Duplicate US1 Genes of Duck Enteritis Virus Encode a Non-essential Immediate Early Protein Localized to the Nucleus.
ABSTRACT: The duplicate US1 genes of duck enteritis virus (DEV) encode a protein with a conserved Herpes_IE68 domain, which was found to be closely related to the herpes virus immediate early regulatory protein family and is highly conserved among counterparts encoded by Herpes_IE68 genes. Previous studies found the homologous proteins HSV-1 ICP22 and VZV ORF63/ORF70 to be critical for virus transcription and replication. However, little is known about the DEV ICP22 protein. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of this protein based on pharmacological experiments, real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. We also investigate the role of the protein in DEV replication via mutation of US1. As a result, we found that the DEV ICP22 protein is a non-essential immediate early protein predominantly located in the nucleus of infected DEF cells and that DEV replication is impaired by US1 deletion. We also found that ICP22 contains a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) at 305-312AA, and ICP22 cannot enter the nucleus by itself after mutating residue 309.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a virus that manifests itself in viral infection with painful, watery blisters in the skin or on the genitals as well as mucous membrane such as the mouth or lips. During an outbreak, the disease is contagious particularly and is irredeemable with present technology. Genetic studies of HSV-1 have shown that ICP22 (US1) gene is an immediate early gene and is responsible for genome replication and also has contribution in viral infection. METHOD:For disease diagnosis, ICP22 (US1) gene may be suitable target. Viral activity can be controlled through RNA interference technology, a significant method for the post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, in different viral isolates there is a genetic variability; it is very challenging to design possible siRNA molecules which can silence the respective target genes. The work was done by using various computational tools as similarity search, target alignment, secondary structure prediction and RNA interaction evaluation. RESULT:In our study two effective siRNA molecules for ICP22 (US1) gene silencing of seven different strains of HSV-1 were rationally designed and authenticated using computational methods, which might lead to knockdown the viral activity. CONCLUSION:siRNA molecules were foreseen against ICP22 (US1) gene of different strains of HSV-1 as effective aspirant using computational methods. Thus, the approach may deliver a vision for the chemical synthesis of antiviral RNA molecule for treatment of HSV-1, at genomic level.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequence of the short region, made up of a unique segment (Us; 6.5 kb) bracketed by a pair of inverted repeat sequences (IR; 12.8 kb each), of the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) genome has been determined recently in our laboratory. Analysis of the IR segment revealed a major open reading frame (ORF) designated IR4. The IR4 ORF exhibits significant homology to the immediate-early gene US1 (ICP22) of herpes simplex virus type 1 and to the ICP22 homologs of varicella-zoster virus (ORF63), pseudorabies virus (RSp40), and equine herpesvirus 4 (ORF4). The IR4 ORF is located entirely within each of the inverted repeat sequences (nucleotides [nt] 7918 to 9327) and has the potential to encode a polypeptide of 469 amino acids (49,890 Da). Within the IR4 ORF are two reiterated sequences: a 7-nt sequence tandemly repeated 17 times and a 25-nt sequence tandemly repeated 13 times. Nucleotide sequence analyses of IR4 also revealed several potential cis-regulatory sequences, two TATA sequences separated by 287 nt, an in-frame translation initiation codon following each TATA sequence, and a single polyadenylation site. To address the nature of the mRNA species encoded by IR4, we used Northern (RNA) blot and S1 nuclease analyses. RNA mapping data revealed that IR4 has two promoters that are regulated differentially during a lytic infection. A 1.4-kb mRNA appears initially at 2 h postinfection and is an early transcript since its synthesis is not affected by the presence of phosphonoacetic acid, an inhibitor of EHV-1 DNA replication. In contrast, a 1.7-kb mRNA appears at later times postinfection and is designated as a gamma-1 transcript, since its synthesis is significantly reduced by phosphonoacetic acid. These IR4-specific mRNAs are 3' coterminal, have unique 5' termini, and would code for in-frame, overlapping, carboxy-coterminal proteins of 293 and 469 amino acids, respectively. Interestingly, the site of homologous recombination to generate the genome of EHV-1 defective interfering particles that initiate persistent infection occurs between nt 3244 and 3251 of UL3 (ICP27 homolog) and nt 9027 and 9034 of IR4 (ICP22 homolog). Thus, this recombination event would generate a unique ORF that would encode a potential protein whose amino end was derived from the N-terminal 193 amino acids of the ICP22 homolog and whose carboxyl end was derived from the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the ICP27 homolog.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus of swine, is a widely used model organism in investigations of the molecular pathomechanisms of the herpesviruses. This work is the continuation of our earlier studies, in which we investigated the effect of the abrogation of gene function on the viral transcriptome by knocking out PRV genes playing roles in the coordination of global gene expression of the virus. In this study, we deleted the us1 gene encoding the ICP22, an important viral regulatory protein, and analyzed the changes in the expression of other PRV genes. RESULTS: A multi-timepoint real-time RT-PCR technique was applied to evaluate the impact of deletion of the PRV us1 gene on the overall transcription kinetics of viral genes. The mutation proved to exert a differential effect on the distinct kinetic classes of PRV genes at the various stages of lytic infection. In the us1 gene-deleted virus, all the kinetic classes of the genes were significantly down-regulated in the first hour of infection. After 2 to 6 h of infection, the late genes were severely suppressed, whereas the early genes were unaffected. In the late stage of infection, the early genes were selectively up-regulated. In the mutant virus, the transcription of the ie180 gene, the major coordinator of PRV gene expression, correlated closely with the transcription of other viral genes, a situation which was not found in the wild-type (wt) virus. A 4-h delay was observed in the commencement of DNA replication in the mutant virus as compared with the wt virus. The rate of transcription from a gene normalized to the relative copy number of the viral genome was observed to decline drastically following the initiation of DNA replication in both the wt and mutant backgrounds. Finally, the switch between the expressions of the early and late genes was demonstrated not to be controlled by DNA replication, as is widely believed, since the switch preceded the DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a strong dependence of PRV gene expression on the presence of functional us1 gene. ICP22 is shown to exert a differential effect on the distinct kinetic classes of PRV genes and to disrupt the close correlation between the transcription kinetics of ie180 and other PRV transcripts. Furthermore, DNA replication exerts a severe constraint on the viral transcription.
Project description:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) codes for a protein serine kinase called ORF47; the herpes simplex virus (HSV) homolog is UL13. No recombinant alphaherpesvirus serine kinase has been biologically active in vitro. We discovered that preservation of the intrinsic kinase activity of recombinant VZV ORF47 required unusually stringent in vitro conditions, including physiological concentrations of polyamines. In this assay, ORF47 phosphorylated two VZV regulatory proteins: the ORF62 protein (homolog of HSV ICP4) and the ORF63 protein (homolog of HSV ICP22). Of interest, ORF47 kinase also coprecipitated ORF63 protein from the kinase assay supernatant.
Project description:Duck viral enteritis (DVE) is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans of all ages and species. This disease has been responsible for significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl as a result of mortality, and decreased egg production. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin in specific plants and exhibits inhibitory activity against many kinds of virus. In this paper, resveratrol was found to inhibit duck enteritis virus (DEV) replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 3.85 μg/mL. The inhibition in virus multiplication in the presence of resveratrol was not attributed to direct inactivation or inhibition of virus attachment to the host cells, but to the inhibition of viral multiplication in host cells. The assay of the time of addition limited the drug effect during the first 8 h of infection. This conclusion was supported by the ultrastructure images of the early stage of DEV infection, which showed that the replication of virus nucleic acid and the formation of the capsid in the cell nucleus were suppressed. In the indirect immunofluorescence assay, proteins expression in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) was also effectively suppressed by resveratrol. In summary, the resveratrol has a good activity against DEV infection in vitro, which could be attributed to that fact that several essential immediate early viral proteins for virus replication were impacted by resveratrol.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an unassigned member in the family Herpesviridae. To demonstrate further the evolutionary position of DEV in the family Herpesviridae, we have described a 42,897-bp fragment. We demonstrated novel genomic organization at one end of the long (L) region and in the entire short (S) region in the Clone-03 strain of DEV. RESULTS: A 42,897-bp fragment located downstream of the LOFR11 gene was amplified from the Clone-03 strain of DEV by using 'targeted gene walking PCR'. Twenty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted and determined in the following order: 5'-LORF11-RLORF1-ORF1-ICP4-S1-S2-US1-US10-SORF3-US2-MDV091.5-like-US3-US4-US5-US6-US7-US8-ORFx-US1-S2-S1-ICP4 -3'. This was different from that of the published VAC strain, both in the linkage of the L region and S region, and in the length of the US10 and US7 proteins. The MDV091.5-like gene, ORFx gene, S1 gene and S2 gene were first observed in the DEV genome. The lengths of DEV US10 and US7 were determined to be 311 and 371 amino acids, respectively, in the Clone-03 strain of DEV, and these were different from those of other strains. The comparison of genomic organization in the fragment studied herein with those of other herpesviruses showed that DEV possesses some unique characteristics, such as the duplicated US1 at each end of the US region, and the US5, which showed no homology with those of other herpesviruses. In addition, the results of phylogenetic analysis of ORFs in the represented fragment indicated that DEV is closest to its counterparts VZV (Varicellovirus) and other avian herpesviruses. CONCLUSION: The molecular characteristics of the 42,897-bp fragment of Clone-03 have been found to be different from those of the VAC strain. The phylogenetic analysis of genes in this region showed that DEV should be a separate member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.
Project description:Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in humans and, subsequently, establishes latency in the sensory ganglia from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster. Infection of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV) recapitulates VZV pathogenesis in humans thus representing a suitable animal model for VZV infection. While the type I interferon (IFN) response has been shown to affect VZV replication, the virus employs counter mechanisms to prevent the induction of anti-viral IFN stimulated genes (ISG). Here, we demonstrate that SVV inhibits type I IFN-activated signal transduction via the JAK-STAT pathway. SVV-infected rhesus fibroblasts were refractory to IFN stimulation displaying reduced protein levels of IRF9 and lacking STAT2 phosphorylation. Since previous work implicated involvement of the VZV immediate early gene product ORF63 in preventing ISG-induction we studied the role of SVV ORF63 in generating resistance to IFN treatment. Interestingly, SVV ORF63 did not affect STAT2 phosphorylation but caused IRF9 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that SVV employs multiple mechanisms to counteract the effect of IFN. Control of SVV ORF63 protein levels via fusion to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-degradation domain additionally confirmed its requirement for viral replication. Our results also show a prominent reduction of IRF9 and inhibition of STAT2 phosphorylation in VZV-infected cells. In addition, cells expressing VZV ORF63 blocked IFN-stimulation and displayed reduced levels of the IRF9 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that varicella ORF63 prevents ISG-induction both directly via IRF9 degradation and indirectly via transcriptional control of viral proteins that interfere with STAT2 phosphorylation. SVV and VZV thus encode multiple viral gene products that tightly control IFN-induced anti-viral responses.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) are two different pathogenic DEV strains. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in viral infection. Nonetheless, there is little information on virulent duck enteritis virus (DEV)-encoded miRNAs.Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 39 mature viral miRNAs from CHv-infected duck embryo fibroblasts cells. Compared with the reported 33 VAC-encoded miRNAs, only 13 miRNA sequences and 22 "seed sequences" of miRNA were identical, and 8 novel viral miRNAs were detected and confirmed by stem-loop RT-qPCR in this study. Using RNAhybrid and PITA software, 38 CHv-encoded miRNAs were predicted to target 41 viral genes and formed a complex regulatory network. Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA) confirmed that viral dev-miR-D8-3p can directly target the 3'-UTR of CHv US1 gene (p < 0.05). Gene Ontology analysis on host target genes of viral miRNAs were mainly involved in biological regulation, cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, 598 novel duck-encoded miRNAs were detected in this study. Thirty-eight host miRNAs showed significant differential expression after CHv infection: 13 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 25 miRNAs were down-regulated, which may affect viral replication in the host cell.These data suggested that CHv encoded a different set of microRNAs and formed a unique regulatory network compared with VAC. This is the first report of DEF miRNAs expression profile and an analysis of these miRNAs regulatory mechanisms during DEV infection. These data provide a basis for further exploring miRNA regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of DEV infection and contribute to the understanding of the CHv-host interaction at the miRNA level.
Project description:ICP22 is a multifunctional herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein that functions as a general repressor of a subset of cellular and viral promoters in transient expression systems. Although the exact mechanism of repression remains unclear, this protein induces a decrease in RNA polymerase II Serine 2 (RNAPII Ser-2) phosphorylation, which is critical for transcription elongation. To characterize the mechanism of transcriptional repression by ICP22, we established an in vivo transient expression reporter system. We found that ICP22 inhibits transcription of the HSV-1 ?, ? and ? gene promoters. The viral tegument protein VP16, which plays vital roles in initiation of viral gene expression and viral proliferation, can overcome the inhibitory effect of ICP22 on ?-gene transcription. Further immunoprecipitation studies indicated that both ICP22 and VP16 bind to positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and form a complex with it in vivo. We extended this to show that P-TEFb regulates transcription of the viral ?-gene promoters and affects transcriptional regulation of ICP22 and VP16 on the ?-genes. Additionally, ChIP assays demonstrated that ICP22 blocks the recruitment of P-TEFb to the viral promoters, while VP16 reverses this blocking effect by recruiting P-TEFb to the viral ?-gene promoters through recognition of the TAATGARAT motif. Taken together, our results suggest that ICP22 interacts with and blocks the recruitment of P-TEFb to viral promoter regions, which inhibits transcription of the viral gene promoters. The transactivator VP16 binds to and induces the recruitment of P-TEFb to viral ?-gene promoters, which counteracts the transcriptional repression of ICP22 on ?-genes by recruiting p-TEFb to the promoter region.
Project description:Mammalian cells activate DNA damage response pathways in response to virus infections. Activation of these pathways can enhance replication of many viruses, including herpesviruses. Activation of cellular ATM results in phosphorylation of H2AX and recruits proteins to sites of DNA damage. We found that varicella-zoster (VZV) infected cells had elevated levels of phosphorylated H2AX and phosphorylated ATM and that these levels increased in cells infected with VZV deleted for ORF61 or ORF63, but not deleted for ORF67. Expression of VZV ORF61, ORF62, or ORF63 alone did not result in phosphorylation of H2AX. While BGLF4, the Epstein-Barr virus homolog of VZV ORF47 protein kinase, phosphorylates H2AX and ATM, neither VZV ORF47 nor ORF66 protein kinase phosphorylated H2AX or ATM. Cells lacking ATM had no reduction in VZV replication. Thus, VZV induces phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM and this effect is associated with the presence of specific VZV genes in virus-infected cells.