Association Between D-dimer and Early Adverse Events in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Undergoing Arch Replacement and the Frozen Elephant Trunk Implantation: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Objective:In the present study, we investigated the associations between D-dimer levels at admission and early adverse events in patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing arch replacement and the frozen elephant trunk (FET). Methods:We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing aortic arch surgery and FET from July 2017 to December 2018 at Beijing Anzhen Hospital. D-dimer levels were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of early postoperative adverse events. Results:A total of 347 patients were included in the study. The average age of the patients was 48.07 ± 10.56 years, with male predominance (79.25%). The incidence of 90-day postoperative adverse events was 18.7%, consisting of 14.7% mortality and 4.0% permanent neurological dysfunction (PND). The median D-dimer level was 1.95 ug/ml (interquartile range, 0.77-3.16 ug/ml). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that D-dimer level was independently associated with 90-day postoperative adverse events after adjustment for confounding factors (hazard ratio = 1.19 per 10 ug/ml increase in D-dimer, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41; P = 0.039). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the highest tertile (median 6.27 ug/ml) had more 90-day postoperative adverse events compared with the median and lowest tertiles (P = 0.0014). Sub-analysis found that the association remained unchanged. Conclusion:Increased D-dimer levels at admission were associated with 90-day postoperative adverse events in patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing arch replacement and FET. These results may help clinicians optimize the risk evaluation and perioperative clinical management to reduce early adverse events. Key Question:Explore the relationship between D-dimer and early outcomes in patients with aortic dissection with arch replacement. Key Findings:Increased D-dimer at admission was associated with adverse events in patients with aortic dissection with arch surgery. Take-Home Message:The high-risk patients deserve close medical monitoring.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique was developed to facilitate the two-stage surgery of extensive pathologies of the thoracic aorta and is now routinely applied in acute and chronic aortic syndromes.<h4>Methods</h4>From 11/2006 to 07/2017, 68 patients underwent aortic arch repair using the FET technique. Patients received either the Jotec E-vita Open graft (n =?57) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid prosthesis (n =?11). Both, group 1 (acute aortic dissection type A and B; symptomatic penetrating aortic ulcer) and group 2 (aortic aneurysm; chronic aortic dissection) included 34 patients each.<h4>Results</h4>Early mortality was 13.2% (14.7% in group 1 vs. 11.7% in group 2, p =?0.720). Neurological complications occurred in 12 patients (17.6%) (stroke: 8.8 vs. 11.7%; p =?0.797 and spinal cord injury: 8.8 vs. 5.9%; p =?0.642 in groups 1 vs. 2 respectively). Cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross clamp time were significantly longer in group 1 (252.2?±?73.5 and 148.3?± 34?min vs. 189.2?±?47.8 and 116.3?± 34.5?min; p?<? 0.001). The overall 1-, 3- and 7-year-survival was 80.9, 80.9 and 74.2% with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2. Expansion of true lumen after FET implantation was significant at all levels in both groups for patients with aortic dissection. One-, 3-, and 7-year-freedom from secondary (re-)intervention for patients for aortic dissection was 96.9, 90.2 and 82.7% with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2; p =?0.575.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The FET technique can be applied in acute aortic syndromes with similar risks regarding adverse events or mortality when compared to chronic degenerative aortic disease. Postoperative increase in true lumen diameter mirrors decrease of false lumen diameter, goes along with favorable midterm outcome and prolongs freedom from secondary interventions in acute aortic dissection.
Project description:<h4> </h4><h4>Objectives</h4>To improve organ protection with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure, a so-called four-sites perfusion in combination with proximalization for the distal aortic anastomosis was performed. The impact of these techniques on patient outcome is reported.<h4>Methods</h4>Between February 2005 and April 2020, a total of 357 patients underwent the FET procedure for acute (54%) or chronic (22%) aortic dissection or aneurysmal disease (24%). The level of the distal FET anastomosis was defined according to aortic arch zones 0-3. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the intraoperative perfusion strategy: (i) selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) alone (N = 96, 2 sites); (ii) SACP plus left subclavian artery or distal aorta (N = 84, 3 sites) and (iii) SACP plus left subclavian artery plus distal aorta (N = 177, 4 sites). Early outcome was addressed by a composite end point: occurrence of either a disabling stroke, a disabling spinal cord injury, extracorporeal circulatory support, kidney dialysis or death within 90 days.<h4>Results</h4>Preoperative characteristics were similar among the groups. Surgery in group C was characterized by FET proximalization in arch zone ≤2, moderate hypothermia at 28°C and shorter periods of extracorporeal circulation, SACP, hypothermic circulatory arrest and cardioplegic arrest (P < 0.001, respectively). Occurrence of the composite end point was reduced in group C (P = 0.008). The combination of FET proximalization and four-sites perfusion was a protective factor for the composite outcome in multivariable analysis (P = 0.009). The 5-year survival was improved in patients who underwent FET proximalization in zone ≤2 (hazard ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.0; P = 0.036).<h4>Conclusions</h4>FET proximalization in combination with four-sites perfusion has the potential to improve patient outcomes in terms of survival and major events.<h4>Subject collection</h4>120; 161.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> This study employed three surgical techniques: total arch replacement (TAR) with frozen elephant trunk (FET), aortic balloon occlusion technique (ABO) and hybrid aortic arch repair (HAR) on patients with type I aortic dissection in Fuwai Hospital, aiming to compare the early outcomes of these surgical armamentariums. <b>Methods:</b> From January 2016 to December 2018, an overall 633 patients (431 of TAR+FET, 122 of HAR, and 80 of ABO) with type I aortic dissection were included in the study. Thirty-day mortality, stroke, paraplegia, re-exploration for bleeding, and renal replacement therapy were compared using the matching weight method (MWM). <b>Results:</b> After MWM process, the baseline characteristics were comparable among three TAR groups. It showed that ABO group had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and aortic cross-clamp time (<i>p</i> < 0.001), while the operation time was longest in the HAR group (<i>p</i> = 0.039). There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality among groups (<i>p</i> = 0.783). Furthermore, the incidence of stroke (<i>p</i> = 0.679), paraplegia (<i>p</i> = 0.104), re-exploration for bleeding (<i>p</i> = 0.313), and CRRT (<i>p</i> = 0.834) demonstrated no significant difference. Of note, no significant differences were found regarding these outcomes even before using MWM. <b>Conclusions:</b> Based on the early outcomes, the three TAR approaches were equally applicable to type I aortic dissection. We may choose the specific procedure relatively flexibly according to patient status and surgeon's expertise. Importantly, long-term investigations are warranted to determine whether above approaches remain to be of equivalent efficacy and safety.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4> Heart rate (HR) is a risk factor of mortality in many cardiovascular diseases but no clinical studies have focused on the association between HR and prognosis in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). This study aimed to evaluate the association between HR and long-term mortality and establish the criteria of HR in patients with ATAAD who underwent total aortic arch replacement combined with the frozen elephant trunk (TAR+FET). <h4>Design, setting and participants</h4> Retrospective cohort study that studied all consecutive patients with ATAAD who underwent TAR+FET in the Fuwai Hospital between 2009 and 2015. <h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4> 30-day postoperative, and estimated long-term mortality. <h4>Results</h4> Overall, 707 patients with ATAAD who underwent TAR+FET were followed up for a median duration of 29 months (range, 5–77 months). In multivariate logistic analysis, HR (p<0.001), age (p<0.001), renal insufficiency (p=0.033), ejection fraction (p=0.005), cardiopulmonary bypass time (p<0.001) and intraoperative blood loss (p=0.002) were significantly associated with 30-day postoperative and estimated long-term mortalities. A hinge point with a sharp increase in estimated long-term mortality was identified at 80 beats/min (bpm), and compared with HR ≤80 bpm, HR >80 bpm was associated with an almost threefold higher long-term mortality. HRs ≤60, 60–70, 70–80, 80–90, 90–100, 100–110 and >110 bpm were associated with 3.9%, 4.0%, 3.8%, 7.2%, 9.5%, 10.1% and 14.4% yearly risks of death, respectively. <h4>Conclusions</h4> HR is a powerful predictor of long-term mortality in patients with ATAAD undergoing TAR+FET. HR >80 bpm is independently associated with elevated long-term mortality for patients with ATAAD.
Project description:Total arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk procedure is performed for true lumen expansion of the descending aorta in patients with type A acute aortic dissection. However, the remodelling effect of the frozen elephant trunk on the dissected descending aorta is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the frozen elephant trunk on postoperative descending aortic remodelling after surgery. Between December 2012 and January 2020, we retrospectively investigated 24 patients who underwent total arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk for type A acute aortic dissection. Remodelling of the descending aorta was evaluated using computed tomography. The aortic remodelling effect, based on aortic true lumen ratio, was determined for (i) DeBakey type (type I versus type III retrograde); (ii) thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair reintervention status (reintervention versus no reintervention); and (iii) stent length of the frozen elephant trunk (60 vs 90 mm). Postoperative true lumen ratio significantly increased in the type I dissection group. The true lumen ratio in the no-reintervention group, which had many patients with the type I dissection, significantly increased after the frozen elephant trunk. Aortic remodelling due to the frozen elephant trunk can be expected after type I acute aortic dissections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute Stanford type A aortic dissection is often fatal, with a high mortality rate and requiring emergency intervention. Salvage surgery aims to keep the patient alive by addressing severe aortic regurgitation, tamponade, primary tear, and organ malperfusion and, if possible, prevent the late dissection-related complications in the proximal and downstream aorta. Unfortunately, no optimal standard treatment or technique to treat this disease exists. Total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk technique plays an important role in treating acute type A aortic dissection. We aim to describe a modified elephant trunk technique and report its short-term outcomes. METHODS:From February 2018 to August 2019, 16 patients diagnosed with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection underwent surgery with the modified frozen elephant trunk technique at Xiamen Heart Center (male/female: 9/7; average age: 56.1?±?7.6?years). All perioperative variables were recorded and analyzed. We measured the diameters of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta on the bifurcation of the pulmonary and abdominal aortas and compared the diameters at admission, before discharge, and 3?months after discharge. RESULTS:Fifteen patients (93.8%) had hypertension. The primary tears were located in the lesser curvature of the aortic arch and ascending aorta in 5 (31.3%) and 9 patients (56.3%), respectively, and no entry was found in 2 patients (12.5%). The dissection extended to the iliac artery and distal descending aorta in 14 (87.6%) and 2 patients (12.5%), respectively. The duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cross-clamping, and antegrade cerebral perfusion were 215.8?±?40.5, 140.8?±?32.3, and 55.1?± 15.2?min, respectively. Aortic valve repair was performed in 15 patients (93.8%). Bentall procedure was performed in one patient (6.3%). Another patient received coronary artery repair (6.3%). The diameters at all levels were greater on discharge than those on admission, except the aortic arch. After 3?months, the true lumen diameter distal to the frozen elephant trunk increased, indicating false lumen thrombosis and/or aortic remodeling. CONCLUSIONS:The modified frozen elephant trunk technique for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection is safe and feasible and could be used for organ malperfusion. Short-term outcomes are encouraging, but long-term outcomes require further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare perioperative and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing hemiarch and aggressive arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS:From 1996 to 2017, we compared outcomes of hemiarch (n = 322) versus aggressive arch replacements (zones 2 and 3 arch replacement with implantation of 2-4 arch branches, n = 150) in ATAAD. Indications for aggressive arch were arch aneurysm >4 cm or intimal tear in the aortic arch that was not resectable by hemiarch replacement, or dissection of arch branches with malperfusion. RESULTS:Patients in the aggressive arch group were significantly younger (mean age: 57 vs 61 years old) and had significantly longer hypothermic circulatory arrest, cardiopulmonary bypass, and aortic crossclamp times. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between hemiarch and aggressive arch groups, including 30-day mortality (5.3% vs 7.3%, P = .38) and postoperative stroke rate (7% vs 7%, P = .96). Over 15 years, Kaplan-Meier survival was similar between hemiarch and aggressive arch groups (log-rank P = .55, 10-year survival 70% vs 72%). Given death as a competing factor, incidence rates of reoperation over 15 years (2.1% vs 2.0% per year, P = 1) and 10-year cumulative incidence of reoperation (14% vs 12%, P = .89) for arch and distal aorta pathology were similar between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Both hemiarch and aggressive arch replacement are appropriate approaches for select patients with ATAAD. Aggressive arch replacement should be considered for an arch aneurysm >4 cm or an intimal tear at the arch unable to be resected by hemiarch replacement, or dissection of the arch branches with malperfusion.
Project description:A 73-year-old man reporting severe chest and back pain for 20 min was admitted to our hospital. The pain occurred 3 days before admission. Computed tomography angiography showed a hazy-surfaced low-density area in the aortic arch with aneurysmal formation of unknown etiology. It was inconclusive whether the aortic change was acute or chronic because no previous information was available. To investigate the etiology, non-obstructive angioscopy (NOA) was performed. A fissure with blood flow was detected at the surface of the low-density area and active subintimal blood flow was demonstrated on NOA. An entry tear and active blood flow below the intima at the seemingly thrombosed area suggested that the patient had a thrombosing type B aortic dissection. <Learning objective: A 73-year-old man reporting severe chest and back pain for 20 min was admitted to our hospital, occurring 3 days before admission. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was inconclusive, showing a hazy-surfaced low-density area in the aortic arch with aneurysm formation. Non-obstructive angioscopy detected a disrupted intima, including entry of the dissection and active subintimal blood flow. The patient was diagnosed with thrombosed type B aortic dissection. Apparent flow inside the low-density area was missed on CTA.>.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of spinal cord injury in total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection using our spinal cord protection technique. METHODS:Between January 2013 and December 2017, 33 patients underwent total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection (mean age 67.9?±?13.3 years). Our spinal cord protection technique involved maintaining extracorporeal circulation through the left subclavian artery in all procedures, using aortic occlusion balloon during distal anastomosis, and inserting frozen elephant trunk above Th 8 with transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Computed tomography was performed within 1-2 weeks, 12 months, and 36 months postoperatively. We compared the degree of thrombosis of the descending aorta between preoperation and early postoperative period by Fisher's exact test. Moreover, we evaluated postoperative mortality and mobility (including spinal cord injury) at follow-up. RESULTS:The operative mortality within 30 days was 6.1%. Neither paraplegia nor paraparesis was noted. We observed significant thrombosis of the false lumen at the distal arch and aortic valve level of the descending aorta in postoperative early term period (p?<?0.01). At mid-term follow-up (mean 33.9 months), survival probability and 3-year freedom from reoperation rates were 93.9?±?4.1% and 95.0?±?4.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The frozen elephant trunk technique with our spinal protection strategy provides good postoperative outcomes. Our strategy can maintain spinal cord perfusion without complete ischemia time even during lower body ischemia time. Implementation of our spinal protection strategy will help prevent spinal cord injury and dilated downstream aorta.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Retrograde type A aortic dissection (RTAD) is a rare but life-threatening complication after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissection (TBAD). A graft inversion technique was applied to distal anastomosis in total arch replacement for this complicated dissection. We reviewed our results of the processing for this serious complication. The aim is to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. METHODS:From January 2013 to December 2017, 20 patients (80% male, mean age 50.9?±?9.5?years) with retrograde type A aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for type B aortic dissection were scheduled for surgical treatment at our center. All patients underwent an ascending aorta and total aortic arch replacement procedure. The 20 patients were divided into two groups, 1 group involved 9 patients underwent surgery using stepwise technique; the graft inversion technique was performed in the other group containing the remaining 11 patients. The postoperative variables, including cardiopulmonary bypass time, the circulatory arrest time, the aortic cross clamp time, were analyzed. Meanwhile we also analyzed the postoperative mortality and complications to evaluate the early and mid-term outcomes of surgical treatment for RTAD after TEVAR. RESULTS:In-hospital mortality was 10% (2 of 20 patients). No patient developed postoperative paraplegia, renal failure, stroke, or distal anastomotic bleeding. Two patients developed renal insufficiency, one developed neurologic insufficiency, and one developed pulmonary infection, all of which were managed accordingly. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, and circulatory arrest time were significantly shorter in the graft inversion group than in the stepwise group (165.8?±?37.9?min versus 206.1?±?46.8?min, p<0.05; 34.5?±?5.6?min versus 42.4?±?9.5?min, p<0.05, respectively). The 18 survivors had a mean follow-up of 25.8?±?18.2?months, and all patients remained alive and well. CONCLUSION:Graft inversion can enable a secure distal anastomosis under good surgical exposure, resulting in reduced durations of CPB, and circulatory arrest for RTAD after TEVAR. Surgical treatment could be a safe alternative for treatment of this patients.