Cell type, sub-region, and layer-specific speed representation in the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit.
ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesised that speed information, encoded by 'speed cells', is important for updating spatial representation in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex to reflect ongoing self-movement during locomotion. However, systematic characterisation of speed representation is still lacking. In this study, we compared the speed representation of distinct cell types across sub-regions/layers in the dorsal hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex of rats during exploration. Our results indicate that the preferred theta phases of individual neurons are correlated with positive/negative speed modulation and a temporal shift of speed representation in a sub-region/layer and cell type-dependent manner. Most speed cells located in entorhinal cortex layer 2 represented speed prospectively, whereas those in the CA1 and entorhinal cortex layers 3 and 5 represented speed retrospectively. In entorhinal cortex layer 2, putative CA1-projecting pyramidal cells, but not putative dentate gyrus/CA3-projecting stellate cells, represented speed prospectively. Among the hippocampal interneurons, approximately one-third of putative dendrite-targeting (somatostatin-expressing) interneurons, but only a negligible fraction of putative soma-targeting (parvalbumin-expressing) interneurons, showed negative speed modulation. Putative parvalbumin-expressing CA1 interneurons and somatostatin-expressing CA3 interneurons represented speed more retrospectively than parvalbumin-expressing CA3 interneurons. These findings indicate that speed representation in the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit is cell-type, pathway, and theta-phase dependent.
Project description:The formation and maintenance of spatial representations within hippocampal cell assemblies is strongly dictated by patterns of inhibition from diverse interneuron populations. Although it is known that inhibitory synaptic strength is malleable, induction of long-term plasticity at distinct inhibitory synapses and its regulation of hippocampal network activity is not well understood. Here, we show that inhibitory synapses from parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons undergo long-term depression and potentiation respectively (PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP) during physiological activity patterns. Both forms of plasticity rely on T-type calcium channel activation to confer synapse specificity but otherwise employ distinct mechanisms. Since parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons preferentially target perisomatic and distal dendritic regions respectively of CA1 pyramidal cells, PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP coordinate a reprioritisation of excitatory inputs from entorhinal cortex and CA3. Furthermore, circuit-level modelling reveals that PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP cooperate to stabilise place cells while facilitating representation of multiple unique environments within the hippocampal network.
Project description:In the intact brain, hippocampal area CA1 alternates between low-frequency gamma oscillations (γ), phase-locked to low-frequency γ in CA3, and high-frequency γ, phase-locked to γ in the medial entorhinal cortex. In hippocampal slices, γ in CA1 is phase-locked to CA3 low-frequency γ. However, when Schaffer collaterals are cut, CA1 can generate its own high-frequency γ. Here we test whether (un)coupling of CA1 γ from CA3 γ can be caused by μ-opioid receptor (MOR) modulation. In CA1 minislices isolated from rat ventral hippocampus slices, MOR activation by DAMGO reduced the dominant frequency of intrinsic fast γ, induced by carbachol. In intact slices, DAMGO strongly reduced the dominant frequency of CA3 slow γ, but did not affect γ power consistently. DAMGO suppressed the phase coupling of CA1 γ to CA3 slow γ and increased the power of CA1 intrinsic fast γ, but not in the presence of the MOR antagonist CTAP. The benzodiazepine zolpidem and local application of DAMGO to CA3 both mimicked the reduction in dominant frequency of CA3 slow γ, but did not reduce the phase coupling. Local application of DAMGO to CA1 reduced phase coupling. These results suggest that MOR-expressing CA1 interneurons, feed-forwardly activated by Schaffer collaterals, are responsible for the phase coupling between CA3 γ and CA1 γ. Modulating their activity may switch the CA1 network between low-frequency γ and high-frequency γ, controlling the information flow between CA1 and CA3 or medial entorhinal cortex respectively.
Project description:The mammalian positioning system contains a variety of functionally specialized cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the hippocampus. In order for cells in these systems to dynamically update representations in a way that reflects ongoing movement in the environment, they must be able to read out the current speed of the animal. Speed is encoded by speed-responsive cells in both MEC and hippocampus, but the relationship between the two populations has not been determined. We show here that many entorhinal speed cells are fast-spiking putative GABAergic neurons. Using retrograde viral labeling from the hippocampus, we find that a subset of these fast-spiking MEC speed cells project directly to hippocampal areas. This projection contains parvalbumin (PV) but not somatostatin (SOM)-immunopositive cells. The data point to PV-expressing GABAergic projection neurons in MEC as a source for widespread speed modulation and temporal synchronization in entorhinal-hippocampal circuits for place representation.
Project description:We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC), the medial septum (MS), and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.
Project description:The subiculum is the major output area of the hippocampus. It is closely interconnected with the entorhinal cortex and other parahippocampal areas. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in TLE patients it exerts increased network excitability and may crucially contribute to the propagation of limbic seizures. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ-hybridization we now investigated neuropathological changes affecting parvalbumin and calretinin containing neurons in the subiculum and other parahippocampal areas after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. We observed prominent losses in parvalbumin containing interneurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex, and in the principal cell layers of the pre- and parasubiculum. Degeneration of parvalbumin-positive neurons was associated with significant precipitation of parvalbumin-immunoreactive debris 24 h after kainic acid injection. In the subiculum the superficial portion of the pyramidal cell layer was more severely affected than its deep part. In the entorhinal cortex, the deep layers were more severely affected than the superficial ones. The decrease in number of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex correlated with the number of spontaneous seizures subsequently experienced by the rats. The loss of parvalbumin neurons thus may contribute to the development of spontaneous seizures. On the other hand, surviving parvalbumin neurons revealed markedly increased expression of parvalbumin mRNA notably in the pyramidal cell layer of the subiculum and in all layers of the entorhinal cortex. This indicates increased activity of these neurons aiming to compensate for the partial loss of this functionally important neuron population. Furthermore, calretinin-positive fibers terminating in the molecular layer of the subiculum, in sector CA1 of the hippocampus proper and in the entorhinal cortex degenerated together with their presumed perikarya in the thalamic nucleus reuniens. In addition, a significant loss of calretinin containing interneurons was observed in the subiculum. Notably, the loss in parvalbumin positive neurons in the subiculum equaled that in human TLE. It may result in marked impairment of feed-forward inhibition of the temporo-ammonic pathway and may significantly contribute to epileptogenesis. Similarly, the loss of calretinin-positive fiber tracts originating from the nucleus reuniens thalami significantly contributes to the rearrangement of neuronal circuitries in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex during epileptogenesis.
Project description:The presubiculum contains head direction cells that are crucial for spatial orientation. Here, we examined the connectivity and strengths of thalamic inputs to presubicular layer 3 neurons projecting to the medial entorhinal cortex in the mouse. We recorded pairs of projection neurons and interneurons while optogenetically stimulating afferent fibers from the anterior thalamic nuclei. Thalamic input differentially affects presubicular neurons: layer 3 pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are directly and monosynaptically activated, with depressing dynamics, whereas somatostatin-expressing interneurons are indirectly excited, during repetitive anterior thalamic nuclei activity. This arrangement ensures that the thalamic excitation of layer 3 cells is often followed by disynaptic inhibition. Feedforward inhibition is largely mediated by parvalbumin interneurons, which have a high probability of connection to presubicular pyramidal cells, and it may enforce temporally precise head direction tuning during head turns. Our data point to the potential contribution of presubicular microcircuits for fine-tuning thalamic head direction signals transmitted to medial entorhinal cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How microcircuits participate in shaping neural inputs is crucial to understanding information processing in the brain. Here, we show how the presubiculum may process thalamic head directional information before transmitting it to the medial entorhinal cortex. Synaptic inputs from the anterior thalamic nuclei excite layer 3 pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons, which mediate disynaptic feedforward inhibition. Somatostatin interneurons are excited indirectly. Presubicular circuits may switch between two regimens depending on the angular velocity of head movements. During immobility, somatostatin-pyramidal cell interactions could support maintained head directional firing with attractor-like dynamics. During rapid head turns, in contrast, parvalbumin-mediated feedforward inhibition may act to tune the head direction signal transmitted to medial entorhinal cortex.
Project description:Conscious memories are critically dependent upon bilateral hippocampal formation, and interhemispheric commissural projections made by mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. GABAergic interneurons also make long-range axonal projections, but little is known regarding their commissural, inter-hippocampal connections. We used retrograde and adeno-associated viral tracing, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and in vitro optogenetics to assess contralateral projections of neurochemically defined interneuron classes. We found that contralateral-projecting interneurons were 24-fold less common compared to hilar mossy cells, and mostly consisted of somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing types. Somatostatin-expressing cells made denser contralateral axonal projections than parvalbumin-expressing cells, although this was typically 10-fold less than the ipsilateral projection density. Somatostatin-expressing cells displayed a topographic-like innervation according to the location of their somata, whereas parvalbumin-expressing cells mostly innervated CA1. In the dentate gyrus molecular layer, commissural interneuron post-synaptic targets were predominantly putative granule cell apical dendrites. In the hilus, varicosities in close vicinity to various interneuron subtypes, as well as mossy cells, were observed, but most contralateral axon varicosities had no adjacent immunolabeled structure. Due to the relative sparsity of the connection and the likely distal dendritic location of their synapses, commissural projections made by interneurons were found to be weak. We postulate that these projections may become functionally active upon intense network activity during tasks requiring increased memory processing.
Project description:Although an anatomical connection from CA1 to CA3 via the Entorhinal Cortex (EC) and through backprojecting interneurons has long been known it exist, it has never been examined quantitatively on the single neuron level, in the in-vivo nonpatholgical, nonperturbed brain. Here, single spike activity was recorded using a multi-electrode array from the CA3 and CA1 areas of the rodent hippocampus (N = 7) during a behavioral task. The predictive power from CA3?CA1 and CA1?CA3 was examined by constructing Multivariate Autoregressive (MVAR) models from recorded neurons in both directions. All nonsignificant inputs and models were identified and removed by means of Monte Carlo simulation methods. It was found that 121/166 (73 %) CA3?CA1 models and 96/145 (66 %) CA1?CA3 models had significant predictive power, thus confirming a predictive 'Granger' causal relationship from CA1 to CA3. This relationship is thought to be caused by a combination of truly causal connections such as the CA1?EC?CA3 pathway and common inputs such as those from the Septum. All MVAR models were then examined in the frequency domain and it was found that CA3 kernels had significantly more power in the theta and beta range than those of CA1, confirming CA3's role as an endogenous hippocampal pacemaker.
Project description:The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains several discrete classes of GABAergic interneurons, but their specific contributions to spatial pattern formation in this area remain elusive. We employed a pharmacogenetic approach to silence either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons while MEC cells were recorded in freely moving mice. PV-cell silencing antagonized the hexagonally patterned spatial selectivity of grid cells, especially in layer II of MEC. The impairment was accompanied by reduced speed modulation in colocalized speed cells. Silencing SOM cells, in contrast, had no impact on grid cells or speed cells but instead decreased the spatial selectivity of cells with discrete aperiodic firing fields. Border cells and head direction cells were not affected by either intervention. The findings point to distinct roles for PV and SOM interneurons in the local dynamics underlying periodic and aperiodic firing in spatially modulated cells of the MEC. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Project description:The retrograde suppression of the synaptic transmission by the endocannabinoid sn-2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptors and requires the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) and the activation of specific 2-AG synthesizing (i.e., DAGL?) enzymes. However, the anatomical organization of the neuronal substrates that express 2-AG/CB1 signaling system-related molecules associated with selective Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaBPs) is still unknown. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the expression of the 2-AG/CB1 signaling system (CB1 receptor, DAGL?, MAGL, and FAAH) and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. CB1, DAGL?, and MAGL labeling was mainly localized in fibers and neuropil, which were differentially organized depending on the hippocampal CaBPs-expressing cells. CB(+) 1 fiber terminals localized in all hippocampal principal cell layers were tightly attached to calbindin(+) cells (granular and pyramidal neurons), and calretinin(+) and parvalbumin(+) interneurons. DAGL? neuropil labeling was selectively found surrounding calbindin(+) principal cells in the dentate gyrus and CA1, and in the calretinin(+) and parvalbumin(+) interneurons in the pyramidal cell layers of the CA1/3 fields. MAGL(+) terminals were only observed around CA1 calbindin(+) pyramidal cells, CA1/3 calretinin(+) interneurons and CA3 parvalbumin(+) interneurons localized in the pyramidal cell layers. Interestingly, calbindin(+) pyramidal cells expressed FAAH specifically in the CA1 field. The identification of anatomically related-neuronal substrates that expressed 2-AG/CB1 signaling system and selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the cannabinoid signaling associated with hippocampal functions.