Endothelial progeria induces adipose tissue senescence and impairs insulin sensitivity through senescence associated secretory phenotype.
ABSTRACT: Vascular senescence is thought to play a crucial role in an ageing-associated decline of organ functions; however, whether vascular senescence is causally implicated in age-related disease remains unclear. Here we show that endothelial cell (EC) senescence induces metabolic disorders through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescence-messaging secretomes from senescent ECs induced a senescence-like state and reduced insulin receptor substrate-1 in adipocytes, which thereby impaired insulin signaling. We generated EC-specific progeroid mice that overexpressed the dominant negative form of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 under the control of the Tie2 promoter. EC-specific progeria impaired systemic metabolic health in mice in association with adipose tissue dysfunction even while consuming normal chow. Notably, shared circulation with EC-specific progeroid mice by parabiosis sufficiently transmitted the metabolic disorders into wild-type recipient mice. Our data provides direct evidence that EC senescence impairs systemic metabolic health, and thus establishes EC senescence as a bona fide risk for age-related metabolic disease.
Project description:How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W)/XPA(-/-)) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80(-/-) mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage.
Project description:Several progeroid disorders, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (ZMPSTE24 deficiency), arise when a farnesylated and methylated form of prelamin A accumulates at the nuclear envelope. Here, we found that a hypomorphic allele of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) increased body weight, normalized grip strength, and prevented bone fractures and death in Zmpste24-deficient mice. The reduced ICMT activity caused prelamin A mislocalization within the nucleus and triggered prelamin A-dependent activation of AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which abolished the premature senescence of Zmpste24-deficient fibroblasts. ICMT inhibition increased AKT-mTOR signaling and proliferation and delayed senescence in human HGPS fibroblasts but did not reduce the levels of misshapen nuclei in mouse and human cells. Thus, targeting ICMT might be useful for treating prelamin A-associated progeroid disorders.
Project description:Several progeroid disorders are caused by deficiency in the endoprotease ZMPSTE24 which leads to accumulation of prelamin A at the nuclear envelope. ZMPSTE24 cleaves prelamin A twice: at the third carboxyl-terminal amino acid following farnesylation of a -CSIM motif; and 15 residues upstream to produce mature lamin A. The carboxyl-terminal cleavage can also be performed by RAS-converting enzyme 1 (RCE1) but little is known about the importance of this cleavage for the ability of prelamin A to cause disease. Here, we found that knockout of RCE1 delayed senescence and increased proliferation of ZMPSTE24-deficient fibroblasts from a patient with non-classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but did not influence proliferation of classical LMNA-mutant HGPS cells. Knockout of Rce1 in Zmpste24-deficient mice at postnatal week 4-5 increased body weight and doubled the median survival time. The absence of Rce1 in Zmpste24-deficient fibroblasts did not influence nuclear shape but reduced an interaction between prelamin A and AKT which activated AKT-mTOR signaling and was required for the increased proliferation. Prelamin A levels increased in Rce1-deficient cells due to a slower turnover rate but its localization at the nuclear rim was unaffected. These results strengthen the idea that the presence of misshapen nuclei does not prevent phenotype improvement and suggest that targeting RCE1 might be useful for treating the rare progeroid disorders associated with ZMPSTE24 deficiency.
Project description:An increase in the burden of senescent cells in tissues with age contributes to driving aging and the onset of age-related diseases. Genetic and pharmacologic elimination of senescent cells extends both health span and life span in mouse models. Heterochronic parabiosis in mice has been used to identify bloodborne, circulating pro- and anti-geronic factors able to drive or slow aging, respectively. However, whether factors in the circulation also regulate senescence is unknown. Here, we measured the expression of senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) markers in multiple tissues from 4- to 18-month-old male mice that were either isochronically or heterochronically paired for 2 months. In heterochronic parabionts, the age-dependent increase in senescence and SASP marker expression was reduced in old mice exposed to a young environment, while senescence markers were concurrently increased in young heterochronic parabionts. These findings were supported by geropathology analysis using the Geropathology Grading Platform that showed a trend toward reduced hepatic lesions in old heterochronic parabionts. In summary, these results demonstrate that senescence is regulated in part by circulating geronic factors and suggest that one of the possible mediators of the rejuvenating effects with heterochronic parabiosis is through the reduction of the senescent cell burden.
Project description:A de novo G608G mutation in LMNA gene leads to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Mice lacking the prelamin A-processing metalloprotease, Zmpste24, recapitulate many of the progeroid features of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Here we show that A-type lamins interact with SUV39H1, and prelamin A/progerin exhibits enhanced binding capacity to SUV39H1, protecting it from proteasomal degradation and, consequently, increasing H3K9me3 levels. Depletion of Suv39h1 reduces H3K9me3 levels, restores DNA repair capacity and delays senescence in progeroid cells. Remarkably, loss of Suv39h1 in Zmpste24(-/-) mice delays body weight loss, increases bone mineral density and extends lifespan by ?60%. Thus, increased H3K9me3 levels, possibly mediated by enhanced Suv39h1 stability in the presence of prelamin A/progerin, compromise genome maintenance, which in turn contributes to accelerated senescence in laminopathy-based premature aging. Our study provides an explanation for epigenetic alterations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a potential strategy for intervention by targeting SUV39H1-mediated heterochromatin remodelling.
Project description:Mosaic-variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare childhood disorder characterized by biallelic BUBR1, CEP57, or TRIP13 aberrations; increased chromosome missegregation; and a broad spectrum of clinical features, including various cancers, congenital defects, and progeroid pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this disorder and its phenotypic heterogeneity, we mimicked the BUBR1L1012P mutation in mice (BubR1L1002P) and combined it with 2 other MVA variants, BUBR1X753 and BUBR1H, generating a truncated protein and low amounts of wild-type protein, respectively. Whereas BubR1X753/L1002P and BubR1H/X753 mice died prematurely, BubR1H/L1002P mice were viable and exhibited many MVA features, including cancer predisposition and various progeroid phenotypes, such as short lifespan, dwarfism, lipodystrophy, sarcopenia, and low cardiac stress tolerance. Strikingly, although these mice had a reduction in total BUBR1 and spectrum of MVA phenotypes similar to that of BubR1H/H mice, several progeroid pathologies were attenuated in severity, which in skeletal muscle coincided with reduced senescence-associated secretory phenotype complexity. Additionally, mice carrying monoallelic BubR1 mutations were prone to select MVA-related pathologies later in life, with predisposition to sarcopenia correlating with mTORC1 hyperactivity. Together, these data demonstrate that BUBR1 allelic effects beyond protein level and aneuploidy contribute to disease heterogeneity in both MVA patients and heterozygous carriers of MVA mutations.
Project description:BubR1 insufficiency occurs with natural aging and induces progeroid phenotypes in both mice and children with mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. In response to BubR1 insufficiency, skeletal muscle, fat, and lens tissue engage p19(Arf) to attenuate senescence and age-related deterioration. Here, we address how p19(Arf) exerts this caretaker role using BubR1 progeroid mice lacking p53 or its transcriptional target p21. We show that p53 delays functional decline of skeletal muscle and fat in a p21-dependent fashion by inhibiting p16(Ink4a)-mediated senescence of progenitor cells. Strikingly, p53 also attenuates the formation of cataractous lenses, but here its antiaging effect is p21 independent, as we found p21 to promote senescence of lens epithelial cells and cataract formation. Together, these results demonstrate that p53 counteracts tissue destruction in response to BubR1 insufficiency through diverse mechanisms and uncover a causal link between senescence of the progenitor cell compartment and age-related dysfunction.
Project description:Chronic obesity leads to inflammation, tissue dysfunction, and cellular senescence. It was proposed that cellular senescence during obesity and aging drives inflammation and dysfunction. Consistent with this, clearance of senescent cells increases healthspan in progeroid mice. Here, we show that the protein Deleted in Breast Cancer-1 (DBC1) regulates cellular senescence during obesity. Deletion of DBC1 protects preadipocytes against cellular senescence and senescence-driven inflammation. Furthermore, we show protection against cellular senescence in DBC1 KO mice during obesity. Finally, we found that DBC1 participates in the onset of cellular senescence in response to cell damage by mechanism that involves binding and inhibition of HDAC3. We propose that by regulating HDAC3 activity during cellular damage, DBC1 participates in the fate decision that leads to the establishment of cellular senescence and consequently to inflammation and tissue dysfunction during obesity.
Project description:Thymic senescence contributes to increased incidence of infection, cancer and autoimmunity at senior ages. This process manifests as adipose involution. As with other adipose tissues, thymic adipose involution is also controlled by PPARgamma. This is supported by observations reporting that systemic PPARgamma activation accelerates thymic adipose involution. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased PPARgamma activity could prevent thymic adipose involution, although it may trigger metabolic adverse effects. We have confirmed that both human and murine thymic sections show marked staining for PPARgamma at senior ages. We have also tested the thymic lobes of PPARgamma haplo-insufficient and null mice. Supporting our working hypothesis both adult PPARgamma haplo-insufficient and null mice show delayed thymic senescence by thymus histology, thymocyte mouse T-cell recombination excision circle qPCR and peripheral blood naive T-cell ratio by flow-cytometry. Delayed senescence showed dose-response with respect to PPARgamma deficiency. Functional immune parameters were also evaluated at senior ages in PPARgamma haplo-insufficient mice (null mice do not reach senior ages due to metabolic adverse affects). As expected, sustained and elevated T-cell production conferred oral tolerance and enhanced vaccination efficiency in senior PPARgamma haplo-insufficient, but not in senior wild-type littermates according to ELISA IgG measurements. Of note, humans also show increased oral intolerance issues and decreased protection by vaccines at senior ages. Moreover, PPARgamma haplo-insufficiency also exists in human known as a rare disease (FPLD3) causing metabolic adverse effects, similar to the mouse. When compared to age- and metabolic disorder-matched other patient samples (FPLD2 not affecting PPARgamma activity), FPLD3 patients showed increased human Trec (hTrec) values by qPCR (within healthy human range) suggesting delayed thymic senescence, in accordance with mouse results and supporting our working hypothesis. In summary, our experiments prove that systemic decrease of PPARgamma activity prevents thymic senescence, albeit with metabolic drawbacks. However, thymic tissue-specific PPARgamma antagonism would likely solve the issue.
Project description:XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging caused by deficiency in the DNA repair endonuclease XPF-ERCC1, is modeled by Ercc1 knockout and hypomorphic mice. Tissues and primary cells from these mice senesce prematurely, offering a unique opportunity to identify factors that regulate senescence and aging. We compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in Ercc1-/- primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and wild-type (WT) MEFs in different growth conditions to identify miRNAs that drive cellular senescence. Microarray analysis showed three differentially expressed miRNAs in passage 7 (P7) Ercc1-/- MEFs grown at 20% O2 compared to Ercc1-/- MEFs grown at 3% O2. Thirty-six differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in Ercc1-/- MEFs at P7 compared to early passage (P3) in 3% O2. Eight of these miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455*, miR-128, miR-497, miR-543, miR-450b-3p, miR-872 and miR-10b) were similarly downregulated in the liver of progeroid Ercc1-/? and old WT mice compared to adult WT mice, a tissue that senesces with aging. Three miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455* and miR-128) were also downregulated in Ercc1-/? and WT old mice kidneys compared to young WT mice. We also discovered that the miRNA expression regulator Dicer is significantly downregulated in tissues of old mice and late passage cells compared to young controls. Collectively these results support the conclusion that the miRNAs identified may play an important role in staving off cellular senescence and their altered expression could be indicative of aging.