TACC3 Regulates Microtubule Plus-End Dynamics and Cargo Transport in Interphase Cells.
ABSTRACT: End-binding proteins (EBs) are widely viewed as master regulators of microtubule dynamics and function. Here, we show that while EB1 mediates the dynamic microtubule capture of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in fibroblasts, in neuronal cells, infection occurs independently of EBs through stable microtubules. Prompted by this, we find that transforming acid coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3), widely studied in mitotic spindle formation, regulates the cytoplasmic localization of the microtubule polymerizing factor chTOG and influences microtubule plus-end dynamics during interphase to control infection in distinct cell types. Furthermore, perturbing TACC3 function in neuronal cells resulted in the formation of disorganized stable, detyrosinated microtubule networks and changes in cellular morphology, as well as impaired trafficking of both HSV-1 and transferrin. These trafficking defects in TACC3-depleted cells were reversed by the depletion of kinesin-1 heavy chains. As such, TACC3 is a critical regulator of interphase microtubule dynamics and stability that influences kinesin-1-based cargo trafficking.
Project description:chTOG is a conserved microtubule polymerase that catalyses the addition of tubulin dimers to promote microtubule growth. chTOG interacts with TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) family. Here we analyse their association using the Xenopus homologues, XTACC3 (TACC3) and XMAP215 (chTOG), dissecting the mechanism by which their interaction promotes microtubule elongation during spindle assembly. Using SAXS, we show that the TACC domain (TD) is an elongated structure that mediates the interaction with the C terminus of XMAP215. Our data suggest that one TD and two XMAP215 molecules associate to form a four-helix coiled-coil complex. A hybrid methods approach was used to define the precise regions of the TACC heptad repeat and the XMAP215 C terminus required for assembly and functioning of the complex. We show that XTACC3 can induce the recruitment of larger amounts of XMAP215 by increasing its local concentration, thereby promoting efficient microtubule elongation during mitosis.
Project description:Microtubule plus end dynamics are regulated by a conserved family of proteins called plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). It is unclear how various +TIPs interact with each other and with plus ends to control microtubule behavior. The centrosome-associated protein TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family, has been implicated in regulating several aspects of microtubule dynamics. However, TACC3 has not been shown to function as a +TIP in vertebrates. Here we show that TACC3 promotes axon outgrowth and regulates microtubule dynamics by increasing microtubule plus end velocities in vivo. We also demonstrate that TACC3 acts as a +TIP in multiple embryonic cell types and that this requires the conserved C-terminal TACC domain. Using high-resolution live-imaging data on tagged +TIPs, we show that TACC3 localizes to the extreme microtubule plus end, where it lies distal to the microtubule polymerization marker EB1 and directly overlaps with the microtubule polymerase XMAP215. TACC3 also plays a role in regulating XMAP215 stability and localizing XMAP215 to microtubule plus ends. Taken together, our results implicate TACC3 as a +TIP that functions with XMAP215 to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics.
Project description:The interaction between TACC3 (transforming acidic coiled coil protein 3) and the microtubule polymerase ch-TOG (colonic, hepatic tumor overexpressed gene) is evolutionarily conserved. Loading of TACC3-ch-TOG onto mitotic spindle microtubules requires the phosphorylation of TACC3 by Aurora-A kinase and the subsequent interaction of TACC3 with clathrin to form a microtubule-binding surface. Recent work indicates that TACC3 can track the plus-ends of microtubules and modulate microtubule dynamics in non-dividing cells via its interaction with ch-TOG. Whether there is a pool of TACC3-ch-TOG that is independent of clathrin in human cells, and what is the function of this pool, are open questions. Here, we describe the molecular interaction between TACC3 and ch-TOG that permits TACC3 recruitment to the plus-ends of microtubules. This TACC3-ch-TOG pool is independent of EB1, EB3, Aurora-A phosphorylation and binding to clathrin. We also describe the distinct combinatorial subcellular pools of TACC3, ch-TOG and clathrin. TACC3 is often described as a centrosomal protein, but we show that there is no significant population of TACC3 at centrosomes. The delineation of distinct protein pools reveals a simplified view of how these proteins are organized and controlled by post-translational modification.
Project description:Microtubule depolymerization dynamics in the spindle are regulated by kinesin-13, a nonprocessive kinesin motor protein that depolymerizes microtubules at the plus and minus ends. Here we show that a single kinesin-13 homolog regulates flagellar length dynamics, as well as other interphase and mitotic dynamics in Giardia intestinalis, a widespread parasitic diplomonad protist. Both green fluorescent protein-tagged kinesin-13 and EB1 (a plus-end tracking protein) localize to the plus ends of mitotic and interphase microtubules, including a novel localization to the eight flagellar tips, cytoplasmic anterior axonemes, and the median body. The ectopic expression of a kinesin-13 (S280N) rigor mutant construct caused significant elongation of the eight flagella with significant decreases in the median body volume and resulted in mitotic defects. Notably, drugs that disrupt normal interphase and mitotic microtubule dynamics also affected flagellar length in Giardia. Our study extends recent work on interphase and mitotic kinesin-13 functioning in metazoans to include a role in regulating flagellar length dynamics. We suggest that kinesin-13 universally regulates both mitotic and interphase microtubule dynamics in diverse microbial eukaryotes and propose that axonemal microtubules are subject to the same regulation of microtubule dynamics as other dynamic microtubule arrays. Finally, the present study represents the first use of a dominant-negative strategy to disrupt normal protein function in Giardia and provides important insights into giardial microtubule dynamics with relevance to the development of antigiardial compounds that target critical functions of kinesins in the giardial life cycle.
Project description:The third member of transforming acidic coiled-coil protein (TACC) family, TACC3, has been shown to be an important player in the regulation of centrosome/microtubule dynamics during mitosis and found to be deregulated in a variety of human malignancies. Our previous studies have suggested that TACC3 may be involved in cervical cancer progression and chemoresistance, and its overexpression can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) signal transduction pathways. However, the upstream mechanisms of TACC3-mediated EMT and its functional/clinical importance in human cervical cancer remain elusive. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent inducer of EMT in cervical cancer and associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we found that TACC3 is overexpressed in cervical cancer and can be induced upon EGF stimulation. The induction of TACC3 by EGF is dependent on the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR). Intriguingly, depletion of TACC3 abolishes EGF-mediated EMT, suggesting that TACC3 is required for EGF/EGFR-driven EMT process. Moreover, Snail, a key player in EGF-mediated EMT, is found to be correlated with the expression of TACC3 in cervical cancer. Collectively, our study highlights a novel function for TACC3 in EGF-mediated EMT process and suggests that targeting of TACC3 may be an attractive strategy to treat cervical cancers driven by EGF/EGFR signaling pathways.
Project description:High-fidelity chromosome segregation relies on proper microtubule regulation. Kinesin-8 has been shown to destabilise microtubules to reduce metaphase spindle length and chromosome movements in multiple species. XMAP215/chTOG polymerases catalyse microtubule growth for spindle assembly, elongation and kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Understanding of their biochemical activity has advanced, but little work directly addresses the functionality and interplay of these conserved factors. We utilised the synthetic lethality of fission yeast kinesin-8 (Klp5-Klp6) and XMAP215/chTOG (Dis1) to study their individual and overlapping roles. We found that the non-motor kinesin-8 tailbox is essential for mitotic function; mutation compromises plus-end-directed processivity. Klp5-Klp6 induces catastrophes to control microtubule length and, surprisingly, Dis1 collaborates with kinesin-8 to slow spindle elongation. Together, they enforce a maximum spindle length for a viable metaphase-anaphase transition and limit elongation during anaphase A to prevent lagging chromatids. Our work provides mechanistic insight into how kinesin-8 negatively regulates microtubules and how this functionally overlaps with Dis1 and highlights the importance of spindle length control in mitosis.
Project description:A complex of transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3), colonic and hepatic tumor overexpressed gene (ch-TOG), and clathrin has been implicated in mitotic spindle assembly and in the stabilization of kinetochore fibers by cross-linking microtubules. It is unclear how this complex binds microtubules and how the proteins in the complex interact with one another. TACC3 and clathrin have each been proposed to be the spindle recruitment factor. We have mapped the interactions within the complex and show that TACC3 and clathrin were interdependent for spindle recruitment, having to interact in order for either to be recruited to the spindle. The N-terminal domain of clathrin and the TACC domain of TACC3 in tandem made a microtubule interaction surface, coordinated by TACC3-clathrin binding. A dileucine motif and Aurora A-phosphorylated serine 558 on TACC3 bound to the "ankle" of clathrin. The other interaction within the complex involved a stutter in the TACC3 coiled-coil and a proposed novel sixth TOG domain in ch-TOG, which was required for microtubule localization of ch-TOG but not TACC3-clathrin.
Project description:The essential mammalian gene TACC3 is frequently mutated and amplified in cancers and its fusion products exhibit oncogenic activity in glioblastomas. TACC3 functions in mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. In particular, phosphorylation on S558 by the mitotic kinase, Aurora-A, promotes spindle recruitment of TACC3 and triggers the formation of a complex with ch-TOG-clathrin that crosslinks and stabilises kinetochore microtubules. Here we map the Aurora-A-binding interface in TACC3 and show that TACC3 potently activates Aurora-A through a domain centered on F525. Vertebrate cells carrying homozygous F525A mutation in the endogenous TACC3 loci exhibit defects in TACC3 function, namely perturbed localization, reduced phosphorylation and weakened interaction with clathrin. The most striking feature of the F525A cells however is a marked shortening of mitosis, at least in part due to rapid spindle assembly. F525A cells do not exhibit chromosome missegregation, indicating that they undergo fast yet apparently faithful mitosis. By contrast, mutating the phosphorylation site S558 to alanine in TACC3 causes aneuploidy without a significant change in mitotic duration. Our work has therefore defined a regulatory role for the Aurora-A-TACC3 interaction beyond the act of phosphorylation at S558. We propose that the regulatory relationship between Aurora-A and TACC3 enables the transition from the microtubule-polymerase activity of TACC3-ch-TOG to the microtubule-crosslinking activity of TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin complexes as mitosis progresses. Aurora-A-dependent control of TACC3 could determine the balance between these activities, thereby influencing not only spindle length and stability but also the speed of spindle formation with vital consequences for chromosome alignment and segregation.
Project description:Microtubule-associated proteins of the mitotic spindle are thought to be important for the initial assembly and the maintenance of spindle structure and function. However, distinguishing assembly and maintenance roles for a given protein is difficult. Most experimental methods for protein inactivation are slow and therefore affect both assembly and maintenance. Here, we have used 'knocksideways' to rapidly (∼5 minutes) and specifically remove TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin non-motor complexes from kinetochore fibers (K-fibers). This method allows the complex to be inactivated at defined stages of mitosis. Removal of TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin after nuclear envelope breakdown caused severe delays in chromosome alignment. Inactivation at metaphase, following a normal prometaphase, significantly delayed progression to anaphase. In these cells, K-fiber tension was reduced and the spindle checkpoint was not satisfied. Surprisingly, there was no significant loss of K-fiber microtubules, even after prolonged removal. TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin removal during metaphase also resulted in a decrease in spindle length and significant alteration in kinetochore dynamics. Our results indicate that TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin complexes are important for the maintenance of spindle structure and function as well as for initial spindle assembly.
Project description:Kinetochore capture by dynamic kinetochore microtubule fibers (K fibers) is essential for proper chromosome alignment and accurate distribution of the replicated genome during cell division. Although this capture process has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of this process and the proper formation of the K fibers remain largely unknown. Here we show that transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) is essential for kinetochore capture and proper K-fiber formation in HeLa cells. To observe the assembly of acentrosomal microtubules more clearly, the cells were released from higher concentrations of nocodazole into zero or lower concentrations. We find that small acentrosomal TACC3-microtubule aster formation near the kinetochores and binding of the asters with the kinetochores are the initial steps of the kinetochore capture by the acentrosomal microtubules, and that the sorting of kinetochore-captured acentrosomal microtubules with centrosomal microtubules leads to the capture of kinetochore by centrosomal microtubules from both spindle poles. We demonstrate that the sorting of the TACC3-associated microtubules with the centrosomal microtubules is a crucial process for spindle assembly and chromosome movement. These findings, which are also supported in the unperturbed mitosis without nocodazole, reveal a critical TACC3-dependent acentrosomal microtubule nucleation and sorting process to regulate kinetochore-microtubule connections and provide deep insight into the mechanisms of mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome alignment.