Tackling antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh: A scoping review of policy and practice in human, animal and environment sectors.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become an emerging issue in the developing countries as well as in Bangladesh. AMR is aggravated by irrational use of antimicrobials in a largely unregulated pluralistic health system. This review presents a 'snap shot' of the current situation including existing policies and practices to address AMR, and the challenges and barriers associated with their implementation. METHODS:A systematic approach was adopted for identifying, screening, and selecting relevant literature on AMR situation in Bangladesh. We used Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Biomed Central databases for searching peer-reviewed literature in human, animal and environment sectors during January 2010-August 2019, and Google for grey materials from the institutional and journal websites. Two members of the study team independently reviewed these documents for inclusion in the analysis. We used a 'mixed studies review' method for synthesizing evidences from different studies. RESULT:Of the final 47 articles, 35 were primary research, nine laboratory-based research, two review papers and one situation analysis report. Nineteen articles on human health dealt with prescribing and/or use of antimicrobials, five on self-medication, two on non-compliance of dosage, and 10 on the sensitivity and resistance patterns of antibiotics. Four papers focused on the use of antimicrobials in food animals and seven on environmental contamination. Findings reveal widespread availability of antimicrobials without prescription in the country including rise in its irrational use across sectors and consequent contamination of environment and spread of resistance. The development and transmission of AMR is deep-rooted in various supply and demand side factors. Implementation of existing policies and strategies remains a challenge due to poor awareness, inadequate resources and absence of national surveillance. CONCLUSION:AMR is a multi-dimensional problem involving different sectors, disciplines and stakeholders requiring a One Health comprehensive approach for containment.
Project description:Background:There are concerns with the extent of dispensing of antibiotics among community pharmacists in Pakistan often without a prescription adding to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates. Objective:To explore the determinants of AMR and the pattern of antimicrobial dispensing among community pharmacists. Design:In this qualitative study design, a semistructured interview guide was developed based on an in-depth review of published papers. Audio-recorded interviews with transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Setting:Interviews were conducted among community pharmacists in Lahore, Pakistan. Participants:In order to obtain individual points of view, in-depth face-to-face interviews with purposively selected pharmacists were conducted. Results:A total of 12 pharmacists were interviewed for the study. After analysis, four major themes emerged: (1) knowledge and perception of community pharmacists about antimicrobials, (2) antimicrobial dispensing practices of community pharmacists, (3) determinants of AMR, (4) potential interventions to control AMR. Most of the pharmacists have limited knowledge about AMR, antimicrobial stewardship programmes and related guidelines. However, all the pharmacists strongly agreed that different appropriate actions should be taken in order to rationalise future antimicrobial use. Conclusion:The results indicated that irrational antimicrobial dispensing and use is common among community pharmacists in Pakistan owing to lack of knowledge. The community pharmacists perceived that behaviour of patients and the societal environment contributed to irrational antimicrobial use and subsequent development of AMR. They suggested a need for a multidisciplinary framework in order to improve future antimicrobial use and reduce AMR in Pakistan.
Project description:Background:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing threat to global public health that is largely exacerbated by the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial medicines. As the largest antimicrobials producer and user in the world, China has a critical role to play in combatting AMR. By examining Chinese news articles and policy statements, we aim to provide an authentic understanding of public discourse in China on AMR. Methods:A search was conducted using two of the most comprehensive digital libraries for Chinese news media documents. Chinese policy documents were retrieved from official Chinese government websites. Records from June 2016 to May 2017 were included. Grounded theory was used to analyze included records, and we followed an iterative thematic synthesis process to categorize the key themes of each document. Results:Across 64 news articles, most articles delivered general knowledge about AMR and debunked AMR-related myths, explored the implications of AMR-relevant policies, and discussed the misuse of antimicrobials in the agricultural sector. All policy documents provided guidance for healthcare workers, encouraging them to better manage antimicrobial prescriptions and usage. Conclusions:While the Chinese media actively educates the public on strategies for AMR prevention, certain news articles risk misleading readers by downplaying the hazards of domestic AMR issues. Further, although several national policies are geared towards combatting AMR, the government faces difficult challenges in overcoming public misconceptions regarding antimicrobial use. Records from the regional level should also be examined to further explore China's public discourse on AMR.
Project description:The second ECDC/EFSA/EMA joint report on the integrated analysis of antimicrobial consumption (AMC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals addressed data obtained by the Agencies' EU-wide surveillance networks for 2013-2015. AMC in both sectors, expressed in mg/kg of estimated biomass, were compared at country and European level. Substantial variations between countries were observed in both sectors. Estimated data on AMC for pigs and poultry were used for the first time. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to study associations between AMC and AMR. In 2014, the average AMC was higher in animals (152 mg/kg) than in humans (124 mg/kg), but the opposite applied to the median AMC (67 and 118 mg/kg, respectively). In 18 of 28 countries, AMC was lower in animals than in humans. Univariate analysis showed statistically-significant (p < 0.05) associations between AMC and AMR for fluoroquinolones and Escherichia coli in both sectors, for 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins and E. coli in humans, and tetracyclines and polymyxins and E. coli in animals. In humans, there was a statistically-significant association between AMC and AMR for carbapenems and polymyxins in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Consumption of macrolides in animals was significantly associated with macrolide resistance in Campylobacter coli in animals and humans. Multivariate analyses provided a unique approach to assess the contributions of AMC in humans and animals and AMR in bacteria from animals to AMR in bacteria from humans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli from humans was associated with corresponding AMC in humans, whereas resistance to fluoroquinolones in Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from humans was related to consumption of fluoroquinolones in animals. These results suggest that from a 'One-health' perspective, there is potential in both sectors to further develop prudent use of antimicrobials and thereby reduce AMR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The One Health concept promotes the enhancement of human, animal and ecosystem health through multi-sectorial governance support and policies to combat health security threats. In Vietnam, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal and human health settings poses a significant threat, but one that could be minimised by adopting a One Health approach to AMR surveillance. To advance understanding of the willingness and abilities of the human and animal health sectors to undertake investigations of AMR with a One Health approach, we explored the perceptions and experiences of those tasked with investigating AMR in Vietnam, and the benefits a multi-sectorial approach offers. METHODS:This study used qualitative methodology to provide key informants' perspectives from the animal and human health sectors. Two scenarios of food-borne AMR bacteria found within the pork value chain were used as case studies to investigate challenges and opportunities for improving collaboration across different stakeholders and to understand benefits offered by a One Health approach surveillance system. Fifteen semi-structured interviews with 11 participants from the animal and six from the human health sectors at the central level in Hanoi and the provincial level in Thai Nguyen were conducted. RESULTS:Eight themes emerged from the transcripts of the interviews. From the participants perspectives on the benefits of a One Health approach: (1) Communication and multi-sectorial collaboration; (2) Building comprehensive knowledge; (3) Improving likelihood of success. Five themes emerged from participants views of the challenges to investigate AMR: (4) Diagnostic capacity; (5) Availability and access to antibiotics (6) Tracing ability within the Vietnamese food chain; (7) Personal benefits and (8) Managing the system. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study suggest that there is potential to strengthen multi-sectorial collaboration between the animal and human health sectors by building upon existing informal networks. Based on these results, we recommend an inclusive approach to multi-sectorial communication supported by government network activities to facilitate partnerships and create cross-disciplinary awareness and participation. The themes relating to diagnostic capacity show that both sectors are facing challenges to undertake investigations in AMR. Our results indicate that the need to strengthen the animal health sector is more pronounced.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global threat to not only public health impacts but also clinical and economic outcomes. During the past decades, there have been many studies focusing on surveillance, mechanisms, and diagnostics of AMR in infectious diseases but the impacts on public health, clinical and economic outcomes due to emergence of these AMRs are rarely studied and reported. This review was aimed to summarize the findings from published studies to report the outcome impacts due to AMR of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV and briefly discuss the implications for application to other infectious diseases. PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar databases were used for search of empirical and peer-reviewed papers reporting public health, clinical and economic outcomes due to AMR of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. Papers published through 1 December 2019 were included in this review. A total of 76 studies were included for this review, including 16, 49 and 11 on public health, clinical and economic outcomes, respectively. The synthesized data indicated that the emergence and spread of AMR of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV have resulted in adverse public health, clinical and economic outcomes. AMR of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV results in significant adverse impacts on public health, clinical and economic outcomes. Evidence from this review suggests the needs to consider the similar studies for other infectious diseases.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat that warrants urgent attention. However, the multifaceted nature of AMR often complicates the development and implementation of comprehensive policies. In this study, we describe the policy context and explore experts' perspectives on the challenges, facilitators, and strategies for combating AMR in Singapore. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 participants. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed thematically, adopting an interpretative approach. Participants reported that the Ministry of Health (MOH) has effectively funded AMR control programs and research in all public hospitals. In addition, a preexisting One Health platform, among MOH, Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (restructured to form the Singapore Food Agency and the Animal & Veterinary Service under NParks in April 2019), National Environment Agency, and Singapore's National Water Agency, was perceived to have facilitated the coordination and formulation of Singapore's AMR strategies. Nonetheless, participants highlighted that the success of AMR strategies is compounded by various challenges such as surveillance in private clinics, resource constraints at community-level health facilities, sub-optimal public awareness, patchy regulation on antimicrobial use in animals, and environmental contamination. This study shows that the process of planning and executing AMR policies is complicated even in a well-resourced country such as Singapore. It has also highlighted the increasing need to address the social, political, cultural, and behavioral aspects influencing AMR. Ultimately, it will be difficult to design policy interventions that cater for the needs of individuals, families, and the community, unless we understand how all these aspects interact and shape the AMR response.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious public health problem, compromising the management and control of gonorrhoea globally. Resistance in N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, the last option for first-line empirical monotherapy of gonorrhoea, has been reported from many countries globally, and sporadic failures to cure especially pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone monotherapy and dual antimicrobial therapies (ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or doxycycline) have been confirmed in several countries. In 2018, the first gonococcal isolates with ceftriaxone resistance plus high-level azithromycin resistance were identified in England and Australia. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (GASP) is essential to monitor AMR trends, identify emerging AMR and provide evidence for refinements of treatment guidelines and public health policy globally. Herein we describe the WHO GASP data from 67 countries in 2015-16, confirmed gonorrhoea treatment failures with ceftriaxone with or without azithromycin or doxycycline, and international collaborative actions and research efforts essential for the effective management and control of gonorrhoea. In most countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin is exceedingly high, azithromycin resistance is present and decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone has emerged. Enhanced global collaborative actions are crucial for the control of gonorrhoea, including improved prevention, early diagnosis, treatment of index patient and partner (including test-of-cure), improved and expanded AMR surveillance (including surveillance of antimicrobial use and treatment failures), increased knowledge of correct antimicrobial use and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials and effective drug regulations and prescription policies (including antimicrobial stewardship). Ultimately, rapid, accurate and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tests (ideally also predicting AMR and/or susceptibility), new therapeutic antimicrobials and, the only sustainable solution, gonococcal vaccine(s) are imperative.
Project description:The use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine has coincided with a rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the food-borne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Faecal contamination from the main reservoir hosts (livestock, especially poultry) is the principal route of human infection but little is known about the spread of AMR among source and sink populations. In particular, questions remain about how Campylobacter resistomes interact between species and hosts, and the potential role of sewage as a conduit for the spread of AMR. Here, we investigate the genomic variation associated with AMR in 168 C. jejuni and 92 C. coli strains isolated from humans, livestock and urban effluents in Spain. AMR was tested in vitro and isolate genomes were sequenced and screened for putative AMR genes and alleles. Genes associated with resistance to multiple drug classes were observed in both species and were commonly present in multidrug-resistant genomic islands (GIs), often located on plasmids or mobile elements. In many cases, these loci had alleles that were shared among C. jejuni and C. coli consistent with horizontal transfer. Our results suggest that specific antibiotic resistance genes have spread among Campylobacter isolated from humans, animals and the environment.
Project description:After consumption, antibiotic residues and exposed bacteria end up via the feces in wastewater, and therefore wastewater is believed to play an important role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We investigated the abundance and AMR profiles of three different species over a complete wastewater pathway during a one-year sampling campaign, as well as including antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial concentrations analysis. A total of 2886 isolates (997 Escherichia coli, 863 Klebsiella spp., and 1026 Aeromonas spp.) were cultured from the 211 samples collected. The bacterial AMR profiles mirrored the antimicrobial consumption in the respective locations, which were highest in the hospital. However, the contribution of hospital wastewater to AMR found in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was below 10% for all antimicrobials tested. We found high concentrations (7-8 logs CFU/L) of the three bacterial species in all wastewaters, and they survived the wastewater treatment (effluent concentrations were around 5 log CFU/L), showing an increase of E. coli in the receiving river after the WWTP discharge. Although the WWTP had no effect on the proportion of AMR, bacterial species and antimicrobial residues were still measured in the effluent, showing the role of wastewater contamination in the environmental surface water.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Growing political attention to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) offers a rare opportunity for achieving meaningful action. Many governments have developed national AMR action plans, but most have not yet implemented policy interventions to reduce antimicrobial overuse. A systematic evidence map can support governments in making evidence-informed decisions about implementing programs to reduce AMR, by identifying, describing, and assessing the full range of evaluated government policy options to reduce antimicrobial use in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Seven databases were searched from inception to January 28, 2019, (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PAIS Index, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PubMed). We identified studies that (1) clearly described a government policy intervention aimed at reducing human antimicrobial use, and (2) applied a quantitative design to measure the impact. We found 69 unique evaluations of government policy interventions carried out across 4 of the 6 WHO regions. These evaluations included randomized controlled trials (n = 4), non-randomized controlled trials (n = 3), controlled before-and-after designs (n = 7), interrupted time series designs (n = 25), uncontrolled before-and-after designs (n = 18), descriptive designs (n = 10), and cohort designs (n = 2). From these we identified 17 unique policy options for governments to reduce the human use of antimicrobials. Many studies evaluated public awareness campaigns (n = 17) and antimicrobial guidelines (n = 13); however, others offered different policy options such as professional regulation, restricted reimbursement, pay for performance, and prescription requirements. Identifying these policies can inform the development of future policies and evaluations in different contexts and health systems. Limitations of our study include the possible omission of unpublished initiatives, and that policies not evaluated with respect to antimicrobial use have not been captured in this review. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge this is the first study to provide policy makers with synthesized evidence on specific government policy interventions addressing AMR. In the future, governments should ensure that AMR policy interventions are evaluated using rigorous study designs and that study results are published. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42017067514.