Temporal Trends and Recent Correlates in Sedentary Behaviors among Chinese Adults from 2002 to 2010-2012.
ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that more time spent in sedentary behaviors (SB) increases health risk independent of physical activities. Trends in SB among adults have not been fully described in China, and the sociodemographic correlates of SB have not been systematically evaluated either. This study examined the temporal trends of SB among 184,257 adults (2002: n = 52,697, 2010-2012: n = 131,560) using data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 and 2010-2012, and analyzed the recent correlates of SB in Chinese adults. Overall, an increase (+0.29 h/d) was seen in total SB across the survey years, and there was a slight increase (+0.14 h/d) in leisure time SB and a decrease (-0.39 h/d) in occupational SB. From 2002 to 2012, the proportion of Chinese adults whose total SB time over 4 h/d increased from 35.4% to 43.0%, and the proportion of leisure SB time over 3 h/d increased from 42.0% to 48.0%, and the proportion of occupational SB time over 4 h/d decreased from 63.4% to 53.0%. Male, urban areas, employed, unmarried, and with higher educational and family economic level were all positively associated with high sedentary time (HST) in 2010-2012. These trends and correlates are important for health policy in China and other countries that are facing similar challenges.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have used nationally representative data to describe dietary trends and the related cardiometabolic mortality burden in China. Thus, we aimed to characterise the trends in disease-related dietary factors as well as their associated disease burden among Chinese adults from 1982 to 2012. METHODS:For this cross-sectional population-based study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of 204?802 adults aged 20 years or older, using data from the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-12 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS). We did a comparative risk assessment, in which the effects of suboptimal intakes of 12 dietary factors, individually and collectively, on cardiometabolic mortality were estimated by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) to estimate the proportional reduction in cardiometabolic deaths that would occur if exposure to each dietary risk factor was reduced to an alternative optimal level. FINDINGS:The overall PAF of mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that was associated with suboptimal dietary quality was 62·2% in 1982, 57·9% in 1992, 56·2% in 2002, and 51·0% in 2010-12, which accounted for 21·6% of total mortality in China in 1982, 16·6% in 1992, 17·6% in 2002, and 20·8% in 2010-12. The estimated number of cardiometabolic deaths associated with suboptimal dietary intakes was 1·07 million in 1982, 0·93 million in 1992, 1·18 million in 2002, and 1·51 million in 2010-12. Of all 12 dietary factors examined, high sodium intake (17·3%), low fruit consumption (11·5%), and low marine omega-3 fatty acids (9·7%) were associated with the largest numbers of estimated cardiometabolic deaths in 2010-12. INTERPRETATION:We observed an improvement in several dietary factors in China in the past few decades. However, current intakes of these dietary factors remain suboptimal. Poor diet quality is estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in China. FUNDING:Ministry of Health, China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sedentary behavior (SB) is associated with increased risks of detrimental health outcomes. Few studies have explored correlates of SB in physically active individuals. Furthermore, SB correlates may depend on settings of SB, such as occupation, transportation and leisure time sitting. This study aims to identify subject-, lifestyle- and health-related correlates for total SB and different SB domains: transportation, occupation, and leisure time. METHODS:Dutch participants were recruited between June, 2015 and December, 2016. Participant characteristics (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, marital status, education level, employment), lifestyle (sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) and medical history were collected via an online questionnaire. SB was assessed using the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire and estimated for 9 different activities during weekdays and weekend days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between correlates and SB. Total SB was dichotomized at >?8?h/day and?>?10?h/day, and being sedentary during transportation, occupation and leisure time at the 75th percentile (60?min/day, 275?min/day and 410?min/day, respectively). RESULTS:In total, 8471 participants (median age 55, 55% men) were included of whom 86% met the physical activity guidelines. Median SB was 9.1?h/day (Q25 6.3-Q75 12.0) during weekdays and 7.4?h/day (Q25 5.5-Q75 9.5) during weekend days. SB was most prevalent during leisure time (5.3?h/day; Q25 3.9-Q75 6.8), followed by occupation (2?h/day; Q25 0.1-Q75 4.6) and transportation (0.5?h/day; Q25 0.2-Q75 1.0). Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, higher education, employment and higher BMI were significantly related to higher levels of total SB. Younger age, male sex, employment, and higher BMI increased the odds for high SB volumes during occupation and transportation. Higher education, being unmarried and smoking status were positively associated with high volumes of occupational SB only, whereas older age, being unmarried, unemployment, higher BMI and poor health were positively linked to leisure time SB. CONCLUSIONS:SB is highly prevalent in physically active individuals, with SB during leisure time as the most important contributor. Correlates for high volumes of SB vary substantially across SB domains, emphasizing the difficulty to target this unhealthy lifestyle.
Project description:Giving the rising trends in obesity and chronic diseases in China, strategies to increase physical activity are important. Transport-related activity is a substantial source of physical activity and can be easily incorporated into the daily lives. It is a key social factor of health, which can help improve people's mental and physical health and decrease environmental pollution. However, little is known about recent trends in transportation modes and time in China. Between 2002 and 2010-2012, information about transportation behaviors of Chinese population aged 15 years or older were collected within two Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveys. A stratified multistage cluster sampling method was conducted to select participants. Sociodemographic information, transportation modes, and time were collected during face-to-face interviews. The study included 82,377 (mean age 41.2 years) and 143,075 (mean age 48.7 years) participants in the 2002 and 2010-2012 surveys respectively. The weighted prevalence of active transportation (including walking and cycling) decreased from 83.8% in 2002 to 54.3% in 2010-2012 (p < 0.001). During the same period, the number of participants using public transportation (including taking the bus, subway, or shuttle bus) has doubled (7.5% and 15.7%, respectively, for 2002 and 2010-2012, (p < 0.001)), and the proportion of inactive transportation (including driving or taking a car, motorcycle, taxi, or electric bicycle) more than tripled. Concurrently, the transportation time almost doubled with an increase of 25.9 min over the 10 years (p < 0.001). The prevalence of active transportation increased with age. Participants with higher family income and education reported a lower prevalence of active transportation. Females were more likely to use active transportation (OR (95% CI): 4.41 (4.14-4.70) and 2.50 (2.44-2.57), respectively, for 2002 and 2010-2012, where males were the reference). Before the prevalence of active transportation and physical activity gets lower, there is a need for the public health sector and the transport and land use sector to work together to develop related policies and initiatives with the aim of promoting active transportation and public transportation to increase the levels of physical activity and to decrease the risks of chronic diseases.
Project description:The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.
Project description:Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated independently with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults from 1988 to 2010.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.Average body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.44) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared with those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity.Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine.
Project description:To investigate the association of sleep duration with overweight and obesity among children aged 6 to 17 years in China, 2010-2012 data from the China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNHHS) were analyzed. A total of 35,414 children were recruited in the survey. Body mass index (BMI) was converted into three categories: normal weight, overweight and obesity. In multinomial logistic regression model, sleep duration was divided into four groups: very short, short, recommended and long. In restricted cubic splines (RCS), sleep duration was examined as a continuous variable in relation to overweight and obesity. In the very short and short groups, sleep duration was a risk factor for obesity after adjusting for the potential impacts of age, gender, residence, family income, leisure sedentary behavior (SB) and leisure exercise, with OR (Odds Ratio) = 3.01 (95% CI (confidence interval): 2.19-4.15) and OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.14-1.35), respectively. The adjusted OR of overweight for short sleep duration relative to a recommended sleep duration was 1.17(95% CI: 1.09-1.26). No significant associations of very short sleep with overweight, of long sleep duration with overweight and obesity were found. The RCS curves between sleep duration and overweight and obesity were both inverted J-shaped. To conclude, the shorter the sleep duration, the higher the risk of overweight and obesity in children. Increasing sleep duration would have a positive effect on reducing overweight and obesity rates in Chinese children.
Project description:There are few valid instruments to assess domain-specific sedentary behaviours (SB) among Spanish-speaking populations. This study validated the original English version of the last 7 days SB questionnaire (SIT-Q-7d) into Spanish (Castilian). A total of 151 undergraduates (52% male, 21.19±2.57 yrs.) wore an activPAL3M (AP3M) for 7 days and subsequently completed the Spanish version of the SIT-Q-7d (SIT-Q-7d-Sp). A subsample of 30 participants (70% male, 22.89±1.54 yrs.) simultaneously wore the AP3M and used a domain-log to register the context where the SB occurred. The SIT-Q-7d-Sp differed significantly from the AP3M, overestimating sitting time by an average of 60.69 mins.d-1 (all p<0.016). No significant differences were observed between the two measures for weekend total sitting time. The SIT-Q-7d-Sp did not differ significantly from the AP3M +Log for meal, work, and transportation-based sitting time (all p>0.016). However, screen-based and other leisure-based sitting activities were significantly overestimated (ranging from 94.68 mins.d-1 to 234.08 mins.d-1, p<0.001). The SIT-Q-7d-Sp appears to provide acceptable estimates of sitting time during transportation, occupational and meal-based domains. The SIT-Q-7d-Sp is not an appropriate measure of SB when examining total sitting time and leisure-based SB in young adults. For total sitting time and leisure-based SB, the use of objective measures is recommended.
Project description:Technology linked with reduced physical activity (PA) in occupational work, home/domestic work, and travel and increased sedentary activities, especially television viewing, dominates the globe. Using detailed historical data on time allocation, occupational distributions, energy expenditures data by activity, and time-varying measures of metabolic equivalents of task (MET) for activities when available, we measure historical and current MET by four major PA domains (occupation, home production, travel and active leisure) and sedentary time among adults (>18 years). Trends by domain for the United States (1965-2009), the United Kingdom (1961-2005), Brazil (2002-2007), China (1991-2009) and India (2000-2005) are presented. We also project changes in energy expenditure by domain and sedentary time (excluding sleep and personal care) to 2020 and 2030 for each of these countries. The use of previously unexplored detailed time allocation and energy expenditures and other datasets represents a useful addition to our ability to document activity and inactivity globally, but highlights the need for concerted efforts to monitor PA in a consistent manner globally, increase global PA and decrease sedentary behavior. Given the potential impact on weight gain and other cardiometabolic health risks, the differential declines in MET of activity and increases in sedentary time across the globe represent a major threat to global health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While soft drink intake is positively associated with weight gain, no previous study has investigated whether leisure-time physical activity modifies this association. We estimated the association between soft drink intake and body weight, and explored if this association differed by levels of leisure-time physical activity. METHODS:We used data from the health workers cohort study, a prospective study of Mexican adults (20 to 85y old), including 1268 health workers and their families, who were assessed at baseline (2004-2006) and follow-up (2010-2012). We assessed soft drink intake (cola and flavored soda) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We measured leisure-time physical activity using a self-report questionnaire, and categorized according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Body weight was measured by trained personnel. The association between changes in soft drink intake and weight change, and if such association varied by levels of physical activity was estimated through fixed-effect models. RESULTS:An increase in one serving per day of soft drink was associated with 0.10?kg (95% CI 0.00, 0.19) increase in weight per year. This association was not modified by leisure-time physical activity, as demonstrated by the magnitude of the coefficient of the interaction between soft drink, leisure-time physical activity, and time (-?0.03?kg, 95% CI -?0.27 to 0.21); people who complied with the WHO physical activity recommendations gained 0.36?kg/year per serving of soft drink, compared to 0.48?kg/year for people without sufficient physical activity. CONCLUSIONS:Soft drink intake was associated with weight gain. Leisure-time physical activity did not modify the association between soft drink intake and weight gain. This finding challenges the idea that leisure-time physical activity is sufficient to counterbalance weight gain associated to soft drink intake.
Project description:After decades of decline in prevalence of complete tooth loss (edentulism), the trend continues to be misinterpreted, producing flawed projections and misdirected health goals. We investigated population trends in edentulism among U.S. adults aged ? 15 yr by creating time-series data from 5 national cross-sectional health surveys: 1957-1958 (n ? 100,000 adults), 1971-1975 (n = 14,655 adults), 1988-1998 (n = 18,011 adults), 1999-2002 (n = 12,336 adults), and 2009-2012 (n = 10,522 adults). Birth cohort analysis was used to isolate age and cohort effects. Geographic and sociodemographic variation in prevalence was investigated with a sixth U.S. survey of 432,519 adults conducted in 2010. Prevalence through 2050 was projected with age-cohort regression models using Monte-Carlo simulation of prediction intervals. Across the 5-decade observation period, edentulism prevalence declined from 18.9% in 1957-1958 (95% confidence limits: 18.4%, 19.4%) to 4.9% in 2009-2012 (95% confidence limits: 4.0%, 5.8%). The most influential determinant of the decline was the passing of generations born before the 1940s, whose rate of edentulism incidence (5%-6% per decade of age) far exceeded later cohorts (1%-3% per decade of age). High-income households experienced a greater relative decline, although a smaller absolute decline, than low-income households. By 2010, edentulism was a rare condition in high-income households, and it had contracted geographically to states with disproportionately high poverty. With the passing of generations born in the mid-20th century, the rate of decline in edentulism is projected to slow, reaching 2.6% (95% prediction limits: 2.1%, 3.1%) by 2050. The continuing decline will be offset only partially by population growth and population aging such that the predicted number of edentulous people in 2050 (8.6 million; 95% prediction limits: 6.8 million, 10.3 million) will be 30% lower than the 12.2 million edentulous people in 2010.