Biobased chiral semi-crystalline or amorphous high-performance polyamides and their scalable stereoselective synthesis.
ABSTRACT: The use of renewable feedstock is one of the twelve key principles of sustainable chemistry. Unfortunately, bio-based compounds often suffer from high production cost and low performance. To fully tap the potential of natural compounds it is important to utilize their functionalities that could make them superior compared to fossil-based resources. Here we show the conversion of (+)-3-carene, a by-product of the cellulose industry into ?-lactams from which polyamides. The lactams are selectively prepared in two diastereomeric configurations, leading to semi-crystalline or amorphous, transparent polymers that can compete with the thermal properties of commercial high-performance polyamides. Copolyamides with caprolactam and laurolactam exhibit an increased glass transition and amorphicity compared to the homopolyamides, potentially broadening the scope of standard polyamides. A four-step one-vessel monomer synthesis, applying chemo-enzymatic catalysis for the initial oxidation step, is established. The great potential of the polyamides is outlined.
Project description:We prepared high-performance aromatic copolyamides, containing bithiazole and thiazolo-thiazole groups in their main chain, from aromatic diamines and isophthaloyl chloride, to further improve the prominent thermal behavior and exceptional mechanical properties of commercial aramid fibers. The introduction of these groups leads to aramids with improved strength and moduli compared to commercial meta-oriented aromatic polyamides, together with an increase of their thermal performance. Moreover, their solubility, water uptake, and optical properties were evaluated in this work.
Project description:The biodistribution profiles in mice of two pyrrole-imidazole polyamides were determined by PET. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are a class of small molecules that can be programmed to bind a broad repertoire of DNA sequences, disrupt transcription factor-DNA interfaces, and modulate gene expression pathways in cell culture experiments. The (18)F-radiolabeled polyamides were prepared by oxime ligation between 4-[(18)F]-fluorobenzaldehyde and a hydroxylamine moiety at the polyamide C terminus. Small animal PET imaging of radiolabeled polyamides administered to mice revealed distinct differences in the biodistribution of a 5-ring beta-linked polyamide versus an 8-ring hairpin, which exhibited better overall bioavailability. In vivo imaging of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides by PET is a minimum first step toward the translation of polyamide-based gene regulation from cell culture to small animal studies.
Project description:Hairpin pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are a class of cell-permeable DNA-binding small molecules that can disrupt transcription factor-DNA binding and regulate endogenous gene expression. The covalent linkage of antiparallel Py-Im ring pairs with an gamma-amino acid turn unit affords the classical hairpin Py-Im polyamide structure. Closing the hairpin with a second turn unit yields a cyclic polyamide, a lesser-studied architecture mainly attributable to synthetic inaccessibility. We have applied our methodology for solution-phase polyamide synthesis to cyclic polyamides with an improved high-yield cyclization step. Cyclic 8-ring Py-Im polyamides 1-3 target the DNA sequence 5'-WGWWCW-3', which corresponds to the androgen response element (ARE) bound by the androgen receptor transcription factor to modulate gene expression. We find that cyclic Py-Im polyamides 1-3 bind DNA with exceptionally high affinities and regulate the expression of AR target genes in cell culture studies, from which we infer that the cycle is cell permeable.
Project description:Thiolactone ring opening and disulfide-thiol exchange were rationally coupled to develop a cascaded step-growth polymerization methodology for preparation of degradable polyamides. A variety of functionalities can be readily incorporated on to these polyamides by pre- and post-polymerization reactions. The polymers can be degraded into small molecules in the presence of biologically relevant reducing agents via backbone degradation, the kinetics of which is tunable. In addition to the redox-based chemical stimulus, the polyamides are also sensitive to light and enzymes, thus exhibiting concurrent sensitivity to chemical, physical, and biological stimuli.
Project description:This research focuses on the preparation of biobased copolyamides containing biacetalized galactaric acid (GalX), namely, 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactaric acid (GalXMe) and 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylene-galactaric acid (GalXH), in bulk by melt polycondensation of salt monomers. In order to allow the incorporation of temperature-sensitive sugar-derived building blocks into copolyamides at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the monomers and below their melting temperatures, a clever selection of salt monomers is required, such that the sugar-derived salt monomer dissolves in the other salt monomers. The polymerization was investigated by temperature dependent FT-IR and optical microscopy. The structure of the obtained copolyamides was elucidated by NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) techniques. The positive outcome of this modified polycondensation method depends on the solubility of sugar-derived polyamide salts in polyamide salts of comonomers and the difference between their melting temperatures, however does not depend on the melting temperature of the used sugar-derived monomer. A variety of comonomers was screened in order to establish the underlying mechanisms of the process.
Project description:Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) hairpin polyamides are a class of programmable, sequence-specific DNA binding oligomers capable of disrupting protein-DNA interactions and modulating gene expression in living cells. Methods to control the cellular uptake and nuclear localization of these compounds are essential to their application as molecular probes or therapeutic agents. Here, we explore modifications of the hairpin ?-aminobutyric acid turn unit as a means to enhance cellular uptake and biological activity. Remarkably, introduction of a simple aryl group at the turn potentiates the biological effects of a polyamide targeting the sequence 5'-WGWWCW-3' (W =A/T) by up to two orders of magnitude. Confocal microscopy and quantitative flow cytometry analysis suggest this enhanced potency is due to increased nuclear uptake. Finally, we explore the generality of this approach and find that aryl-turn modifications enhance the uptake of all polyamides tested, while having a variable effect on the upper limit of polyamide nuclear accumulation. Overall this provides a step forward for controlling the intracellular concentration of Py-Im polyamides that will prove valuable for future applications in which biological potency is essential.
Project description:A hairpin polyamide-chlorambucil conjugate linked by alpha-diaminobutyric acid (alpha-DABA) has been shown to have interesting biological properties in cellular and small animal models. Remarkably, this new class of hairpin polyamides has not been previously characterized with regard to energetics and sequence specificity. Herein we present a series of pyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamides linked by alpha-DABA and compare them to polyamides containing the standard gamma-DABA turn unit. The alpha-DABA hairpins have overall decreased binding affinities. However, alpha-DABA polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates are sequence-specific DNA alkylators with increased specificities. Affinity cleavage studies of alpha-DABA polyamide-EDTA conjugates confirmed their preference for binding DNA in a forward hairpin conformation. In contrast, an unsubstituted glycine-linked polyamide prefers to bind in an extended binding mode. Thus, substitution on the turn unit locks the alpha-DABA polyamide into the forward hairpin binding motif.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases. There currently are no approved antiviral drugs for HPV that directly decrease viral DNA load and that have low toxicity. We report the potent anti-HPV activity of two N-methylpyrrole-imidazole polyamides of the hairpin type, polyamide 1 (PA1) and polyamide 25 (PA25). Both polyamides have potent anti-HPV activity against three different genotypes when tested on cells maintaining HPV episomes. The compounds were tested against HPV16 (in W12 cells), HPV18 (in Ker4-18 cells), and HPV31 (in HPV31 maintaining cells). From a library of polyamides designed to recognize AT-rich DNA sequences such as those in or near E1 or E2 binding sites of the HPV16 origin of replication (ori), four polyamides were identified that possessed apparent IC(50)s?150nM with no evidence of cytotoxicity. We report two highly-active compounds here. Treatment of epithelia engineered in organotypic cultures with these compounds also causes a dose-dependent loss of HPV episomal DNA that correlates with accumulation of compounds in the nucleus. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation demonstrates that DNA synthesis in organotypic cultures is suppressed upon compound treatment, correlating with a loss of HPV16 and HPV18 episomes. PA1 and PA25 are currently in preclinical development as antiviral compounds for treatment of HPV-related disease, including cervical dysplasia. PA1, PA25, and related polyamides offer promise as antiviral agents and as tools to regulate HPV episomal levels in cells for the study of HPV biology. We also report that anti-HPV16 activity for Distamycin A, a natural product related to our polyamides, is accompanied by significant cellular toxicity.
Project description:Azobenzenes are photoswitchable molecules capable of generating significant structural changes upon E-to-Z photoisomerization in peptides or small molecules, thereby controlling geometry and functionality. E-to-Z photoisomerization usually is achieved upon irradiation at 350 nm (?-?* transition), while the Z-to-E isomerization proceeds photochemically upon irradiation at >400 nm (n-?* transition) or thermally. Photoswitchable compounds have frequently been employed as modules, e.g., to control protein-DNA interactions. However, their use in conjunction with minor groove-binding imidazole/pyrrole (Im/Py) polyamides is yet unprecedented. Dervan-type Im/Py polyamides were equipped with an azobenzene unit, i.e., 3-(3-(aminomethyl)phenyl)azophenylacetic acid, as the linker between two Im/Py polyamide strands. Only the (Z)-azobenzene-containing polyamides bound to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA hairpins. Photoisomerization was exemplarily evaluated by 1H NMR experiments, while minor groove binding of the (Z)-azobenzene derivatives was proven by CD titration experiments. The resulting induced circular dichroism (ICD) bands of the bound ligands, together with the photometric determination of the dsDNA melting temperature, revealed a significant stabilization of the DNA upon association with the ligand. The (Z)-azobenzene acted as a building block inducing a reverse turn, which favored hydrogen bonds between the pyrrole/imidazole amide and the DNA bases. In contrast, the E-configured polyamides did not induce any ICD characteristic for minor groove binding. The incorporation of the photoswitchable azobenzene unit is a promising strategy to obtain photoswitchable Im/Py hairpin polyamides capable of interacting with the dsDNA minor groove only in the Z-configuration.
Project description:Groove specificity: pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are well-known for their specific interactions with the minor groove of DNA. However, polyamides do not show similar binding to duplex RNA, and a structural rationale for the molecular-level discrimination of nucleic acid duplexes by minor-groove-binding ligands is presented.