our experience, AMH two or three times the normal amount (10 ± 2.28 ng/mL), is a good indication of PCOS and infertility.
Project description:Anti-ischemic effects of NO releasing by nitroglycerin (NTG) and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are involved in the decrease of vascular remodeling in different cardiovascular diseases. Using a nitrate-free period is still generally required to prevent nitrate tolerance and should be used as the first-line option to maintain adequate symptom control and on an individual basis. Personalized anti-ischemic concerns require the urgent change of paradigm from interventional measures to predictive, preventive, and personalized treatment with organic nitrates and its combination with drugs that may improve prognosis and drugs that can be added for patients who remain symptomatic despite therapy with the other classes of agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of human calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP8-37) on cardiohemodynamic events, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plasma concentration, the severity of ventricular arrhythmias, and mortality occurring during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in NTG-tolerant and nontolerant rats.In the pilot study of efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP8-37), 58 male Wistar rats were included. All procedures were performed according to protocols approved by the General Animal Care and Use Committee. Adult male rats underwent surgery to induce AMI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery or SHAM. ECG was used to confirm myocardial ischemia. In each experiment, a rat was maintained under anesthesia for the duration of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the rat was killed by an overdose of pentobarbital. All animals in accordance with the received pharmacological agent were randomized into three groups: I-received only NTG, 50 mg/kg daily, s.c. injections b.i.d. 3 days prior to AMI; II-received NTG by the same dose, route, and frequency of administration + CGRP antagonist (CGRP8-37), 10 μg/kg two times daily by a similar period of administration; and III-served as control (C) group without preliminary tolerance to NTG.Subcutaneous injections of NTG (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to AMI in NTG-tolerant animals (group I) and in NTG-tolerant rats + CGRP antagonist (group II) caused minor changes in blood pressure and heart period that was accompanied before NTG s.c. administration with blunted baroreflex sensitivity in response to i.v. administration of sodium nitroprusside in these groups of rats (0.66 ± 0.05 and 0.56 ± 0.04 ms/mmHg, P < 0.05, respectively) in comparison to C (group III) animals (0.9 ± 0.1 ms/mmHg). AMI 1 h duration was associated with a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and significant mortality in group I (70 %) and especially in group II (90 %) animals at 72 h after reperfusion as compared with group III rats (56 %), that correlated to a decrease of PGE2 plasma content in group II (2.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and group I (3.6 ± 0.2 ng/ml, P < 0.01) vs. control group of rats (4.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml).CGRP could be involved in the mechanism of nitrate tolerance via the inhibition of release of the potent vasodilator CGRP leading to exacerbation of acute myocardial ischemia. The influence of CGRP antagonist could enhance this condition.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To identify linzagolix doses, an oral GnRH receptor antagonist, that effectively lower oestradiol (E2) to relieve endometriosis-related pelvic pain without compromising bone health.<h4>Methods</h4>Integrated statistical, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic and systems pharmacology models were developed from Phase 1 and 2 clinical trial data in healthy volunteers and patients, receiving linzagolix 25-200 mg daily or placebo, and analysed simultaneously. The main outcome measures were pelvic pain scores for dysmenorrhoea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain (NMPP), uterine bleeding and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD).<h4>Results</h4>Linzagolix pharmacokinetics were described by a 2-compartment model with sequential zero/first-order absorption process (CL/F: 0.422 L/h). E2 changes over time were well described as a function of linzagolix 24-hour AUC (AUC<sub>50</sub> : 1.68 × 10<sup>5</sup> ng h/mL). For a Caucasian reference patient, a change in E2 from 50-20 pg/mL at 24 weeks increased the odds of relief of dysmenorrhoea 1.33-fold and NMPP 1.07-fold (95% CI: 1.22-1.47 and 1.02-1.12, respectively) and decreased bleeding days by 1.55 (95% CI: 1.39-1.72). A previously validated quantitative systems pharmacology BMD model was adjusted to the clinical data. The mean week 24 lumbar spine BMD change from baseline ranged from -0.092% in the 50 mg dose, -1.30% in the 100 mg dose group and -2.67% in the 200 mg dose group.<h4>Discussion</h4>The previously-reported E2 target range (20-50 pg/mL) to balance efficacy and safety endpoints was confirmed. Linzagolix once daily doses between 75-125 mg daily were expected to meet endometriosis-associated pain, efficacy, and BMD loss targets in Caucasian patients.
Project description:In this work, a monoclonal antibody-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established to detect tylosin and tilmicosin in milk and water samples. A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody was prepared by rational designed hapten, which was achieved by directly oxidizing the aldehyde group on the side chain of tylosin to the carboxyl group. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of icELISA for tylosin and tilmicosin were 1.3 to 17.7 ng/mL and 2.0 to 47.4 ng/mL, with half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 4.7 and 9.6 ng/mL, respectively. The cross-reactivity with other analogues of icELISA was less than 0.1%. The average recoveries of icELISA for tylosin and tilmicosin ranged from 76.4% to 109.5% in milk and water samples. Besides, the detection results of icELISA showed good correlations with HPLC-MS/MS. The proposed icELISA was satisfied for rapid and specific screening of tylosin and tilmicosin residues in milk and water samples.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In heart failure (HF) alveolar-capillary membrane is abnormal. Surfactant-derived proteins (SPs) and plasma receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) have been proposed as lung damage markers.<h4>Methods</h4>Eighty-nine chronic HF and 17 healthy subjects were evaluated by echocardiography, blood parameters, carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO) and cardiopulmonary exercise test. We measured immature SP-B, mature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE plasma levels.<h4>Results</h4>Immature SP-B (arbitrary units), mature SP-A (ng/ml) and SP-D (ng/ml), but not mature SP-B (ng/ml) and RAGE (pg/ml) levels, were higher in HF than in controls [immature SP-B: 15.6 (13.1, 75th-25th interquartile range) Vs. 11.1 (6.4), p<0.01; SP-A, 29.6 (20.1) Vs. 18.3 (13.5), p?=?0.01; SP-D: 125 (90) Vs. 78 (58), p<0.01]. Immature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE values were related to DLCO, peak oxygen consumption, ventilatory efficiency, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), whereas plasma mature SP-B was not. The DLCO Vs. immature SP-B correlation was the strongest one. At multivariate analysis, RAGE was associated to age and creatinine, SP-A to DLCO and BNP, SP-D to BNP, mature SP-B to DLCO and creatinine, and immature SP-B only but strongly to DLCO.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Immature SP-B is the most reliable biological marker of alveolar-capillary membrane function in HF.