Modified creatinine index and risk for long-term infection-related mortality in hemodialysis patients: ten-year outcomes of the Q-Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Modified creatinine (Cr) index, calculated by age, sex, pre-dialysis serum Cr concentration, and Kt/V for urea, is an indicator of skeletal muscle mass in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It remains unknown whether the modified Cr index predicts infection-related mortality in this population. We investigated the association between the modified Cr index and infection-related mortality. A total of 3046 patients registered in the Q-Cohort Study, a multicenter, observational study of HD patients, were analyzed. Associations between sex-specific quartiles (Q1-Q4) of the modified Cr index and the risk for infection-related mortality were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model. During a median follow-up of 8.8 years, 387 patients died of infection. The estimated risk for infection-related mortality was significantly higher in the lower quartiles (Q1, Q2, and Q3) than in the highest quartile (Q4) as the reference group (hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals [CI]: Q1, 2.89 [1.70-5.06], Q2, 2.76 [1.72-4.62], and Q3, 1.79 [1.12-2.99]). The hazard ratio (95% CI) for a 1?mg/kg/day decrease in the modified Cr index was 1.18 (1.09-1.27, P?
Project description:The cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies with CKD severity, but variation has not been quantified.Retrospective analysis of prospective randomized clinical trial.We analyzed 4,038 individuals with anemia and diabetic CKD from TREAT, a randomized trial comparing darbepoetin alfa and placebo.Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and protein-creatinine ratio (PCR).Cause of death as adjudicated by a blinded committee.Median eGFR and PCR ranged from 20.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 4.1 g/g in quartile 1 (Q1) to 47.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 0.1 g/g in Q4 (P<0.01). Of 806 deaths, 441, 298, and 67 were due to cardiovascular (CV), non-CV, and unknown causes, respectively. Cumulative CV mortality at 3 years was higher with lower eGFR (Q1, 15.5%; Q2, 11.1%; Q3, 11.2%; Q4, 10.3%; P<0.001) or higher PCR (Q1, 15.2%; Q2, 12.3%; Q3, 11.7%; Q4, 9.0%; P<0.001). Similarly, non-CV mortality was higher with lower eGFR (Q1, 12.7%; Q2, 8.4%; Q3, 6.7%; Q4, 6.1%; P<0.001) or higher PCR (Q1, 10.3%; Q2, 7.9%; Q3, 9.4%; Q4, 6.4%; P=0.01). Sudden death was 1.7-fold higher with lower eGFR (P=0.04) and 2.1-fold higher with higher PCR (P<0.001). Infection-related mortality was 3.3-fold higher in the lowest eGFR quartile (P<0.001) and 2.8-fold higher in the highest PCR quartile (P<0.02). The overall proportion of CV and non-CV deaths was not significantly different across eGFR or PCR quartiles.Results may not be generalizable to nondiabetic CKD or diabetic CKD in the absence of anemia. Measured GFR was not available.In diabetic CKD, both lower baseline GFR and higher PCR are associated with higher CV and non-CV mortality rates, particularly from sudden death and infection. Efforts to improve outcomes should focus on CV disease and early diagnosis and treatment of infection.
Project description:AIM: To evaluate the relationship between system delay and 30-day and long-term mortality in patients with anterior versus non-anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study. Patients with STEMI who were transported to the Isala Hospital, Zwolle, and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) from 2005 until 2010 were included. These patients were divided into quartiles of system delay (time from first medical contact until reperfusion therapy): Q1-Q4. RESULTS: In total, 3041 patients were included in our study. 41% (n=1253) of the patients had an anterior myocardial infarction (MI) and 59% of the patients (n=1788) had a non-anterior MI. Only in patients with an anterior MI, prolonged system delay was associated with a higher mortality (30-day Q1: 2.6%, Q2: 3.1%, Q3: 6.8%, Q4: 7.4%, p=0.001; long-term Q1: 12.8%, Q2: 13.7%, Q3: 24.1%, Q4: 22.6%, p<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, prolonged system delay was associated with a higher 30-day and long-term mortality in patients with an anterior MI (30 day Q2: HR 1.18, 95% CI (0.46 to 3.00), Q3: HR 2.45, 95% CI (1.07 to 5.63), Q4: HR 2.25, 95% CI (0.97 to 5.25)); long-term Q2: HR 1.09, 95% CI (0.71 to 1.68), Q3: HR 1.68, 95% CI (1.13 to 2.49), Q4: HR 1.55, 95% CI (1.03 to 2.33)), but not in patients with a non-anterior MI. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged system delay significantly increased short-term as well as long-term mortality in patients with an anterior MI. This effect was not demonstrated in patients with a non-anterior MI. Therefore, it is of the greatest importance to minimise system delay in patients who present with an anterior MI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is much controversy around the optimal caloric intake in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, based on the diverging results of prospective studies. Therefore, we assessed the presence of an association between caloric intake and outcome in a large cohort included in the Glucontrol study. METHODS:Patients (n = 1004) were divided into four quartiles (q1-q4) according to the daily caloric intake (n = 251/quartile). ICU, hospital and 28-day mortality and the length of stay (LOS) in ICU and in the hospital were compared between each quartile, before and after adjustment in case of differences in baseline characteristics. RESULTS:Caloric intake averaged 0.5 ± 0.6 (q1), 3.0 ± 0.7 (q2), 13.4 ± 5.1 (q3) and 32.4 ± 8.5 (q4) kcal/kg/day (p < 0.001 between quartiles). Comparisons among quartiles revealed that ICU, hospital and 28-day mortality were lower in q2 than in the other quartiles. ICU and hospital LOS were lower in q1 and q2. After adjustment for age, type of admission and severity scores, hospital mortality was lower in q2 than in the other quartiles, and LOS was lower in q1and q2 than in q3-q4. CONCLUSIONS:In this large and heterogeneous cohort of ICU short stayers, a J-shaped relationship between the amount of calories provided and outcome was found. These hypothesis generating findings are consistent with the concept of improved clinical outcome by early energy restriction. Trial registration#: ClinicalTrials.gov# NCT00107601, EUDRA-CT Number: 200400391440.
Project description:Substantial geographic variation exists in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) use across the United States. It is unclear the extent to which high PCI utilization can be explained by PCI for inappropriate indications. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between PCI rates across regional healthcare markets utilizing hospital referral regions (HRRs) and PCI appropriateness.The number of PCI procedures in each HRR was obtained from the 2010 100% Medicare limited data set. HRRs were divided into quintiles of PCI utilization with increasing rates of utilization progressing to quintile 5. NCDR CathPCI Registry® data were used to evaluate patient characteristics, appropriate use criteria (AUC), and outcomes across the HRR quintiles defined by PCI utilization with the study population restricted to HRRs where ? 80% of the PCIs were performed at institutions participating in the registry. PCI appropriateness was defined using 2012 AUC by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI).Our study cohort comprised of 380,981 patients treated at 178 HRRs. Mean PCI rates per 1,000 increased from 4.6 in Quintile 1 to 10.8 in Quintile 5. The proportion of non-acute PCIs was 27.7% in Quintile 1 increasing to 30.7% in Quintile 5. Significant variation (p < 0.001) existed across the quintiles in the categorization of appropriateness across HRRs of utilization with more appropriate PCI in lower utilization areas (Appropriate: Q1, 76.53%, Q2, 75.326%, Q3, 75.23%, Q4, 73.95%, Q5, 72.768%; Inappropriate: Q1 3.92%, Q2 4.23%, Q3 4.32%, Q4 4.35%, Q5 4.05%; Uncertain: Q1 8.29%, Q2 8.84%, Q3 8.08%, Q4 9.01%, Q5 8.93%; Not Mappable: Q1 11.26%, Q2 11.67%, Q3 12.37%, Q4 12.69%, Q5 14.34%). There was no difference in risk-adjusted mortality across quintiles of PCI utilization.Geographic regions with lower PCI rates have a higher proportion of PCIs performed for appropriate indications. Areas that perform more PCIs also appear to perform more elective PCI and many could not be mapped by the AUC.
Project description:AIM:Cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides are established for risk stratification in light-chain amyloidosis. Data on cardiac biomarkers in transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients (n = 1617) with any of the following cardiac biomarkers, BNP (n = 1079), NT-proBNP (n = 550), troponin T (n = 274), and troponin I (n = 108), available at baseline in the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey (THAOS) were analyzed for differences between genotypes and phenotypes and their association with survival. Median level of BNP was 68.0 pg/mL (IQR 30.5-194.9), NT-proBNP 337.9 pg/mL (IQR 73.0-2584.0), troponin T 0.03 ?g/L (IQR 0.01-0.05), and troponin I 0.08 ?g/L (IQR 0.04-0.13). NT-proBNP and BNP were higher in wild-type than mutant-type ATTR, troponin T and I did not differ, respectively. Non-Val30Met patients had higher BNP, NT-proBNP and troponin T levels than Val30Met patients, but not troponin I. Late-onset Val30Met was associated with higher levels of troponin I and troponin T compared with early-onset. 115 patients died during a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Mortality increased with increasing quartiles (BNP/NT-proBNP Q1 = 1.7%, Q2 = 5.2%, Q3 = 21.7%, Q4 = 71.3%; troponin T/I Q1 = 6.5%, Q2 = 14.5%, Q3 = 33.9%, Q4 = 45.2%). Three-year overall-survival estimates for BNP/NT-proBNP and troponin T/I quartiles differed significantly (p<0.001). Stepwise risk stratification was achieved by combining NT-proBNP/BNP and troponin T/I. From Cox proportional hazards model, age, modified body mass index, mutation (Val30Met vs. Non-Val30Met) and BNP/NT-proBNP (Q1-Q3 pooled vs. Q4) were identified as independent predictors of survival in patients with mutant-type ATTR. CONCLUSIONS:In this ATTR patient cohort, cardiac biomarkers were abnormal in a substantial percentage of patients irrespective of genotype. Along with age, mBMI, and mutation (Val30Met vs. Non-Val30Met), cardiac biomarkers were associated with surrogates of disease severity with BNP/NT-proBNP identified as an independent predictor of survival in ATTR. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00628745.
Project description:In upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients, early risk stratification allows appropriate therapy that may be helpful for reducing morbidity and mortality.to evaluate the efficacy of red-cell distribution width (RDW) for prediction of high-risk in UGIB patients.We conducted a clinical retrospective observational study based on data for UGIB patients from 2012 to 2013. The primary outcome was the high-risk UGIB, defined as those who required urgent intervention and/or 30-days mortality. RDW was categorized into four quartiles: Q1 (?12.8%), Q2 (12.9-14.4%), Q3 (14.5-16.5%), and Q4 (?16.6%), and multivariable analysis was performed after adjustment of multiple other risk factor. We also evaluated the efficacy of addition of RDW scores to the Pre-endoscopic Rockall Score (PRS) and the Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) scoring system.Of 360 UGIB patients, 229 (63.6%) were high risk. In multivariable analysis, Q3 and Q4 were strongly associated with high risk; odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) was 3.144 (1.250-7.905) and 4.182 (1.483-11.790) respectively (all p < 0.05). For lower GBS score group (? 6), the incidence of high risk was higher in Q4 (30%) and Q3 (20%) than in Q2 (12.5%) and Q1 (11.4%). For lower PRS group (? 2), the incidence of high-risk was higher in Q4 (73.7%) and Q3 (57.1%) than in Q1 (35.4%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed higher discrimination power in PRS + RDW (Area Under Curve [AUC] = 0.749) than PRS (AUC = 0.715) alone (p = 0.036). Otherwise GBS + RDW (AUC = 0.873) did not show a significant higher discrimination power than the GBS (AUC = 0.864) alone (p = 0.098).For UGIB patients, a high RDW (? 14.5%) was strongly associated with high risk UGIB. In practice, the combination of RDW with the PRS scoring indexes may increase the accuracy of risk stratification.
Project description:The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is a non-invasive left ventricular hypertrophy index. However, whether CTR associates with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) populations is unclear.Using a Mineral and Bone disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients (MBD-5D Study) subcohort, 2266 prevalent HD patients (age 62.8 years, female 38.0%, HD duration 9.4 years) with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) whose baseline CTR had been recorded were selected. We evaluated associations between CTR and all-cause death, CVD death, or composite events in HD patients.CTR was associated significantly with various background and laboratory characteristics. All-cause death, CVD-related death, and composite events increased across the CTR quartiles (Q). Adjusted hazard risk (HR) for all-cause death was 1.4 (95% confidential interval, 0.9-2.1) in Q2, 1.9 (1.3-2.9) in Q3, and 2.6 (1.7-4.0) in Q4, respectively (Q1 as a reference). The corresponding adjusted HR for CVD-related death was 1.8 (0.8-4.2), 3.1 (1.4-6.8), and 3.5 (1.6-7.9), and that for composite outcome was 1.2 (1.0-1.6), 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and 1.8 (1.5-2.3), respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that there were relationships between CTR and age, sex, body mass index, comorbidity of CVD, dialysis duration, dialysate calcium level and intact parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, hemoglobin, and usage of phosphate binder.CTR correlated with all-cause death, CVD death, and composite events in HD patients with SHPT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) is a reliable predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Its association with the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in NAFLD is poorly understood. This study evaluated the relationship between these factors in NAFLD. METHODS:A total of 4784 participants who underwent ultrasonography were enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed. Participants with NAFLD were diagnosed by ultrasound. The degree of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness was evaluated with transient elastography. RESULTS:The TyG index was significantly correlated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. TyG quartile values correlated with increasing prevalence of NAFLD (Q1 30.9%, Q2 53.3%, Q3 71.7%, and Q4 86.4%, P?<?0.001) and with the presence of liver fibrosis (Q1 13.5%, Q2 17.6%, Q3 18.8%, and Q4 26.1%, P?<?0.001). The AUROC for the TyG index to predict NAFLD was 0.761, resulting in a cut-off value of 8.7. However, the AUC value of the TyG index was 0.589 for liver fibrosis, which was insufficient to predict this condition. The adjusted odds of having hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis were more strongly associated with TyG values compared with HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION:The TyG index is positively related to the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. The index also performed better than HOMA-IR.
Project description:The high cost of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a concern for healthcare systems, while the impact of patients' socio-economic status on the risk of ARDS-associated mortality remains controversial. This study investigated associations between patients' income at the time of ARDS diagnosis and ARDS-specific mortality rate after treatment initiation. Data from records provided by the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea were used. Adult patients admitted for ARDS treatment from 2013 to 2017 were included in the study. Patients' income in the year of diagnosis was evaluated. A total of 14,600 ARDS cases were included in the analysis. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 48.6% and 70.3%, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression model, we compared income quartiles, showing that compared to income strata Q1, the Q2 (P = 0.719), Q3 (P = 0.946), and Q4 (P = 0.542) groups of income level did not affect the risk of 30-day mortality, respectively. Additionally, compared to income strata Q1, the Q2 (P = 0.762), Q3 (P = 0.420), and Q4 (P = 0.189) strata did not affect the risk of 1-year mortality. Patient income at the time of ARDS diagnosis did not affect the risk of 30-day or 1-year mortality in the present study based on South Korea's health insurance data.
Project description:High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcome in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Persistent inflammation commonly features in clinical conditions where the obesity paradox is described. We examined the relationship between BMI and mortality in HD patients, accounting for inflammation, in a historic cohort study of 5904 incident HD patients enrolled in 2007-2009 (312 facilities; 15 European countries) with ?3 months of follow-up. Patients were classified by presence (n=3231) or absence (n=2673) of inflammation (C-reactive protein ?10 mg/l and/or albumin ?35 g/l). Patients were divided into quintiles by BMI (Q1-Q5: <21.5, 21.5-24.0, >24.0-26.4, >26.4-29.8, and >29.8 kg/m(2), respectively). Noninflamed patients in BMI Q5 formed the reference group. During a median follow-up period of 36.7 months, 1929 deaths occurred (822 cardiovascular), with 655 patients censored for renal transplantation and 1183 for loss to follow-up. Greater mortality was observed in inflamed patients (P<0.001). In fully adjusted time-dependent analyses, the all-cause mortality risk in noninflamed patients was higher only in the lowest BMI quintile (hazard ratio [HR, 1.80; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.26 to 2.56). No protective effect was associated with higher BMI quintiles in noninflamed patients. Conversely, higher BMI associated with lower all-cause mortality risk in inflamed patients (HR [95% CI] for Q1: 5.63 [4.25 to 7.46]; Q2: 3.88 [2.91 to 5.17]; Q3: 2.89 [2.16 to 3.89]; Q4: 2.14 [1.59 to 2.90]; and Q5: 1.77 [1.30 to 2.40]). Thus, whereas a protective effect of high BMI was observed in inflamed patients, this effect was mitigated in noninflamed patients.