Reproductive coercion in Uttar Pradesh, India: Prevalence and associations with partner violence and reproductive health.
ABSTRACT: Increasing modern contraceptive use and gender equity are major foci of the recently ratified Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 and the Government of India. Coercion and sabotage by husbands and in-laws to inhibit women's access, initiation, continuation, and successful use of modern contraception methods (i.e., reproductive coercion) may contribute to low usage rates and unintended pregnancy in India; however, little is known about the extent of this problem. The current study assesses the prevalence of reproductive coercion, both husband and in-law perpetrated, among a large population-based sample. Data were collected from currently married women of reproductive age (15-49 years; N?=?1770) across 49 districts of Uttar Pradesh as part of an evaluation of a broad effort to improve the public health system in the state. Dependent variables included modern contraceptive use in the past 12 months, unintended pregnancy, and pregnancy termination. Independent variables included ever experiencing reproductive coercion (RC) by a current husband or in-laws and lifetime experience of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) by a current husband. Approximately 1 in 8 (12%) women reported ever experiencing RC from their current husbands or in-laws; 42% of these women reported RC by husbands only, 48% reported RC by in-laws only, and 10% reported RC by both husbands and in-laws. Among women experiencing RC, more than one-third (36%) reported that their most recent pregnancy was unintended; these women had 4 to 5 times greater odds of unintended pregnancy and a more than 5 times decreased likelihood of recent use of modern contraceptives than women not experiencing RC, after accounting for effects of demographics and physical and sexual IPV. Scalable and sustainable interventions in both clinical and community settings are needed to reduce RC, a potentially key factor in effective strategies for improving women's reproductive autonomy and health in India and globally.
Project description:Background:In Niger the prevalence of girl child marriage and low female control over family planning (FP) has resulted in the world's highest adolescent fertility. Male control of FP is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC). We assessed associations of IPV and RC with FP use among married adolescent girls (ages 13-19 years) in Dosso, Niger (N?=?1072). Methods:Multivariable, cross-sectional regression models assessed associations between physical IPV, sexual IPV, and RC and any FP use, FP use with husband knowledge (overt use), and FP use without husband knowledge (covert use). Findings:One in four married adolescent girls using FP reported doing so without husband's knowledge. Unadjusted and adjusted models indicated that physical IPV and RC were associated with covert FP use (vs. no use and vs. overt use), but not with overt use vs. no use. Only physical IPV remained significantly associated with covert use in models including all three forms of violence (AOR: 1.94 vs. any use; AOR: 3.63 vs. overt use). Interpretation:Married adolescents experiencing physical IPV or RC were more likely that others to use FP without their husbands' knowledge. No form of GBV affected odds of FP use with husbands' knowledge. Current results suggest caution regarding promoting engagement of men in decisions to use FP in this context, as this may undermine the reproductive autonomy of girls and women who will choose to use FP without the knowledge of their male partners.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sexual coercion is an important public health issue due to its negative association with social and health outcomes. The paper aims to examine the prevalence of sexual coercion perpetrated by husbands on their wives in Nepal and to identify the characteristics associated with this phenomenon. METHODS: The data used in this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey on "Domestic Violence in Nepal" carried out in 2009. A total of 1,536 married women were interviewed and associations between sexual coercion and the explanatory variables were assessed via bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was then applied to assess the net effect of several independent variables on sexual coercion. RESULTS: Overall, about three in five women (58%) had experienced some form of sexual coercion by their husbands. Logistic regression analysis found that the literacy status of women, decision-making power regarding their own health care, husband-wife age differences, alcohol consumption by the husband, and male patriarchal control all had significant associations with women's experience of sexual coercion. Literate women had 28% less chance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.72) of experiencing sexual coercion by their husbands than did illiterate women. Women who made decisions jointly with their husbands with regard to their own health care were 36% less likely (aOR = 0.64) to experience sexual coercion than those whose health care was decided upon by their mothers/fathers-in-law. On the other hand, women whose husbands were 5 or more years older than they were more likely to report sexual coercion (aOR = 1.33) than were their counterparts, as were women whose husbands consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.27). Furthermore, women who experienced higher levels of patriarchal control from their husbands were also more likely to experience sexual coercion by their husbands (aOR = 7.2) compared to those who did not face such control. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that sexual coercion among married women is widespread in Nepal. Programs should focus on education and women's empowerment to reduce sexual coercion and protect women's health and rights. Furthermore, campaigns against alcohol abuse and awareness programs targeting husbands should also focus attention on the issue of sexual coercion.
Project description:Women ages 16-29 utilizing family planning clinics for medical services experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) than their same-age peers, increasing risk for unintended pregnancy and related poor reproductive health outcomes. Brief interventions integrated into routine family planning care have shown promise in reducing risk for RC, but longer-term intervention effects on partner violence victimization, RC, and unintended pregnancy have not been examined.The 'Addressing Reproductive Coercion in Health Settings (ARCHES)' Intervention Study is a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a brief, clinician-delivered universal education and counseling intervention to reduce IPV, RC and unintended pregnancy compared to standard-of-care in family planning clinic settings. The ARCHES intervention was refined based on formative research. Twenty five family planning clinics were randomized (in 17 clusters) to either a three hour training for all family planning clinic staff on how to deliver the ARCHES intervention or to a standard-of-care control condition. All women ages 16-29 seeking care in these family planning clinics were eligible to participate. Consenting clients use laptop computers to answer survey questions immediately prior to their clinic visit, a brief exit survey immediately after the clinic visit, a first follow up survey 12-20 weeks after the baseline visit (T2), and a final survey 12 months after the baseline (T3). Medical record chart review provides additional data about IPV and RC assessment and disclosure, sexual and reproductive health diagnoses, and health care utilization. Of 4009 women approached and determined to be eligible based on age (16-29 years old), 3687 (92 % participation) completed the baseline survey and were included in the sample.The ARCHES Intervention Study is a community-partnered study designed to provide arigorous assessment of the short (3-4 months) and long-term (12 months) effects of a brief, clinician-delivered universal education and counseling intervention to reduce IPC, RC and unintended pregnancy in family planning clinic settings. The trial features a cluster randomized controlled trial design, a comprehensive data collection schedule and a large sample size with excellent retention.ClinicialTrials.gov NCT01459458. Registered 10 October 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unintended pregnancy rates are substantially higher in developing regions, have significant health consequences, and disproportionately affect subgroups with socio-economic disadvantage. We aimed to examine whether there is an association between husbands' education status and their wives unintended pregnancy in southern Ethiopia. METHODS:The data source for this study was from a cross-sectional study on iron-folate supplementation and compliance in Wolaita, South Ethiopia. Data were collected from October to November 2015 in 627 married pregnant women regarding their husbands' education status, socio-demographic characteristics, and if they wanted to become pregnant at the time of survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate Odds Ratios (ORs) with associated z-tests and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for variables associated with unintended pregnancy. RESULTS:The proportion of unintended pregnancy in this sample was 20.6%. Husbands' education status, age, residence, and using family planning methods were associated with unintended pregnancy (all P-values < 0.05). Multivariable models consistently showed that being married to a husband with at least some college or university education was associated with a decreased OR for unintended pregnancy after controlling for age and use of family planning at conception period (OR 0.36 [95%CI: 0.17, 0.82]) and age and rural residence (OR 0.40 [95%CI: 0.18, 0.90]). CONCLUSION:Unintended pregnancy among Ethiopian woman was consistently associated with being married to least educated husbands in southern Ethiopia. Increasing age and living in a rural vs urban area were also independently associated with unintended pregnancy. Strategies for addressing family planning needs of women with poorly educated husbands should be the subject of future research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reproductive coercion (RC) and intimate partner violence (IPV) are prevalent forms of gender-based violence (GBV) associated with reduced female control over contraceptive use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Although the World Health Organization has recommended the identification and support of GBV survivors within health services, few clinic-based models have been shown to reduce IPV or RC, particularly in low or middle-income countries (LMICs). To date, clinic-based GBV interventions have not been shown to reduce RC or unintended pregnancy in LMIC settings. INTERVENTION:ARCHES (Addressing Reproductive Coercion in Health Settings) is a single-session, clinic-based model delivered within routine contraceptive counseling that has been demonstrated to reduce RC in the United States. ARCHES was adapted to the Kenyan context via a participatory process to reduce GBV and unintended pregnancy among women and girls seeking contraceptive services in this setting. Core elements of ARCHES include enhanced contraceptive counseling that addresses RC, opportunity for patient disclosure of RC and IPV (and subsequent warm referral to local services), and provision of a palm-sized educational booklet. METHODS:A matched-pair cluster control trial is being conducted to assess whether the ARCHES intervention (treatment condition), as compared to standard-of-care contraceptive counseling (control condition), reduces RC and IPV, and improves contraceptive outcomes for woman and girls of reproductive age (15 to 49?years) seeking contraceptive services from community-based clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. All six clinics were assigned to intervention-control pairs based on similarities in patient volume and demographics, physical structure and neighborhood context. Survey data will be collected from patients immediately prior to their clinic visit (baseline, T1), immediately after their clinic visit (exit), and at 3- and 6-months post-visit (T2 and T3, respectively). DISCUSSION:This study is the first to assess the efficacy of an adaptation of the ARCHES model to reduce GBV and improve reproductive health outside of the U.S., and one of only a small number of controlled trials to assess reductions in GBV associated with a clinic-based program in an LMIC context. Evidence from this trial will inform health system efforts to reduce GBV, and to enhance female contraceptive control and reproductive health in Kenya and globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered May 23, 2018 - ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03534401. Unique Protocol ID: 170084.
Project description:We assessed the effectiveness of a provider-delivered intervention targeting reproductive coercion, an important factor in unintended pregnancy.We randomized 25 family planning clinics (17 clusters) to deliver an education/counseling intervention or usual care. Reproductive coercion and partner violence victimization at 1 year follow-up were primary outcomes. Unintended pregnancy, recognition of sexual and reproductive coercion, self-efficacy to use and use of harm reduction behaviors to reduce victimization and contraception nonuse, and knowledge and use of partner violence resources were secondary outcomes. Analyses included all available data using an intention-to-treat approach.Among 4009 females ages 16 to 29 years seeking care, 3687 completed a baseline survey prior to clinic visit from October 2011 to November 2012; 3017 provided data at 12-20weeks post-baseline (T2) and 2926 at 12months post-baseline (T3) (79% retention). Intervention effects were not significant for reproductive coercion [adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 1.50 (95% confidence interval 0.95-2.35)] or partner violence [ARR 1.07 (0.84-1.38)]. Intervention participants reported improved knowledge of partner violence resources [ARR 4.25 (3.29-5.50)] and self-efficacy to enact harm reduction behaviors [adjusted mean difference 0.06 (0.02-0.10)]. In time point-specific models which included moderating effects of exposure to reproductive coercion at baseline, a higher reproductive coercion score at baseline was associated with a decrease in reproductive coercion 1 year later (T3). Use and sharing of the domestic violence hotline number also increased.This brief clinic intervention did not reduce partner violence victimization. The intervention enhanced two outcomes that may increase safety for women, specifically awareness of partner violence resources and self-efficacy to enact harm reduction behaviors. It also appeared to reduce reproductive coercion among women experiencing multiple forms of such abuse.
Project description:Men engaging in reproductive coercion may coerce, force, or deceive female partners into pregnancy. This study evaluates whether the 3-month incidence of pregnancy is higher among women reporting reproductive coercion than similar women reporting no reproductive coercion. We tested this hypothesis in longitudinal data from a sample of African-American women ages 18-24 recruited from community settings in Atlanta, Georgia, US, in 2012-2014 (n?=?560). Participants were surveyed at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months. To reduce selection bias, we used full matching on 22 baseline variables related to demographics, economic power, risky alcohol use, and gender-based power inequality. We used logistic regression in the matched sample with outcome pregnancy 3 months later, controlling for baseline fertility intentions (n?=?482, n?=?458, n?=?452 at respectively 3, 6, 9 months). At 3 months, 15% of women reported reproductive coercion. At 6 months, 11.3% of women reporting coercion were pregnant vs. 4.6% of matched women reporting no coercion (p?=?0.06). Women reporting coercion had 3 times the odds of pregnancy as matched women reporting no coercion (AOR 2.95, 95% CI (1.16, 6.98), p?=?0.02). Among women pregnant after coercion, only 15% wanted to be pregnant then or sooner. Women reporting reproductive coercion are at greater risk of unwanted or mistimed pregnancies, and the semen exposure that caused these pregnancies could also transmit STI/HIV. Clinicians should screen patients for reproductive coercion; consider using semen exposure biomarkers such as PSA or Yc-PCR to identify condom sabotage or stealthing; and refer women experiencing reproductive coercion to supportive services.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among reproductive age women in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. RESULT:The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 15.8% (95% CI 13.8%-17.7%). Single women (AOR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.40), women living away from their husband (AOR 4.18; 95% CI 2.64-6.61) and women with no access/exposure to mass-media (AOR 1.89; 95% CI 1.13-3.15) were more likely to have unintended pregnancy compared to their counter parts.
Project description:When they do not meet norms related to sexuality and reproduction, Bangladeshi women often face abandonment and are thus deprived of an active sexual life, a marital relationship, and motherhood. Little is known about how a stigmatised disease such as tuberculosis (TB) may constrain the reproductive health and sexual lives of women. This article, derived from a larger study on the impact of TB on women's sexual and reproductive health and rights in Narsingdi district and Dhaka, Bangladesh, aims to fill this gap. Based on interviews with nine married women who have or had TB, four husbands, and two mothers-in-law, this article highlights that the ways in which TB impedes on the sexual and reproductive lives of women depends on the stigma within their family and community, their relationships with their husbands, motherhood, their living arrangements, their economic contribution to the family and/or their disclosure of their TB diagnosis. Women with children and supportive husbands retain a stronger position among their in-laws and are less likely to be isolated or rejected. The patients' narratives revealed that the instructions of health workers influenced their decisions about intercourse or abstinence. Future studies should examine the instructions patients receive from health workers regarding their living and sleeping arrangements, sexual intercourse, and pregnancy, as well as policy documents on TB treatment and prevention.
Project description:A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who participated in the baseline survey of a randomized-controlled trial in rural, Côte d'Ivoire in October 2010 were analyzed for specific reports of reproductive coercion. Half (49.8%) of all women reported lifetime physical or sexual IPV, and nearly 1 in 5 (18.6%) reported experiencing reproductive coercion. In the final adjusted analyses, lifetime IPV was associated with a 3.7 increase in odds of reporting reproductive coercion (95% CI: 2.4-5.8) compared to women who did not report such victimization. Study findings underscore the importance of reducing IPV in order to improve reproductive health among women in rural Côte d'Ivoire.