LRRK2 mutations impair depolarization-induced mitophagy through inhibition of mitochondrial accumulation of RAB10.
ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, incurable disorder with increasing prevalence in the western world. In rare cases PD is caused by mutations in the genes for PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) or PRKN (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), which impair the selective autophagic elimination of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the gene encoding LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) are the most common monogenic cause of PD. Here, we report that the LRRK2 kinase substrate RAB10 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria in a PINK1- and PRKN-dependent manner. RAB10 binds the autophagy receptor OPTN (optineurin), promotes OPTN accumulation on depolarized mitochondria and facilitates mitophagy. In PD patients with the two most common LRRK2 mutations (G2019S and R1441C), RAB10 phosphorylation at threonine 73 is enhanced, while RAB10 interaction with OPTN, accumulation of RAB10 and OPTN on depolarized mitochondria, depolarization-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial function are all impaired. These defects in LRRK2 mutant patient cells are rescued by LRRK2 knockdown and LRRK2 kinase inhibition. A phosphomimetic RAB10 mutant showed less OPTN interaction and less translocation to depolarized mitochondria than wild-type RAB10, and failed to rescue mitophagy in LRRK2 mutant cells. These data connect LRRK2 with PINK1- and PRKN-mediated mitophagy via its substrate RAB10, and indicate that the pathogenic effects of mutations in LRRK2, PINK1 and PRKN may converge on a common pathway.Abbreviations : ACTB: actin beta; ATP5F1B: ATP synthase F1 subunit beta; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSPD1: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LRRK2: leucine rich repeat kinase 2; IF: immunofluorescence; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN2: mitofusin 2; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RHOT1: ras homolog family member T1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; WB: western blot.
Project description:Mitochondrial quality control is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria. Two proteins associated with Parkinson disease, the kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN, play a central role in the selective degradation of heavily damaged mitochondria (mitophagy), thus avoiding their toxic accumulation. Most of the knowledge on PINK1-PRKN mitophagy comes from in vitro experiments involving the treatment of mammalian cells with high concentrations of mitochondrial uncouplers, such as CCCP. These chemicals have been shown to mediate off target effects, other than mitochondrial depolarization. A matter of controversy between mitochondrial physiologists and cell biologists is the discrepancy between concentrations of CCCP needed to activate mitophagy (usually >10 ?M), when compared to the much lower concentrations used to depolarize mitochondria (<1 ?M). Thus, there is an urgent need for optimizing the current methods to assess PINK1-PRKN mitophagy in vitro. In this study, we address the utilization of high CCCP concentrations commonly used to activate mitophagy. Combining live fluorescence microscopy and biochemistry, we show that the FBS/BSA in the cell culture medium reduces the ability of CCCP to induce PINK1 accumulation at depolarized mitochondria, subsequent PRKN recruitment and ubiquitin phosphorylation, and ultimately mitochondrial clearance. As a result, high concentrations of CCCP are required to induce mitophagy in FBS/BSA containing media. These data unite mitochondrial physiology and mitophagy studies and are a first step toward a consensus on optimal experimental conditions for PINK1-PRKN mitophagy and mitochondrial physiology investigations to be carried out in parallel. Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; DMEM: dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium; DNP: 2,4-dinitrophenol; FBS: fetal bovine serum; FCCP: carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone; GSH: glutathione; HBSS: Hanks' balanced salt solution; mtKeima: mitochondria-targeted monomeric keima-red; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; POE SHSY5Ys: FLAG-PRKN over-expressing SHSY5Y cells; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; TMRM: tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester; WB: western blot; WT: wild-type; ??m: mitochondrial membrane potential.
Project description:PRKN/parkin activation through phosphorylation of its ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 is critical in mitophagy induction for eliminating the damaged mitochondria. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) functionally reversing PRKN ubiquitination are critical in controlling the magnitude of PRKN-mediated mitophagy process. However, potential DUBs that directly target PRKN and antagonize its pro-mitophagy effect remains to be identified and characterized. Here, we demonstrated that USP33/VDU1 is localized at the outer membrane of mitochondria and serves as a PRKN DUB through their interaction. Cellular and in vitro assays illustrated that USP33 deubiquitinates PRKN in a DUB activity-dependent manner. USP33 prefers to remove K6, K11, K48 and K63-linked ubiquitin conjugates from PRKN, and deubiquitinates PRKN mainly at Lys435. Mutation of this site leads to a significantly decreased level of K63-, but not K48-linked PRKN ubiquitination. USP33 deficiency enhanced both K48- and K63-linked PRKN ubiquitination, but only K63-linked PRKN ubiquitination was significantly increased under mitochondrial depolarization. Further, USP33 knockdown increased both PRKN protein stabilization and its translocation to depolarized mitochondria leading to the enhancement of mitophagy. Moreover, USP33 silencing protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from the neurotoxin MPTP-induced apoptotic cell death. Our findings convincingly demonstrate that USP33 is a novel PRKN deubiquitinase antagonizing its regulatory roles in mitophagy and SH-SY5Y neuron-like cell survival. Thus, USP33 inhibition may represents an attractive new therapeutic strategy for PD patients.Abbreviations: CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; DUB: deubiquitinating enzymes; MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/PARK2: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TM: transmembrane; Ub: ubiquitin; UBA1: ubiquitin like modifier activating enzyme 1; UBE2L3/UbcH7: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 L3; USP33: ubiquitin specific peptidase 33; WT: wild type.
Project description:Mitochondria play an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The removal of damaged or depolarized mitochondria occurs via mitophagy, in which damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via ubiquitination induced by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). Here, we use live-cell imaging to demonstrate that OPTN, NDP52, and TAX1BP1 are recruited to mitochondria with similar kinetics following either mitochondrial depolarization or localized generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to sequestration by the autophagosome within ?45 min after insult. Despite this corecruitment, we find that depletion of OPTN, but not NDP52, significantly slows the efficiency of sequestration. OPTN is phosphorylated by the kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) at serine 177; we find that TBK1 is corecruited with OPTN to depolarized mitochondria. Inhibition or depletion of TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated OPTN or TBK1 mutant blocks efficient autophagosome formation. Together, these results indicate that although there is some functional redundancy among mitophagy receptors, efficient sequestration of damaged mitochondria in response to mitochondrial stress requires both TBK1 and OPTN. Notably, ALS-linked mutations in OPTN and TBK1 can interfere with mitophagy, suggesting that inefficient turnover of damaged mitochondria may represent a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Mitophagy, which is a conserved cellular process for selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria, is critical for mitochondrial quality control and the maintenance of normal cellular physiology. However, the precise mechanisms underlying mitophagy remain largely unknown. Prior studies on mitophagy focused on the events in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PHB2 (prohibitin 2), which is a highly conserved membrane scaffold protein, was recently identified as a novel inner membrane mitophagy receptor that mediates mitophagy. Here, we report a new signaling pathway for PHB2-mediated mitophagy. Upon mitochondrial membrane depolarization or misfolded protein aggregation, PHB2 depletion destabilizes PINK1 in the mitochondria, which blocks the mitochondrial recruitment of PRKN/Parkin, ubiquitin and OPTN (optineurin), leading to an inhibition of mitophagy. In addition, PHB2 overexpression directly induces PRKN recruitment to the mitochondria. Moreover, PHB2-mediated mitophagy is dependent on the mitochondrial inner membrane protease PARL, which interacts with PHB2 and is activated upon PHB2 depletion. Furthermore, PGAM5, which is processed by PARL, participates in PHB2-mediated PINK1 stabilization. Finally, a ligand of PHB proteins that we synthesized, called FL3, was found to strongly inhibit PHB2-mediated mitophagy and to effectively block cancer cell growth and energy production at nanomolar concentrations. Thus, our findings reveal that the PHB2-PARL-PGAM5-PINK1 axis is a novel pathway of PHB2-mediated mitophagy and that targeting PHB2 with the chemical compound FL3 is a promising strategy for cancer therapy.Abbreviations: AIFM1: apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1; ATP5F1A/ATP5A1: ATP synthase F1 subunit alpha; BAF: bafilomycin A1; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: chemical reagent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine; FL3: flavaglines compound 3; HSPD1/HSP60: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LC3B/MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF: mouse embryo fibroblasts; MPP: mitochondrial-processing peptidase; MT-CO2/COX2: mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II; MTS: mitochondrial targeting sequence; OA: oligomycin and antimycin A; OPTN: optineurin; OTC: ornithine carbamoyltransferase; PARL: presenilin associated rhomboid like; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PGAM5: PGAM family member 5, mitochondrial serine/threonine protein phosphatase; PHB: prohibitin; PHB2: prohibitin 2; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; Roc-A: rocaglamide A; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; TUBB: tubulin beta class I.
Project description:The selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy is crucial for preserving mitochondrial quality and cellular homeostasis. The most described mitophagy pathway is regulated by a positive ubiquitylation feedback loop in which the PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) kinase phosphorylates both ubiquitin and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN (Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin ligase), also known as PARKIN. This event recruits PRKN to the mitochondria, thus amplifying ubiquitylation signal. Here we report that miR-218 targets PRKN and negatively regulates PINK1/PRKN-mediated mitophagy. Overexpression of miR-218 reduces PRKN mRNA levels, thus also reducing protein content and deregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase action. In fact, following miR-218 overexpression, mitochondria result less ubiquitylated and the autophagy machinery fails to proceed with correct mitochondrial clearance. Since mitophagy defects are associated with various human diseases, these results qualify miR-218 as a promising therapeutic target for human diseases.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are turned over through a process of selective autophagy termed mitophagy. In mitophagy, unhealthy mitochondria are recognized and ubiquitinated by Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 and PARK2. The subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors leads in turn to the sequestration of the damaged organelles into LC3-positive phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes. The precise identity of these receptors and how they are regulated has been the focus of considerable attention. Our recent work uses live-cell imaging to explore the dynamics and regulation of autophagy receptor recruitment. Utilizing multiple paradigms to induce mitochondrial damage, we identified the rapid, 2-step recruitment of autophagy receptors OPTN, CALCOCO2/NDP52, and TAX1BP1. All 3 receptors are recruited to damaged mitochondria with similar kinetics; however, only OPTN is necessary for efficient formation of a phagophore sequestering damaged mitochondria from the cytosol. OPTN is co-recruited to damaged mitochondria along with its upstream kinase TBK1. Depletion of OPTN or TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in either protein, interfere with efficient autophagic engulfment of depolarized mitochondria. These observations suggest that insufficient autophagy of damaged mitochondria may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Premature senescence is a key process in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Premature senescence of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) in DN may result from the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy is the principal process that eliminates damaged mitochondria through PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-mediated recruitment of optineurin (OPTN) to mitochondria. We aimed to examine the involvement of OPTN in mitophagy regulation of cellular senescence in RTEC in the context of DN. In vitro, the expression of senescence markers P16, P21, DcR2, SA-?-gal, SAHF, and insufficient mitophagic degradation marker (mitochondrial P62) in mouse RTECs increased after culture in 30?mM high-glucose (HG) conditions for 48?h. Mitochondrial fission/mitophagy inhibitor Mdivi-1 significantly enhanced RTEC senescence under HG conditions, whereas autophagy/mitophagy agonist Torin1 inhibited cell senescence. MitoTempo inhibited HG-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cell senescence with or without Mdivi-1. The expression of PINK1 and OPTN, two regulatory factors for mitophagosome formation, decreased significantly after HG stimulation. Overexpression of PINK1 did not enhance mitophagosome formation under HG conditions. OPTN silencing significantly inhibited HG-induced mitophagosome formation, and overexpression of OPTN relieved cellular senescence through promoting mitophagy. In clinical specimens, renal OPTN expression was gradually decreased with increased tubulointerstitial injury scores. OPTN-positive renal tubular cells did not express senescence marker P16. OPTN expression also negatively correlated with serum creatinine levels, and positively correlated with eGFR. Thus, OPTN-mediated mitophagy plays a crucial regulatory role in HG-induced RTEC senescence in DN. OPTN may, therefore, be a potential antisenescence factor in DN.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are detrimental to cellular homeostasis. One mechanism for removal of damaged mitochondria involves the PINK1-PARKIN pathway, which poly-ubiquitylates damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. We report that assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria triggers autophagy adaptor recruitment concomitantly with activation of the TBK1 kinase, which physically associates with OPTN, NDP52, and SQSTM1. TBK1 activation in HeLa cells requires OPTN and NDP52 and OPTN ubiquitin chain binding. In addition to the known role of S177 phosphorylation in OPTN on ATG8 recruitment, TBK1-dependent phosphorylation on S473 and S513 promotes ubiquitin chain binding in vitro as well as TBK1 activation, OPTN mitochondrial retention, and efficient mitophagy in vivo. These data reveal a self-reinforcing positive feedback mechanism that coordinates TBK1-dependent autophagy adaptor phosphorylation with the assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria to facilitate efficient mitophagy, and mechanistically links genes mutated in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a common selective autophagy pathway.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and in Parkinson's disease (PD) in particular. PINK1 and Parkin gene mutations are causes of autosomal recessive PD, and these respective proteins function cooperatively to degrade depolarized mitochondria (mitophagy). It is widely assumed that impaired mitophagy causes PD, as toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing mitochondria accumulate and progressively drive neurodegeneration. Instead, we report that a LON-ClpP proteolytic quality control axis extinguishes ROS in depolarized mitochondria by degrading the complex I ROS-generating domain. Complex I deficiency has also been identified in PD brain, and our study provides a compelling non-genetic mechanistic rationale to explain this observation: intact complex I depletes if mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity is robustly attenuated.