Ligand Controlled Ir-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Oxyamination of Unactivated Alkenes.
ABSTRACT: An intramolecular Ir(III)-catalyzed regiodivergent oxyamination of unactivated alkenes provides valuable ?-lactams, ?-lactones and ?-lactams. The regioselectivity is controlled by the electronically tunable cyclopentadienyl Ir(III)-complexes enabling oxyamination via either 5-exo or 6-endo pathways. With respect to the mechanism, we propose a highly reactive [3.1.0] bicycle intermediate derived from Ir(V) nitrene-mediated aziridination to be a key intermediate toward the synthesis of ?-lactams.
Project description:Azidoformates are interesting potential nitrene precursors, but their direct photochemical activation can result in competitive formation of aziridination and allylic amination products. Herein, we show that visible-light-activated transition-metal complexes can be triplet sensitizers that selectively produce aziridines through the spin-selective photogeneration of triplet nitrenes from azidoformates. This approach enables the aziridination of a wide range of alkenes and the formal oxyamination of enol ethers using the alkene as the limiting reagent. Preparative-scale aziridinations can be easily achieved under continuous-flow conditions.
Project description:The regioselective and enantioselective oxyamination of alkenes with N-sulfonyl oxaziridines is catalyzed by a novel iron(II) bis(oxazoline) complex. This process affords oxazolidine products that can be easily manipulated to yield highly enantioenriched free amino alcohols. The regioselectivity of this process is complementary to that obtained from the analogous copper(II)-catalyzed reaction. Thus, both regioisomers of enantioenriched 1,2-aminoalcohols can be obtained using oxaziridine-mediated oxyamination reactions, and the overall sense of regiochemistry can be controlled using the appropriate choice of inexpensive first-row transition metal catalyst.
Project description:Olefin aziridination via organocatalytic nitrene transfer offers potential complementarity to metal-catalyzed methods; however there is a lack of reports of such reactions in the literature. Herein is reported a method that employs an iminium salt to catalyze the aziridination of styrenes by [ N-( p-toluenesulfonyl)imino]phenyliodinane (PhINTs). These reactions are hypothesized to proceed via a diaziridinium salt as the active oxidant. In addition to outlining the scope and limitations of the method, evidence for a polar, stepwise mechanism is presented, which provides new insight into the nature of iminium catalysis of nitrene transfer.
Project description:Alkenyl N-pivaloylhydroxamates undergo an Ir(III)-catalyzed diamination of the alkene with simple exogenous secondary amines under extraordinarily mild reaction conditions. The regioselectivity of the diamination is controlled by the solvent and the electronics of the cyclopentadienyl (Cpx) ligand on Ir. On the basis of a set of mechanistic experiments, we propose that the relative rates of Ir(V)-nitrenoid formation versus attack on the amido-Ir-coordinated alkene by the exogenous amine determine the outcome of the reaction.
Project description:Cobalt(II)-based metalloradical catalysis (MRC) has been successfully applied for effective construction of the highly strained 2-sulfonyl-1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane structures in high yields through intramolecular radical aziridination of allylic sulfamoyl azides. The resulting [3.1.0] bicyclic aziridines prove to be versatile synthons for the preparation of a diverse range of 1,2- and 1,3-diamine derivatives by selective ring-opening reactions. As a demonstration of its application for target synthesis, the metalloradical intramolecular aziridination reaction has been incorporated as a key step for efficient synthesis of a potent neurokinin?1 (NK1 ) antagonist in 60?% overall yield.
Project description:To fully characterize the Co(III)-'nitrene radical' species that are proposed as intermediates in nitrene transfer reactions mediated by cobalt(II) porphyrins, different combinations of cobalt(II) complexes of porphyrins and nitrene transfer reagents were combined, and the generated species were studied using EPR, UV-vis, IR, VCD, UHR-ESI-MS, and XANES/XAFS measurements. Reactions of cobalt(II) porphyrins 1(P1) (P1 = meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP)) and 1(P2) (P2 = 3,5-Di(t)Bu-ChenPhyrin) with organic azides 2(Ns) (NsN3), 2(Ts) (TsN3), and 2(Troc) (TrocN3) led to the formation of mono-nitrene species 3(P1)(Ns), 3(P2)(Ts), and 3(P2)(Troc), respectively, which are best described as [Co(III)(por)(NR?(•-))] nitrene radicals (imidyl radicals) resulting from single electron transfer from the cobalt(II) porphyrin to the 'nitrene' moiety (Ns: R? = -SO2-p-C6H5NO2; Ts: R? = -SO2C6H6; Troc: R? = -C(O)OCH2CCl3). Remarkably, the reaction of 1(P1) with N-nosyl iminoiodane (PhI?NNs) 4(Ns) led to the formation of a bis-nitrene species 5(P1)(Ns). This species is best described as a triple-radical complex [(por(•-))Co(III)(NR?(•-))2] containing three ligand-centered unpaired electrons: two nitrene radicals (NR?(•-)) and one oxidized porphyrin radical (por(•-)). Thus, the formation of the second nitrene radical involves another intramolecular one-electron transfer to the "nitrene" moiety, but now from the porphyrin ring instead of the metal center. Interestingly, this bis-nitrene species is observed only on reacting 4(Ns) with 1(P1). Reaction of the more bulky 1(P2) with 4(Ns) results again in formation of mainly mono-nitrene species 3(P2)(Ns) according to EPR and ESI-MS spectroscopic studies. The mono- and bis-nitrene species were initially expected to be five- and six-coordinate species, respectively, but XANES data revealed that both mono- and bis-nitrene species are six-coordinate O(h) species. The nature of the sixth ligand bound to cobalt(III) in the mono-nitrene case remains elusive, but some plausible candidates are NH3, NH2(-), NsNH(-), and OH(-); NsNH(-) being the most plausible. Conversion of mono-nitrene species 3(P1)(Ns) into bis-nitrene species 5(P1)(Ns) upon reaction with 4(Ns) was demonstrated. Solutions containing 3(P1)(Ns) and 5(P1)(Ns) proved to be still active in catalytic aziridination of styrene, consistent with their proposed key involvement in nitrene transfer reactions mediated by cobalt(II) porphyrins.
Project description:A new copper(II) 2-ethylhexanoate-promoted addition of an alcohol and an amine across an alkene (oxyamination) is reported. The alcohol addition is intramolecular, while coupling with the amine occurs intermolecularly. Several 2-aminomethyl morpholines were synthesized in good to excellent yields and diastereoselectivities.
Project description:Terminal copper-nitrenoid complexes have inspired interest in their fundamental bonding structures as well as their putative intermediacy in catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions. Here, we report that aryl azides react with a copper(I) dinitrogen complex bearing a sterically encumbered dipyrrin ligand to produce terminal copper nitrene complexes with near-linear, short copper-nitrenoid bonds [1.745(2) to 1.759(2) angstroms]. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations reveal a predominantly triplet nitrene adduct bound to copper(I), as opposed to copper(II) or copper(III) assignments, indicating the absence of a copper-nitrogen multiple-bond character. Employing electron-deficient aryl azides renders the copper nitrene species competent for alkane amination and alkene aziridination, lending further credence to the intermediacy of this species in proposed nitrene-transfer mechanisms.
Project description:Malonoyl peroxide 6 is an effective reagent for the syn- or anti-oxyamination of alkenes. Reaction of 6 and an alkene in the presence of O-tert-butyl-N-tosylcarbamate (R3 = CO2tBu) leads to the anti-oxyaminated product in up to 99% yield. Use of O-methyl-N-tosyl carbamate (R3 = CO2Me) as the nitrogen nucleophile followed by treatment of the product with trifluoroacetic acid leads to the syn-oxyaminated product in up to 77% yield. Mechanisms consistent with the observed selectivities are proposed.
Project description:The regiodivergent addition of substituted phenols to allylic oxides has been demonstrated using C2-symmetric palladium complexes. Complex phenol donors tyrosine, estradiol, and griseofulvin follow the predictive model.