Sex Disparity in Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine Related to the Age of Vaccination.
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major infectious hazards for health-care workers (HCWs) because of the frequency of percutaneous exposures to blood or body fluids. For this reason, all HCWs should be vaccinated, including students in medicine and health professional degree programs. The aim of this study was to assess the immune coverage to anti-HBV vaccine and long-lasting protective titres of anti-HBs antibodies in female and male students to evaluate gender-related differences in response to HBV vaccination. Data relative to anti-HBs antibody titre, sex, age, and age at vaccination were collected and analyzed from 5291 Italian students (1812 males and 3479 females) of the graduate courses at the School of Medicine, who underwent the mandatory health surveillance of workers exposed to biological risk. The results indicated that gender affects the immune response to HBV vaccine, particularly evident in the case of females vaccinated after one year of age who exhibited a statistically significant (p = 0.0023) 1.21-fold increase in median antibody titre with respect to males. Our findings could contribute to the optimization of HBV vaccination schedules in health surveillance of HCWs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HBV vaccine is known to offer protection against transmission of HBV infection. Health care workers are mandated to have this vaccination as part of their occupational health safety measures. Post vaccination response data for HCWs in our setting is not available. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the anti-HBs titre levels after Hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs from selected heath facilities in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. METHODS:A multicenter (3 selected sites) analytical cross-sectional study involving 711 HCWs was conducted. Five (5mls) of blood samples were collected from each study participant and the serum used for HBV immunological profile testing anti-HBs quantification by ELISA test (Fortress Diagnostics Limited, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom). Data analyses were performed using Stata version 14.0 software (STATA Corp, Texas USA). RESULTS:The median age of participants was 29 years (IQR = 26-35 years). Majority (80.9%, n = 575) took their vaccination from Government health facilities compared with 19.1% (n = 136) from private vaccination sources. A total of 7 (3 males and 4 females) were found to be HBsAg positive giving prevalence of 1%. In all, 8.2% (n = 58) of the HCWs had anti-HBs titre levels <10IU/ml giving a sero-protection rate of 91.8%. HCWs who received 3 doses of HBV vaccine were more likely to be sero-protected as compared to those who received only one dose in multivariate analysis (aOR = 3.39, 95%CI: 1.08-10.67), p<0.037). Gender, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with sero-protection. CONCLUSION:There is a high HBV vaccine efficacy among HCWs in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana with higher prevalence of anti-HBs titre level associated with full vaccine dose adherence. Post vaccination antibody titre determination could be an integral part of HBV vaccination protocol for HCWs in Ghana.
Project description:Healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered high-risk subjects for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection due to occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Vaccination represents the core strategy for HBV infection prevention. Following our previous publication on this topic, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of booster vaccine doses in eliciting the immunological response in seronegative (<10 mIU/mL) HCWs and students of Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence (Italy). All subjects received primary vaccination course, and they were tested for serum anti-HBs antibodies. In seronegative subjects, a challenge dose of vaccine was administered and the test was repeated 1 month later. Six hundred and ninety-eight (87.8%) of 795 HCWs and students tested responded to the challenge dose. After this challenge dose, males more often had negative anti-HBs titer compared with females (15.9% vs 10.2%; p < .05). The completion of the second vaccination course was offered to subjects with persistently negative anti-HBs titer. 76.2% (32) of those who accepted the fifth dose, and 3 of the 5 who accepted the sixth dose seroconverted. This report shows the importance to convey a strong message to negative subjects at the initial anti-HBs dosage: accepting all the three additional vaccine doses allows the vast majority of them to obtain protection.
Project description:Global implementation of a birth-dose hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has significantly reduced the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Durable and sufficient titers of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are desirable for vaccinees to gain resistance to HBV exposure. However, the existence of primary nonresponders and vaccinees who lost anti-HBs over time remains a challenge for the strategy of HBV elimination. We thus aim to clarify the mechanisms of acquisition and maintenance of vaccine-induced anti-HBs in healthy adults. We retrospectively analyzed the vaccination records of 3,755 first-time HB-vaccinated students and also traced the acquired antibody transition of 392 first-time vaccinees for 10 consecutive years. To understand the cellular and humoral immune response, we prospectively examined peripheral blood from 47 healthy first-time HB-vaccinated students, 62 booster-vaccinated health care workers, and 20 individuals who maintained their anti-HBs. In responders, a significant increase of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, activated plasmablasts, and plasma cells was observed in first-time-vaccinated but not booster-vaccinated persons. We also discovered memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells were more abundant in individuals who maintained anti-HBs. According to vaccination records, higher anti-HBs antibody titer acquisition was related to the longer term maintenance of anti-HBs, the level of which was positively correlated with prevaccination levels of serum interferon-γ and related chemokines. The second series of vaccination as a booster provided significantly higher anti-HBs antibody titers compared to the initial series. Conclusion: Coordinated activation of Tfh and B-cell lineages after HB vaccination is involved in the acquisition and maintenance of anti-HBs. Our findings support the rationale of preconditioning the immune status of recipients to ensure durable vaccine responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented by vaccination with HB surface (HBs) antigen, which induces HBs-specific antibodies and T cells. However, the duration of vaccine-induced protective immunity is poorly defined for health care workers who were vaccinated as adults. METHODS:We investigated the immune mechanisms (antibody and T-cell responses) of long-term protection by the HBV vaccine in 90 health care workers with or without occupational exposure to HBV, 10-28 years after vaccination. RESULTS:Fifty-nine of 90 health care workers (65%) had levels of antibodies to HBs antigen above the cut-off (>12 mIU/mL) and 30 of 90 (33%) had HBs-specific T cells that produced interferon-gamma. Titers of antibodies to HBs antigen correlated with numbers of HBs-specific interferon-gamma-producing T cells, but not with time after vaccination. Although occupational exposure to HBV after vaccination did not induce antibodies to the HBV core protein (HBcore), the standard biomarker for HBV infection, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells against HBcore and polymerase antigens were detected. Similar numbers of HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV and in patients who acquired immunity via HBV infection. Most of the HBcore- and polymerase-specific T cells were CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD127(-) effector memory cells in exposed health care workers and in patients with acquired immunity. In contrast, most of the vaccine-induced HBs-specific T cells were CD45RO(-)CCR7(-)CD127(-) terminally differentiated cells. CONCLUSIONS:HBs antigen vaccine-induced immunity protects against future infection but does not provide sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinated health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV. The presence of HBcore- and HBV polymerase-specific T-cell responses is a more sensitive indicator of HBV exposure than detection of HBcore-specific antibodies.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Health-care workers' (HCWs) exposure to bodily fluids puts them at risk of hepatitis B virus HBV infection. This study investigated HBV vaccination practices and outcomes in HCWs and assessed postvaccination seroprotection across HCWs in different departments. METHODS:A survey of HCWs in a Chinese public general hospital was carried out with a retrospective cohort of 1420 hospital HCWs (458 males and 962 females). HBV vaccination status (10-?g/dose used) was investigated in the cohort from vaccination records from the period of 1988 to 2008. Blood samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV antibodies (anti-HBs). RESULTS:The overall vaccination (complete course) and HBsAg carrier rates among HCWs were 40.42 % (574/1420) and 6.13 % (87/1420), respectively. Vaccination rates differed by department, with HCWs in internal medicine (39.5 %) and emergency (42.0 %) departments having particularly low rates. The natural infection rate was 7.53 % (107/1420) among HCWs. HCWs in the department of infectious diseases (vaccination rate, 57.8 %) had the highest rate of antibody produced by natural infection (88.2 %). CONCLUSION:The vaccination rate was a disappointingly low among HCWs in Pearl River Delta Area of China. HCWs working in infectious diseases departments and technicians were at particularly likely to have been infected with HBV. A concerted effort is needed to bring vaccination rates up among Chinese HCWs in Pearl River Delta Area of southern China.
Project description:Follow-up studies of recipients of hepatitis B vaccine from endemic areas have reported loss of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in a high proportion of persons vaccinated at birth. In contrast, the long-term durability of antibody in persons vaccinated as adults in nonendemic areas is not well defined. We aimed to assess the durability of anti-HBs among healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated as adults and response to a booster among those without protective levels of antibody.Adult HCWs aged 18-60 at the time of initial vaccination were recruited. All were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and anti-HBs level. HCWs with anti-HBs <12 mIU/mL were offered a booster and levels were measured 1, 7, and 21 days afterward.Anti-HBs levels were <12 mIU/mL in 9 of 50 (18%), 13 of 50 (26%), and 14 of 59 (24%) HCWs 10-15, 16-20, and >20 years postvaccination, respectively, (P = ns). Four HCWs were anti-HBc positive; none had HBsAg. By logistic regression, older age at vaccination was the only predictor of inadequate anti-HBs level (P = .0005). Thirty-four of 36 subjects with inadequate anti-HBs levels received a booster and 32 (94%) developed levels >12 mIU/mL within 3 weeks.Anti-HBs levels decrease after 10-31 years and fall below a level considered protective in approximately 25% of cases. The rapid and robust response to a booster vaccine suggests a long-lasting amnestic response. Hepatitis B vaccination provides long-term protection against hepatitis B and booster vaccination does not appear to be necessary in HCWs. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01182311.
Project description:Cytokines, involved in the T-helper 1 system, play a role in the regulation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and the immune response to HBV antigens during natural infection or planned vaccination. Our aim was to examine whether the polymorphic variants of IL-12 are equally associated with development of antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients in the case of HBV vaccination or HBV infection. The IL-12A rs568408 and IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to anti-HBs development in 602 HD patients with negative antibodies to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) who were hepatitis B vaccinated (group I) as well as in 237 anti-HBc positive HD patients who were infected with HBV in the past (group II). In group I, 199 patients did not develop an anti-HBs titre >10 IU/L (subgroup Ia), whereas in group II, 55 patients did not develop an anti-HBs titre >10 IU/L (subgroup IIa). Patients of groups I and II that developed an anti-HBs >10 IU/L were included into subgroups Ib and IIb, respectively. In hepatitis B vaccinated HD patients, development of a protective anti-HBs titre was positively associated with vintage of renal replacement therapy (RRT), chronic glomerulonephritis as a cause of RRT, and GA rs 568408 IL-12A (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.0-2.5, P = 0.035), but a frequency distribution of this genotype between responders and non-responders was not significant when the Bonferroni correction was applied. In HBV infected HD patients, anti-HBs development was positively associated with AC rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 8.0, 95 % CI 2.6-24.9, P < 0.001), whereas HBsAg positivity, AA rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.1-0.7, P = 0.007), and CC rs3212227 IL-12B (OR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.03-0.6, P = 0.011) were negative predictors of positive anti-HBs phenotype. When the Bonferroni correction was applied, if appropriate, these associations remained significant. In HD patients, the studied IL-12 polymorphic variants seem to be associated with the anti-HBs phenotype (a) with borderline significance for IL-12A in hepatitis B vaccinated patients, and (b) significantly for IL-12B in patients who underwent natural HBV infection.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered highly prevalent in West Africa. However, major gaps in surveillance exist in Sierra Leone. Although healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for HBV infection, little is known about the prevalence and knowledge of hepatitis B among HCWs in Sierra Leone.A cross-sectional study of all HCWs at the No. 34 Military Hospital located in Freetown, Sierra Leone, was conducted from March 20 to April 10, 2017. Whole blood was collected and screened for HBV markers using a one-step rapid immunochromatographic test with positive samples tested for HBV DNA. Additionally, questionnaires assessing self-reported knowledge of HBV infections were administered to all participants. Data were processed and analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0) software.A total of 211 HCWs were included in this study with a median age of 39.0 years (range: 18-59). Of the participating HCWs, 172 (81.5%) participants were susceptible (all markers negative), 21(10.0%) were current HBV (HBsAg positive) and nine (4.3%) were considered immune because of past infection (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive; anti-HBs positive). Additionally, nine (4.3%) participants displayed immunity to the virus as a result of prior hepatitis B vaccination (only anti-HBs positive). Of the 21 HCWs with positive HBsAg, 13 (61.9%) had detectable HBV DNA. There was a significantly lower risk for current HBV infection among HCWs older than 39 years (OR 0.337, p?=?0.046). In addition, only 14 (6.6%), 73 (34.6%) and 82 (38.9%) participants in this survey had adequate knowledge about the clinical outcome, routes of transmission, and correct preventive measures of HBV infection, respectively.HCWs in Sierra Leone lacked adequate knowledge of the hepatitis B virus. Additionally, the low coverage rate of hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs fails to meet WHO recommendations, leaving many of the sampled HCWs susceptible to infection. This study reaffirms the need for more intensive training for HCWs in addition to strengthening vaccination programmes to protect HCWs against HBV in Sierra Leone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HBV infection affects about 257 million people globally and Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest burden. The disease still constitutes a major public health problem despite the advent of preventive measures like the HBV vaccine. This study was aimed at identifying factors that influence vaccine uptake and the efficacy of administered vaccines among people at high risk of HBV infection. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January 2016 and December 2017. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to capture information on sociodemographic and vaccination status from healthcare workers, household and sexual contacts to HBV infected people. HBV serological panel as well as quantitative anti-HBs ELISA test was done for all participants. Additional information was obtained from the institutions that administered the vaccines. RESULTS:A total of 265 participants with a mean age of 32.1±8.7 were enrolled. Eighty (30.2%) of them had received at least 1 dose of the HBV vaccine while 185 (69.8%) were unvaccinated. Healthcare workers were the most vaccinated (37%). Ignorance, negligence, fear of injection and the cost of the vaccine all contributed to poor vaccine uptake in the study population. Natural immunity was seen in 9 (3.4%) of the participants. Only 64.9% of the vaccinated participants attained the desirable level of anti-HBs (?10mIU/ml) 1-2 months after ? 3 doses of the vaccine. Age, gender, obesity, alcohol and smoking were not significantly associated with poor immune responses. No standardized protocol was followed by the institutions administering the vaccine. CONCLUSION:This study revealed very poor vaccine uptake and poor immune responses to the HBV vaccine in the study population and this should urge the health sector in Cameroon to intensify their sensitization on HBV vaccine, standardize the protocol for storing and administering the vaccine, subsidize the cost of the vaccine especially amongst healthcare workers and encourage anti-HBs post vaccination testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to numerous blood exposures hospital staff are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of HBV, associated risk factors and HBV vaccination among Polish health care workers (HCWs). METHODS:A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted (October 2016-January 2018) in 10 randomly selected hospitals from two provinces: of low and high incidence of HBV, with the use of an anonymous, self- administered questionnaire. Blood samples were screened for hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) with enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS:Of the 306 participating HCWs, 88.6% were females, 69.9% nurses (mean age 47.8?±?9.0?years). HBV vaccination was reported by 94.2%, participants (4.7% with 2 doses, 58.1% with 3 doses, 37.2% took a booster), but of these 75.1% reported no post-immunization serology. The sero-prevalence of anti-HBc was 12.1% (95%CI 8.4-15.7%); only 11.1% had ever screened themselves for HBV infection. Out of 37 anti-HBc positive HCWs, 29 reported being vaccinated for HBV; 10.5% vaccinated HCWs were anti-HBc positive. Regarding other occupational risk factors, 27.8% had experienced a sharp injury (SI) in the last year, 80.0% of incidents were not reported. The use of safety devices (SD) was 86.3%; 35.9% participants used to recap a needle. Older age (OR?=?4.24), lack of HBV vaccination (OR?=?7.42), working at the province of high HBV incidence in the general population (OR?=?2.69) were each predictors of participant's HBV infection. CONCLUSIONS:High anti-HBc seroprevalence was found in hospital staff with older generation particularly constituting a risk group. Unsatisfactory vaccination coverage and the use of SDs, needle recapping and under-reporting of SIs were main modifiable risk factors regarding HBV infection. The study provides evidence of the protective role of HBV vaccine, as well as the possible effect of HBV incidence in the general population on HCW's anti-HBc seropositivity. Universal vaccination, followed by strict policies to confirm immunity, better compliance with infection-control practices and widespread implementation of SDs should be enforced to protect hospital staff from occupationally acquired HBV infections.