Advances in the Development of Pharmacological Chaperones for the Mucopolysaccharidoses.
ABSTRACT: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of 11 lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) produced by mutations in the enzymes involved in the lysosomal catabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Most of the mutations affecting these enzymes may lead to changes in processing, folding, glycosylation, pH stability, protein aggregation, and defective transport to the lysosomes. It this sense, it has been proposed that the use of small molecules, called pharmacological chaperones (PCs), can restore the folding, trafficking, and biological activity of mutated enzymes. PCs have the advantages of wide tissue distribution, potential oral administration, lower production cost, and fewer issues of immunogenicity than enzyme replacement therapy. In this paper, we will review the advances in the identification and characterization of PCs for the MPS. These molecules have been described for MPS II, IVA, and IVB, showing a mutation-dependent enhancement of the mutated enzymes. Although the results show the potential of this strategy, further studies should focus in the development of disease-specific cellular models that allow a proper screening and evaluation of PCs. In addition, in vivo evaluation, both pre-clinical and clinical, should be performed, before they can become a real therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MPS patients.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes, leading to a wide range of various clinical symptoms depending upon the type of MPS or its severity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), substrate reduction therapy (SRT), and various surgical procedures are currently available for patients with MPS. However, there is no curative treatment for this group of disorders. Gene therapy should be a one-time permanent therapy, repairing the cause of enzyme deficiency. Preclinical studies of gene therapy for MPS have been developed over the past three decades. Currently, clinical trials of gene therapy for some types of MPS are ongoing in the United States, some European countries, and Australia. Here, in this review, we summarize the development of gene therapy for MPS in preclinical and clinical trials.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Hearing loss is a common clinical presentation in MPS. This paper reviews the literature on hearing loss for each of the seven recognized subtypes of MPS. Hearing loss was found to be common in MPS I, II, III, IVA, VI, and VII, and absent from MPS IVB and MPS IX. MPS VI presents primarily with conductive hearing loss, while the other subtypes (MPS I, MPS II, MPS III, MPS IVA, and MPS VII) can present with any type of hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing loss). The sensorineural component develops as the disease progresses, but there is no consensus on the etiology of the sensorineural component. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the most common therapy utilized for MPS, but the effects of ERT on hearing function have been inconclusive. This review highlights a need for more comprehensive and multidisciplinary research on hearing function that includes behavioral testing, objective testing, and temporal bone imaging. This information would allow for better understanding of the progression and etiology of hearing loss. Owing to the prevalence of hearing loss in MPS, early diagnosis of hearing loss and annual comprehensive audiological evaluations are recommended.
Project description:Different approaches have been utilized or proposed for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) including enzyme replacement and hematopoietic stem cell transplant therapies, both aiming to compensate for the enzymatic loss of the underlying mutated lysosomal enzymes. However, these approaches have their own limitations and therefore the vast majority of LSDs are either still untreatable or their treatments are inadequate. Missense mutations affecting enzyme stability, folding and cellular trafficking are common in LSDs resulting often in low protein half-life, premature degradation, aggregation and retention of the mutant proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Small molecular weight compounds such as pharmaceutical chaperones (PCs) and proteostasis regulators have been in recent years to be promising approaches for overcoming some of these protein processing defects. These compounds are thought to enhance lysosomal enzyme activity by specific binding to the mutated enzyme or by manipulating components of the proteostasis pathways promoting protein stability, folding and trafficking and thus enhancing and restoring some of the enzymatic activity of the mutated protein in lysosomes. Multiple compounds have already been approved for clinical use to treat multiple LSDs like migalastat in the treatment of Fabry disease and others are currently under research or in clinical trials such as Ambroxol hydrochloride and Pyrimethamine. In this review, we are presenting a general overview of LSDs, their molecular and cellular bases, and focusing on recent advances on targeting and manipulation proteostasis, including the use of PCs and proteostasis regulators, as therapeutic targets for some LSDs. In addition, we present the successes, limitations and future perspectives in this field.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are genetic, progressive, lysosomal storage disorders affecting virtually all organs and systems. The first MPS were clinically identified about 100 years ago. Nowadays, the enzyme defects and related genes are known for all 11 different enzyme defects. Treatments are available for many MPS but these have only partial efficacy, especially when started late. The problems to solve are: 1) the need for an earlier diagnosis (neonatal screening? improving the awareness of physicians?); 2) prompt access to therapies; 3) improving the efficacy of the available treatments; 4) finding new treatments; and 5) the availability of specialist experts in MPS who can meet the traditional needs of MPS patients. This introduction to the IJP Supplement on MPS is a brief comment on the different papers accepted for this volume, which are in turn the elaboration of the lectures given at a meeting on the future of mucopolysaccharidoses held in Milan on 8-9 May 2017.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations leading to defective degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their accumulation in cells. Among 11 known types and subtypes of MPS, neuronopathy occurs in seven (MPS I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, IIID, VII). Brain dysfunctions, occurring in these seven types/subtypes include various behavioral disorders. Intriguingly, behavioral symptoms are significantly different between patients suffering from various MPS types. Molecular base of such differences remains unknown. Here, we asked if expression of genes considered as connected to behavior (based on Gene Ontology, GO terms) is changed in MPS. Using cell lines of all MPS types, we have performed transcriptomic (RNA-seq) studies and assessed expression of genes involved in behavior. We found significant differences between MPS types in this regard, with the most severe changes in MPS IIIA (the type considered as the behaviorally most severely affected), while the lowest changes in MPS IVA and MPS VI (types in which little or no behavioral disorders are known). Intriguingly, relatively severe changes were found also in MPS IVB (in which, despite no behavioral disorder noted, the same gene is mutated as in GM1 gangliosidosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease) and MPS IX (in which only a few patients were described to date, thus, behavioral problems are not well recognized). More detailed analyses of expression of certain genes allowed us to propose an association of specific changes in the levels of transcripts in specific MPS types to certain behavioral disorders observed in patients. Therefore, this work provides a principle for further studies on the molecular mechanism of behavioral changes occurring in MPS patients.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses type IIIA (MPS-IIIA) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by inherited defects of the sulphamidase gene. Here, we used a systemic gene transfer approach to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of a chimeric sulphamidase, which was engineered by adding the signal peptide (sp) from the highly secreted iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-binding domain (BD) from the Apolipoprotein B (ApoB-BD). A single intravascular administration of AAV2/8 carrying the modified sulphamidase was performed in adult MPS-IIIA mice in order to target the liver and convert it to a factory organ for sustained systemic release of the modified sulphamidase. We showed that while the IDS sp replacement results in increased enzyme secretion, the addition of the ApoB-BD allows efficient BBB transcytosis and restoration of sulphamidase activity in the brain of treated mice. This, in turn, resulted in an overall improvement of brain pathology and recovery of a normal behavioural phenotype. Our results provide a novel feasible strategy to develop minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of brain pathology in MPS-IIIA and other neurodegenerative LSDs.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes needed to catabolize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Four therapeutic options are currently considered: enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, gene therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, while some of them exhibit limited clinical efficacy and require high costs, others are still in development. Therefore, alternative treatments for MPSs need to be explored. Here we describe an innovative therapeutic approach based on the use of a recombinant protein that is able to bind the excess of extracellular accumulated heparan sulfate (HS). We demonstrate that this protein is able to reduce lysosomal defects in primary fibroblasts from MPS I and MPS IIIB patients. We also show that, by masking the excess of extracellular accumulated HS in MPS fibroblasts, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction can be positively modulated. We, therefore, suggest the use of a competitive binding molecule for HS in MPSs as an alternative strategy to prevent the detrimental extracellular substrate storage.
Project description:Enzyme replacement therapy is currently considered the standard of care for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) type I, II, VI, and IV. This approach has shown substantial efficacy mainly on somatic symptoms of the patients, but no benefit was found for other clinical manifestations, such as neurological involvement. New strategies are currently being tested to address these limitations, in particular to obtain sufficient therapeutic levels in the brain. Intrathecal delivery of recombinant enzymes or chimeric enzymes represent promising approaches in this respect. Further innovation will likely be introduced by the recent advancements in the knowledge of lysosomal biology and function. It is now clear that the clinical manifestations of MPS are not only the direct effects of storage, but also derive from a cascade of secondary events that lead to dysfunction of several cellular processes and pathways. Some of these pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets and allow for development of novel or adjunctive therapies for these disorders.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are rare lysosomal storage diseases caused by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans in cells and tissues. The effectiveness of early intervention for MPS has been reported. Multiple-assay formats using tandem mass spectrometry have been developed. Here, we developed a method for simultaneous preparation and better measurement of the activities of five enzymes involved in MPSs, i.e., MPS I, MPS II, MPS IIIB, MPS IVA, and MPS VI, which were validated using 672 dried blood spot samples obtained from healthy newborns and 23 patients with MPS. The mean values of the enzyme activities and standard deviations in controls were as follows: ?-iduronidase (IDUA), 4.19 ± 1.53 µM/h; iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), 8.39 ± 2.82 µM/h; N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase (NAGLU), 1.96 ± 0.57 µM/h; N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), 0.50 ± 0.20 µM/h; and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB), 2.64 ± 1.01 µM/h. All patients displayed absent or low enzyme activity. In MPS I, IIIB, and VI, each patient group was clearly separated from controls, whereas there was some overlap between the control and patient groups in MPS II and IVA, suggesting the occurrence of pseudo-deficiencies. Thus, we established a multiplex assay for newborn screening using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, allowing simultaneous pretreatment and measurement of five enzymes relevant to MPSs.
Project description:The recent advancements in the knowledge of lysosomal biology and function have translated into an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). The concept that MPS manifestations are direct consequences of lysosomal engorgement with undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) has been challenged by new information on the multiple biological roles of GAGs and by a new vision of the lysosome as a signaling hub involved in many critical cellular functions. MPS pathophysiology is now seen as the result of a complex cascade of secondary events that lead to dysfunction of several cellular processes and pathways, such as abnormal composition of membranes and its impact on vesicle fusion and trafficking; secondary storage of substrates; impairment of autophagy; impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress; dysregulation of signaling pathways. The characterization of this cascade of secondary cellular events is critical to better understand the pathophysiology of MPS clinical manifestations. In addition, some of these pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets and allow for the development of new therapies for these disorders.